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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang Dec 2016

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Structured optical media, usually characterized by periodic patterns of inhomogeneities in bulk materials, provide a new approach to ultimate control of wave propagation with possible practical applications: from distributed feedback lasers by diffraction gratings, to highly nonlinear performance for super-continuum generation, to fiber-optic telecommunications by microstructured photonic crystal fibers, to invisibility cloaking, to super-resolution imaging with metamaterials etc.

In particular, structured optical media allow to manipulate the wave propagation and dispersion. In this thesis, we focus on engineering the propagation phase dispersion by modulating the compositions and dimensions of the periodic elements. By tailoring the dispersion in momentum space, we ...


Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum Dec 2016

Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum

Open Access Dissertations

In the past decade, there have been many breakthroughs in the field of plasmonics and nanophotonics that have enabled optical devices with unprecedented functionalities. Even though remarkable demonstration of at photonic devices has been reported, constituent materials are limited to the noble metals such as gold (Au) and silver (Ag) due to their abundance of free electrons which enable the support of plasmon resonances in the visible range. With the strong demand for extension of the optical range of plasmonic applications, it is now a necessity to explore and develop alternative materials which can overcome intrinsic issues of noble metals ...


Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun Dec 2016

Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional scanning and display are rapidly-advancing new technologies with important commercial drivers such as 3D printing and remote imaging for big data applications. Holography is a natural approach to recording and displaying three-dimensional information because it uses phase-sensitive interferometry to record interference patterns when a reference beam encounters coherent light arriving from an object. The 3D information is contained in the values of wave optics. Holography is a broad field that goes beyond recording and displaying. For instance, holographic optical elements, which take advantage of holographic imaging principles, perform the functions of lenses, gratings or mirrors. Holographic interferometry is also ...


Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man Aug 2016

Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man

Open Access Dissertations

Research on nanophotonic structures for three application areas is described, a near perfect optical absorber based on a graphene/dielectric stack, an ultraviolet bandpass filter formed with an aluminum/dielectric stack, and structures exhibiting homogenizable magnetic properties at infrared frequencies. The graphene stack can be treated as a effective, homogenized medium that can be designed to reflect little light and absorb an astoundingly high amount per unit thickness, making it an ideal dark material and providing a new avenue for photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials. Another material stack arrangement with thin layers of metal and insulator forms a multi-cavity ...


Tailoring Optical And Plasmon Resonances In Core-Shell And Core-Multishell Nanowires, Sarath Ramadurgam Jan 2016

Tailoring Optical And Plasmon Resonances In Core-Shell And Core-Multishell Nanowires, Sarath Ramadurgam

Open Access Dissertations

Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are sub-wavelength structures which exhibit strong optical (Mie) resonances in the visible range. In addition to such optical resonances, the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in metal and semiconductor (or dielectric) based core-shell (CS) and core-multishell (CMS) NWs can be tailored to achieve novel negative-index metamaterials (NIM), extreme absorbers, invisibility cloaks and sensors. Particularly, in this dissertation, the versatility of CS and CMS NWs for the design of negative-index metamaterials in the visible range and, plasmonic light harvesting in ultrathin photocatalyst layers for water splitting are studied.

Utilizing the LSPR in the metal layer and the magnetic ...


Circular Bessel Field Statistics And The Pursuit Of Far-Subwavelength Resolution, Yulu Chen Apr 2015

Circular Bessel Field Statistics And The Pursuit Of Far-Subwavelength Resolution, Yulu Chen

Open Access Dissertations

The statistical description of wave propagation in random media is important for many applications. While polarized light in systems with weakly interacting scatterers and sufficient overall scatter has zero-mean circular Gaussian statistics, the underlying assumptions break down in the Anderson localization and weakly scattering regimes. Although probability density functions for wave intensity and amplitude exist beyond Gaussian statistics, suitable statistical descriptions for the field with strong and weak random scatter were unknown. The first analytical probability density function for the field that is effective in both the Anderson localization regime and the weakly scattering regime is derived by modeling the ...


Computational Optical Imaging: Applications In Synthetic Aperture Imaging, Phase Retrieval, And Digital Holography, Dennis Joseph Lee Apr 2015

Computational Optical Imaging: Applications In Synthetic Aperture Imaging, Phase Retrieval, And Digital Holography, Dennis Joseph Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Computational imaging has become an important field, as a merger of both algorithms and physical experiments. In the realm of microscopy and optical imaging, an important application is the problem of improving resolution, which is bounded by wavelength and numerical aperture according to the classic diffraction limit. We will investigate the resolution enhancement of phase objects such as transparent biological cells. One key challenge is how to measure phase experimentally. Standard interferometric techniques have the drawback of being sensitive to environmental vibrations and temperature fluctuations, and they use a reference arm which requires more space and cost. Non-holographic methods provide ...


Novel Techniques For Quasi Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication Of Transformation Optics Devices, Paul R. West Jan 2015

Novel Techniques For Quasi Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication Of Transformation Optics Devices, Paul R. West

Open Access Dissertations

Current nanofabrication is almost exclusively limited to top-down, two-dimensional techniques. As technology moves more deeply into the nano-scale regime, fabrication of new devices with quasi three-dimensional geometries shows great potential. One excellent example of an emerging field that requires this type of non-conformal 3D fabrication technique is the field of Transformation Optics. This field involves transforming and manipulating the optical space through which light propagates. Arbitrarily manipulating the optical space requires advanced fabrication techniques, which are not possible with current two-dimensional fabrication technologies. One step toward quasi three-dimensional nanofabrication involves employing angled deposition allowing new growth mechanisms, and enabling a ...


Dynamic Control Of Plasmonic Resonances With Graphene Based Nanostructures, Naresh Kumar Emani Oct 2014

Dynamic Control Of Plasmonic Resonances With Graphene Based Nanostructures, Naresh Kumar Emani

Open Access Dissertations

Light incident on a metallic structure excites collective oscillations of electrons termed as plasmons. These plasmons are useful in control and manipulation of information in nanoscale dimensions and at high operating frequencies. Hence, the field of plasmonics opens up the possibility of developing nanoscale optoelectronic circuitry for computing and sensing applications. One of the challenges in this effort is the lack of tunable plasmonic resonance. Currently, the resonant wavelength of plasmonic structure is fixed by the material and structural parameters. Post-fabrication dynamic control of a plasmonic resonance is rather limited.^ In this thesis we explore the combination of optoelectrical properties ...


Applications Of Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering In Combustion, Claresta Nicole Dennis Oct 2014

Applications Of Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering In Combustion, Claresta Nicole Dennis

Open Access Dissertations

The dissertation deals with the further development of chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CPP fs-CARS) for applications of gas phase thermometry and extension to methane concentration measurements. The main effort has been to assess the usefulness and robustness of the technique in turbulent combustors of practical interest. A primary aim has been to evaluate the use of CPP fs-CARS for vibrational N2 thermometry in a highly turbulent environment. It has been suggested that due to the laser beam temporal overlap required for fs-CARS signal generation, the technique would be unsuccessful due to beam propagation retardation effects from density ...


Altered Cholesterol Metabolism In Human Cancers Unraveled By Label-Free Spectroscopic Imaging, Shuhua Yue Oct 2013

Altered Cholesterol Metabolism In Human Cancers Unraveled By Label-Free Spectroscopic Imaging, Shuhua Yue

Open Access Dissertations

Despite tremendous scientific achievements, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. Metabolic reprogramming has been increasingly recognized as a core hallmark of cancer. My dissertation work identified novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for human cancers through the study of cholesterol in cancer cells.

Enabled by label-free Raman spectromicroscopy, we performed the first quantitative analysis of lipogenesis at single cell level in human patient cancerous tissues. Our imaging data revealed an unexpected, aberrant accumulation of esterified cholesterol in lipid droplets of high-grade prostate cancer and metastases, but not in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or ...