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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Efficient Hardware Implementations Of Bio-Inspired Networks, Anakha Vasanthakumaribabu May 2020

Efficient Hardware Implementations Of Bio-Inspired Networks, Anakha Vasanthakumaribabu

Dissertations

The human brain, with its massive computational capability and power efficiency in small form factor, continues to inspire the ultimate goal of building machines that can perform tasks without being explicitly programmed. In an effort to mimic the natural information processing paradigms observed in the brain, several neural network generations have been proposed over the years. Among the neural networks inspired by biology, second-generation Artificial or Deep Neural Networks (ANNs/DNNs) use memoryless neuron models and have shown unprecedented success surpassing humans in a wide variety of tasks. Unlike ANNs, third-generation Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) closely mimic biological neurons by ...


A Framework For Vector-Weighted Deep Neural Networks, Carter Chiu May 2020

A Framework For Vector-Weighted Deep Neural Networks, Carter Chiu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The vast majority of advances in deep neural network research operate on the basis of a real-valued weight space. Recent work in alternative spaces have challenged and complemented this idea; for instance, the use of complex- or binary-valued weights have yielded promising and fascinating results. We propose a framework for a novel weight space consisting of vector values which we christen VectorNet. We first develop the theoretical foundations of our proposed approach, including formalizing the requisite theory for forward and backpropagating values in a vector-weighted layer. We also introduce the concept of expansion and aggregation functions for conversion between real ...


Algorithm Selection Framework: A Holistic Approach To The Algorithm Selection Problem, Marc W. Chalé Mar 2020

Algorithm Selection Framework: A Holistic Approach To The Algorithm Selection Problem, Marc W. Chalé

Theses and Dissertations

A holistic approach to the algorithm selection problem is presented. The “algorithm selection framework" uses a combination of user input and meta-data to streamline the algorithm selection for any data analysis task. The framework removes the conjecture of the common trial and error strategy and generates a preference ranked list of recommended analysis techniques. The framework is performed on nine analysis problems. Each of the recommended analysis techniques are implemented on the corresponding data sets. Algorithm performance is assessed using the primary metric of recall and the secondary metric of run time. In six of the problems, the recall of ...


Automated Recognition Of Facial Affect Using Deep Neural Networks, Behzad Hasani Jan 2020

Automated Recognition Of Facial Affect Using Deep Neural Networks, Behzad Hasani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Automated Facial Expression Recognition (FER) has been a topic of study in the field of computer vision and machine learning for decades. In spite of efforts made to improve the accuracy of FER systems, existing methods still are not generalizable and accurate enough for use in real-world applications. Many of the traditional methods use hand-crafted (a.k.a. engineered) features for representation of facial images. However, these methods often require rigorous hyper-parameter tuning to achieve favorable results.

Recently, Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have shown to outperform traditional methods in visual object recognition. DNNs require huge data as well as powerful ...


Satellite Constellation Deployment And Management, Joseph Ryan Kopacz Jan 2020

Satellite Constellation Deployment And Management, Joseph Ryan Kopacz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper will review results and discuss a new method to address the deployment and management of a satellite constellation. The first two chapters will explorer the use of small satellites, and some of the advances in technology that have enabled small spacecraft to maintain modern performance requirements in incredibly small packages.

The third chapter will address the multiple-objective optimization problem for a global persistent coverage constellation of communications spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit. A genetic algorithm was implemented in MATLAB to explore the design space – 288 trillion possibilities – utilizing the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) software developers kit. STK and ...


Facial Action Unit Detection With Deep Convolutional Neural Networks, Siddhesh Padwal Jan 2020

Facial Action Unit Detection With Deep Convolutional Neural Networks, Siddhesh Padwal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The facial features are the most important tool to understand an individual's state of mind. Automated recognition of facial expressions and particularly Facial Action Units defined by Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is challenging research problem in the field of computer vision and machine learning. Researchers are working on deep learning algorithms to improve state of the art in the area. Automated recognition of facial action units has man applications ranging from developmental psychology to human robot interface design where companies are using this technology to improve their consumer devices (like unlocking phone) and for entertainment like FaceApp. Recent ...


An Application Of Deep Learning Models To Automate Food Waste Classification, Alejandro Zachary Espinoza Dec 2019

An Application Of Deep Learning Models To Automate Food Waste Classification, Alejandro Zachary Espinoza

Dissertations and Theses

Food wastage is a problem that affects all demographics and regions of the world. Each year, approximately one-third of food produced for human consumption is thrown away. In an effort to track and reduce food waste in the commercial sector, some companies utilize third party devices which collect data to analyze individual contributions to the global problem. These devices track the type of food wasted (such as vegetables, fruit, boneless chicken, pasta) along with the weight. Some devices also allow the user to leave the food in a kitchen container while it is weighed, so the container weight must also ...


Demonstration Of Visible And Near Infrared Raman Spectrometers And Improved Matched Filter Model For Analysis Of Combined Raman Signals, Alexander Matthew Atkinson Oct 2019

Demonstration Of Visible And Near Infrared Raman Spectrometers And Improved Matched Filter Model For Analysis Of Combined Raman Signals, Alexander Matthew Atkinson

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analysis technique that has found applications in fields such as analytical chemistry, planetary sciences, and medical diagnostics. Recent studies have shown that analysis of Raman spectral profiles can be greatly assisted by use of computational models with achievements including high accuracy pure sample classification with imbalanced data sets and detection of ideal sample deviations for pharmaceutical quality control. The adoption of automated methods is a necessary step in streamlining the analysis process as Raman hardware becomes more advanced. Due to limits in the architectures of current machine learning based Raman classification models, transfer from pure ...


Field Drilling Data Cleaning And Preparation For Data Analytics Applications, Daniel Cardoso Braga Jun 2019

Field Drilling Data Cleaning And Preparation For Data Analytics Applications, Daniel Cardoso Braga

LSU Master's Theses

Throughout the history of oil well drilling, service providers have been continuously striving to improve performance and reduce total drilling costs to operating companies. Despite constant improvement in tools, products, and processes, data science has not played a large part in oil well drilling. With the implementation of data science in the energy sector, companies have come to see significant value in efficiently processing the massive amounts of data produced by the multitude of internet of thing (IOT) sensors at the rig. The scope of this project is to combine academia and industry experience to analyze data from 13 different ...


Exploring The Behavior Repertoire Of A Wireless Vibrationally Actuated Tensegrity Robot, Zongliang Ji Jun 2019

Exploring The Behavior Repertoire Of A Wireless Vibrationally Actuated Tensegrity Robot, Zongliang Ji

Honors Theses

Soft robotics is an emerging field of research due to its potential to explore and operate in unstructured, rugged, and dynamic environments. However, the properties that make soft robots compelling also make them difficult to robustly control. Here at Union, we developed the world’s first wireless soft tensegrity robot. The goal of my thesis is to explore effective and efficient methods to explore the diverse behavior our tensegrity robot. We will achieve that by applying state-of-art machine learning technique and a novelty search algorithm.


A Data-Driven Approach For Modeling Agents, Hamdi Kavak Apr 2019

A Data-Driven Approach For Modeling Agents, Hamdi Kavak

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Agents are commonly created on a set of simple rules driven by theories, hypotheses, and assumptions. Such modeling premise has limited use of real-world data and is challenged when modeling real-world systems due to the lack of empirical grounding. Simultaneously, the last decade has witnessed the production and availability of large-scale data from various sensors that carry behavioral signals. These data sources have the potential to change the way we create agent-based models; from simple rules to driven by data. Despite this opportunity, the literature has neglected to offer a modeling approach to generate granular agent behaviors from data, creating ...


Learning Probabilistic Generative Models For Fast Sampling-Based Planning, Jinwook Huh Jan 2019

Learning Probabilistic Generative Models For Fast Sampling-Based Planning, Jinwook Huh

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Due to their simplicity and efficiency in high dimensional space, sampling-based motion planners have been gaining interest for robotic manipulation in recent years. We present several new learning approaches using probabilistic generative models for fast sampling-based planning. First, we propose fast collision detection in high dimensional configuration spaces based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) for Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRT). In addition, we introduce a new probabilistically safe local steering primitive based on the probabilistic model. Our local steering procedure is based on a new notion of a convex probabilistically safety corridor that is constructed around a configuration using tangent hyperplanes ...


Applications Of Machine Learning In Nuclear Imaging And Radiation Detection, Shaikat Mahmood Galib Jan 2019

Applications Of Machine Learning In Nuclear Imaging And Radiation Detection, Shaikat Mahmood Galib

Doctoral Dissertations

"The main focus of this work is to use machine learning and data mining techniques to address some challenging problems that arise from nuclear data. Specifically, two problem areas are discussed: nuclear imaging and radiation detection. The techniques to approach these problems are primarily based on a variant of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) called Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which is one of the most popular forms of 'deep learning' technique.

The first problem is about interpreting and analyzing 3D medical radiation images automatically. A method is developed to identify and quantify deformable image registration (DIR) errors from lung CT scans ...


Non-Destructive Evaluation For Composite Material, Desalegn Temesgen Delelegn Jul 2018

Non-Destructive Evaluation For Composite Material, Desalegn Temesgen Delelegn

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

The Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch (NESB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) has conducted impact damage experiments over the past few years with the goal of understanding structural defects in composite materials. The Data Science Team within the NASA LaRC Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) has been working with the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) subject matter experts (SMEs), Dr. Cheryl Rose, from the Structural Mechanics & Concepts Branch and Dr. William Winfree, from the Research Directorate, to develop computer vision solutions using digital image processing and machine learning techniques that can help identify the ...


2018 Ieee Signal Processing Cup: Forensic Camera Model Identification Challenge, Michael Geiger Jun 2018

2018 Ieee Signal Processing Cup: Forensic Camera Model Identification Challenge, Michael Geiger

Honors Theses

The goal of this Senior Capstone Project was to lead Union College’s first ever Signal Processing Cup Team to compete in IEEE’s 2018 Signal Processing Cup Competition. This year’s competition was a forensic camera model identification challenge and was divided into two separate stages of competition: Open Competition and Final Competition. Participation in the Open Competition was open to any teams of undergraduate students, but the Final Competition was only open to the three finalists from Open Competition and is scheduled to be held at ICASSP 2018 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Teams that make it to the ...


Reducing Labeling Complexity In Streaming Data Mining, Yesdaulet Izenov Jan 2018

Reducing Labeling Complexity In Streaming Data Mining, Yesdaulet Izenov

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Supervised machine learning is an approach where an algorithm estimates a mapping

function by using labeled data i.e. utilizing data attributes and target values. One of the major

obstacles in supervised learning is the labeling step. Obtaining labeled data is an expensive

procedure since it typically requires human effort. Training a model with too little data tends

to overfit therefore in order to achieve a reasonable accuracy of prediction we need a minimum

number of labeled examples. This is also true for streaming machine learning models. Maintaining

a model without rebuilding and performing a prediction task without ever storing ...


Dynamic Adversarial Mining - Effectively Applying Machine Learning In Adversarial Non-Stationary Environments., Tegjyot Singh Sethi Aug 2017

Dynamic Adversarial Mining - Effectively Applying Machine Learning In Adversarial Non-Stationary Environments., Tegjyot Singh Sethi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While understanding of machine learning and data mining is still in its budding stages, the engineering applications of the same has found immense acceptance and success. Cybersecurity applications such as intrusion detection systems, spam filtering, and CAPTCHA authentication, have all begun adopting machine learning as a viable technique to deal with large scale adversarial activity. However, the naive usage of machine learning in an adversarial setting is prone to reverse engineering and evasion attacks, as most of these techniques were designed primarily for a static setting. The security domain is a dynamic landscape, with an ongoing never ending arms race ...


Speech Based Machine Learning Models For Emotional State Recognition And Ptsd Detection, Debrup Banerjee Jul 2017

Speech Based Machine Learning Models For Emotional State Recognition And Ptsd Detection, Debrup Banerjee

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Recognition of emotional state and diagnosis of trauma related illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using speech signals have been active research topics over the past decade. A typical emotion recognition system consists of three components: speech segmentation, feature extraction and emotion identification. Various speech features have been developed for emotional state recognition which can be divided into three categories, namely, excitation, vocal tract and prosodic. However, the capabilities of different feature categories and advanced machine learning techniques have not been fully explored for emotion recognition and PTSD diagnosis. For PTSD assessment, clinical diagnosis through structured interviews is a ...


Data Driven Low-Bandwidth Intelligent Control Of A Jet Engine Combustor, Nathan L. Toner Aug 2016

Data Driven Low-Bandwidth Intelligent Control Of A Jet Engine Combustor, Nathan L. Toner

Open Access Dissertations

This thesis introduces a low-bandwidth control architecture for navigating the input space of an un-modeled combustor system between desired operating conditions while avoiding regions of instability and blow-out. An experimental procedure is discussed for identifying regions of instability and gathering sufficient data to build a data-driven model of the system's operating modes. Regions of instability and blow-out are identified experimentally and a data-driven operating point classifier is designed. This classifier acts as a map of the operating space of the combustor, indicating regions in which the flame is in a "good" or "bad" operating mode. A data-driven predictor is ...


Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis Aug 2014

Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advances in the capabilities of robotic planetary exploration missions have increased the wealth of scientific data they produce, presenting challenges for mission science and operations imposed by the limits of interplanetary radio communications. These data budget pressures can be relieved by increased robotic autonomy, both for onboard operations tasks and for decision- making in response to science data.

This thesis presents new techniques in automated image interpretation for natural scenes of relevance to planetary science and exploration, and elaborates autonomy scenarios under which they could be used to extend the reach and performance of exploration missions on planetary surfaces.

Two ...


3d Robotic Sensing Of People: Human Perception, Representation And Activity Recognition, Hao Zhang Aug 2014

3d Robotic Sensing Of People: Human Perception, Representation And Activity Recognition, Hao Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

The robots are coming. Their presence will eventually bridge the digital-physical divide and dramatically impact human life by taking over tasks where our current society has shortcomings (e.g., search and rescue, elderly care, and child education). Human-centered robotics (HCR) is a vision to address how robots can coexist with humans and help people live safer, simpler and more independent lives.

As humans, we have a remarkable ability to perceive the world around us, perceive people, and interpret their behaviors. Endowing robots with these critical capabilities in highly dynamic human social environments is a significant but very challenging problem in ...


Online Multi-Stage Deep Architectures For Feature Extraction And Object Recognition, Derek Christopher Rose Aug 2013

Online Multi-Stage Deep Architectures For Feature Extraction And Object Recognition, Derek Christopher Rose

Doctoral Dissertations

Multi-stage visual architectures have recently found success in achieving high classification accuracies over image datasets with large variations in pose, lighting, and scale. Inspired by techniques currently at the forefront of deep learning, such architectures are typically composed of one or more layers of preprocessing, feature encoding, and pooling to extract features from raw images. Training these components traditionally relies on large sets of patches that are extracted from a potentially large image dataset. In this context, high-dimensional feature space representations are often helpful for obtaining the best classification performances and providing a higher degree of invariance to object transformations ...


A Neural Network Approach To Border Gateway Protocol Peer Failure Detection And Prediction, Cory B. White Dec 2009

A Neural Network Approach To Border Gateway Protocol Peer Failure Detection And Prediction, Cory B. White

Master's Theses

The size and speed of computer networks continue to expand at a rapid pace, as do the corresponding errors, failures, and faults inherent within such extensive networks. This thesis introduces a novel approach to interface Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) computer networks with neural networks to learn the precursor connectivity patterns that emerge prior to a node failure. Details of the design and construction of a framework that utilizes neural networks to learn and monitor BGP connection states as a means of detecting and predicting BGP peer node failure are presented. Moreover, this framework is used to monitor a BGP network ...


Modular Machine Learning Methods For Computer-Aided Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer, Mia Kathleen Markey '94 Jun 2002

Modular Machine Learning Methods For Computer-Aided Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer, Mia Kathleen Markey '94

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to improve breast cancer diagnosis by reducing the number of benign biopsies performed. To this end, we investigated modular and ensemble systems of machine learning methods for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer. A modular system partitions the input space into smaller domains, each of which is handled by a local model. An ensemble system uses multiple models for the same cases and combines the models' predictions.

Five supervised machine learning techniques (LDA, SVM, BP-ANN, CBR, CART) were trained to predict the biopsy outcome from mammographic findings (BIRADS™) and patient age based on a ...