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Portland State University

Environmental Engineering

2018

Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Comparative Analysis Of Mosquito Trap Counts In The Peruvian Amazon: Effect Of Trap Type And Other Covariates On Counts And Diversity, George W. Peck, Fanny Castro-Llanos, Victor Lopez-Sifuentes, Erica Lindroth Dec 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Mosquito Trap Counts In The Peruvian Amazon: Effect Of Trap Type And Other Covariates On Counts And Diversity, George W. Peck, Fanny Castro-Llanos, Victor Lopez-Sifuentes, Erica Lindroth

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Efficient detection of multiple species of adult mosquitoes in various habitats using effective traps is a crucial 1st step in any disease prevention program. Novel trap types that target tropical vectors of human diseases require field testing in the habitat of the vector–disease system in question. This paper analyzes a series of mosquito trapping studies conducted at Mapacocha, San Juan Bautista District, Loreto, Peru, during August–September 2013 and April–May 2014. Six trap configurations were evaluated in forest and rural locations. Adult mosquito counts were analyzed using full Bayesian inference of multilevel generalized linear models and posterior probability ...


Removal Efficiencies, Uptake Mechanisms And Competitive Effects Of Copper And Zinc In Various Stormwater Filter Media, Emily Heleva-Ponaski Sep 2018

Removal Efficiencies, Uptake Mechanisms And Competitive Effects Of Copper And Zinc In Various Stormwater Filter Media, Emily Heleva-Ponaski

Dissertations and Theses

Polluted stormwater, if not treated, can compromise water quality throughout our hydrologic cycle, adversely affecting aquatic ecosystems. Common stormwater pollutants, copper and zinc, have been identified as primary toxicants in multiple freshwater and marine environments. For small-scale generators, stormwater management can be cumbersome and implementation of common BMPs impractical thus catch basins are popular though not the most environmentally conscious and sustainable option. This study aims to characterize the potential of a mobile media filter operation for the treatment and on-site recycling of catch basin stormwater. The removal capacities of various commercially available filter media (e.g. a common perlite ...


Twelve Questions For The Participatory Modeling Community, Rebecca Jordan, Steven Gray, Moira Zellner, Pierre D. Glynn, Alexey Voinov, Beatrice Hedelin, Eleanor J. Sterling, Kirsten Leong, Laura Schmitt Olabisi, Klaus Hubacek, Pierre Bommel, Todd K. Bendor, Antoine J. Jetter, Bethany Laursen, Alison Singer, Philippe J. Giabbanelli, Nagesh Kolagani, Laura Basco Carrera, Karen Jenni, Christina Prell, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center Participatory Modeling Pursuit Working Group Aug 2018

Twelve Questions For The Participatory Modeling Community, Rebecca Jordan, Steven Gray, Moira Zellner, Pierre D. Glynn, Alexey Voinov, Beatrice Hedelin, Eleanor J. Sterling, Kirsten Leong, Laura Schmitt Olabisi, Klaus Hubacek, Pierre Bommel, Todd K. Bendor, Antoine J. Jetter, Bethany Laursen, Alison Singer, Philippe J. Giabbanelli, Nagesh Kolagani, Laura Basco Carrera, Karen Jenni, Christina Prell, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center Participatory Modeling Pursuit Working Group

Engineering and Technology Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Participatory modeling engages the implicit and explicit knowledge of stakeholders to create formalized and shared representations of reality and has evolved into a field of study as well as a practice. Participatory modeling researchers and practitioners who focus specifically on environmental resources met at the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) in Annapolis, Maryland, over the course of 2 years to discuss the state of the field and future directions for participatory modeling. What follows is a description of 12 overarching groups of questions that could guide future inquiry.


Human-Centered Design Of An Air Quality Feedback System To Promote Healthy Cooking, Chantal Iribagiza Jul 2018

Human-Centered Design Of An Air Quality Feedback System To Promote Healthy Cooking, Chantal Iribagiza

Dissertations and Theses

Household air pollution (HAP) is responsible for almost 4 million premature deaths every year, a burden that is primarily carried by women and children in developing countries. The mortality and morbidity impact of HAP can be significantly alleviated through clean cookstove interventions. However, for these interventions to be effective, the new intervention stove must be a substantially cleaner technology and adoption should be high and sustained over time.

Woody biomass is the fuel of choice in many developing communities, and contributes substantially to HAP. Several organizations have launched clean cooking interventions to address this issue. However, the majority of those ...


A 3d Model For Earthquake-Induced Liquefaction Triggering And Post-Liquefaction Response, Arash Khosravifar, Ahmed Elgamal, Jinchi Lu, John Li Jul 2018

A 3d Model For Earthquake-Induced Liquefaction Triggering And Post-Liquefaction Response, Arash Khosravifar, Ahmed Elgamal, Jinchi Lu, John Li

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

A constitutive soil model that was originally developed to model liquefaction and cyclic mobility has been updated to comply with the established guidelines on the dependence of liquefaction triggering to the number of loading cycles, effective overburden stress (Kσ), and static shear stress (Kα). The model has been improved with new flow rules to better capture contraction and dilation in sands and has been implemented as PDMY03 in different computational platforms such as OpenSees finite-element, and FLAC and FLAC3D finite-difference frameworks. This paper presents the new modified framework of analysis and describes a guideline to calibrate the input parameters of ...


Baroclinic Tidal Sea Level From Exact-Repeat Mission Altimetry, Edward Zaron Jun 2018

Baroclinic Tidal Sea Level From Exact-Repeat Mission Altimetry, Edward Zaron

Portland Institute for Computational Science Publications

A near-global model for the sea-surface expression of the baroclinic tide has been developed using exact-repeat mission altimetry. The methodology used differs in detail from other altimetry-based estimates of the open ocean baroclinic tide, but it leads to estimates which are broadly similar to previous results. It may be used for prediction of the baroclinic sea level anomaly at the frequencies of the main diurnal and semidiurnal tides, K1, O1, M2, S2, as well as the annual modulates of M2, denoted MA2 and MB2. Based on a comparison with independent CryoSat-2 data, the ...


Relative Sea Level, Tides, And Extreme Water Levels In Boston Harbor From 1825 To 2018, Stefan Talke, A. C. Kemp, J. Woodruff Jun 2018

Relative Sea Level, Tides, And Extreme Water Levels In Boston Harbor From 1825 To 2018, Stefan Talke, A. C. Kemp, J. Woodruff

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Using newly-discovered archival measurements, we construct an instrumental record of water levels and storm tides in Boston (MA) since 1825. After ascertaining the 19th century datum and correcting for a 0–0.03 m bias in the modern tide-gauge record, we show that local, decadally-averaged relative sea level (RSL) rose by 0.2860.05 m since 1826, with an acceleration of 0.02360.009 mm/yr2. Tide range decreased by 5.5% between 1830 and 1910, due in large part to dredging and filling of Boston Harbor, and trended slightly upward thereafter. An evaluation of storm events since 1825 suggests ...


Fhwa Guidebook For Measuring Multimodal Network Connectivity, Joseph Broach Apr 2018

Fhwa Guidebook For Measuring Multimodal Network Connectivity, Joseph Broach

TREC Friday Seminar Series

In 2016 the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) published a Guidebook for Developing Pedestrian and Bicycle Performance Measures that presents methods for measuring walking and bicycling performance and activities and embedding them into the transportation planning and decisionmaking process (U.S. Department of Transportation 2016). Building on the 2016 guidebook, this resource focuses on pedestrian and bicycle network connectivity and provides information on incorporating connectivity measures into state, metropolitan, and local transportation planning processes.

Connectivity measures can help transportation practitioners identify high priority network gaps, implement cost-effective solutions that address multiple needs, optimize potential co-benefits ...


How Sustainable Are Drone (Uav) Deliveries?, Miguel Figliozzi Apr 2018

How Sustainable Are Drone (Uav) Deliveries?, Miguel Figliozzi

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Private companies and public officials are seeking sustainable and cost effective ways to green supply chains and freight deliveries. There is enthusiasm regarding the potential benefits that innovative technologies such as drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can generate. This presentation discusses key issues and insights that arise from modeling the logistical, and environmental performance of UAVs.


Decision Support System For The Design And Planning Of Low-Impact Development Practices: The Case Of Seoul, Jae-Yeol Song, Eun-Sung Chung, Soo Hyun Kim Feb 2018

Decision Support System For The Design And Planning Of Low-Impact Development Practices: The Case Of Seoul, Jae-Yeol Song, Eun-Sung Chung, Soo Hyun Kim

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This study presented the conceptual framework of the water-management analysis module (WMAM) to derive effective physical specifications for the design and planning of low-impact development (LID) practices using the storm-water management model (SWMM). This decision-support system can be used for six LID types and has the following key capabilities: determining relevant LID design parameters within the SWMM that critically influence the hydrological cycle components using a simple sensitivity analysis and determining the best hydrological values for LID planning specification. This study analyzed a highly urbanized university campus as a case study to determine the design and planning specifications for an ...


Exploring The Determinants Of Vulnerable Road Users’ Crash Severity In State Roads, Álvaro Caviedes Jan 2018

Exploring The Determinants Of Vulnerable Road Users’ Crash Severity In State Roads, Álvaro Caviedes

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Part of the Student Presentations from TRB

Pedestrians and bicyclists are the most vulnerable road users and suffer the most severe consequences when crashes take place. An extensive literature is available for crash severity in terms of driver safety, but fewer studies have explored non-motorized users’ crash severity. Furthermore, most research efforts have examined pedestrian and bicyclist crash severity in urban areas. This study focuses on state roads (mostly outside major urban areas) and aims to identify contributing risk factors of fatal and severe crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists in state roads. The results seem to suggest that besides improvements ...


Day Laborers & Extreme Heat: Recommendations For Reducing Heat Stress, Sandra Mena Jan 2018

Day Laborers & Extreme Heat: Recommendations For Reducing Heat Stress, Sandra Mena

REU Final Reports

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has various Global Climate Models (GCM). One of them, models three greenhouse gases. The increasing amount of greenhouse gases are just a fraction of factors that fuel global climate change. According to the IPCC 2014, climate related extremes such as heatwaves are likely to occur more regularly and are likely to increase in duration. Since 1979, there has been over 9000 deaths that occurred from heat-related incidents in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016). Which brings attention to population groups who are exposed to hot temperatures on a frequent basis ...


The Transport Of Non-Spherical Particles In A Simulated Ocean Environment, Hannah Reed Jan 2018

The Transport Of Non-Spherical Particles In A Simulated Ocean Environment, Hannah Reed

REU Final Reports

Plastic particles contaminating the world’s oceans and accumulating in oceanic gyres has become a ubiquitous problem and the solution involving how to clean up the debris efficiently has still not been found. One particular issue is understanding where the greatest densities of debris may be. It is known that floating trash will tend to accumulate in large circular systems of ocean water called gyres, however these areas span thousands of miles of ocean. The present study aims to understand the transport of anisotropic particles in conditions similar to an oceanic environment using experimental methods in an effort to better ...


Inertial And Liquefaction-Induced Kinematic Demands On A Pile-Supported Wharf: Physical Modeling, Milad Souri, Arash Khosravifar, Stephen E. Dickenson, Scott Schlechter, Nason Mccullough Jan 2018

Inertial And Liquefaction-Induced Kinematic Demands On A Pile-Supported Wharf: Physical Modeling, Milad Souri, Arash Khosravifar, Stephen E. Dickenson, Scott Schlechter, Nason Mccullough

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Results of a centrifuge test on a pile-supported wharf were used to investigate the time-, depth-, and row-dependent nature of kinematic and inertial loading on wharf piles in sloping rockfill. P-y models were calibrated against recorded bending moments in different piles and different depths. It was found that full kinematic demands and full superstructure inertia should be combined to estimate bending moments at pile head and shallow depths (less than 10 diameters below the ground surface). On the contrary, it was found that applying full kinematic demands alone was adequate to estimate pile bending moments at large depths (greater than ...


The Effects Of Long-Duration Subduction Earthquakes On Inelastic Behavior Of Bridge Pile Foundations Subjected To Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading, Jonathan Nasr, Arash Khosravifar Jan 2018

The Effects Of Long-Duration Subduction Earthquakes On Inelastic Behavior Of Bridge Pile Foundations Subjected To Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading, Jonathan Nasr, Arash Khosravifar

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Effective-stress nonlinear dynamic analyses (NDA) were performed for a large-diameter reinforced concrete (RC) pile in multi-layered liquefiable sloped ground. The objective was to assess the effects of earthquake duration on the combination of inertia and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. A parametric study was performed using input motions from subduction and crustal earthquakes covering a wide range of motion durations. The NDA results showed that the pile head displacements increased under liquefied conditions, compared to nonliquefied conditions, due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. The NDA results were used to develop a displacement-based equivalent static analysis (ESA) method that combines inertial and lateral spreading ...


Hydro-Climatological Summer Trends In The Continental United States, Naya Mairena Flores Jan 2018

Hydro-Climatological Summer Trends In The Continental United States, Naya Mairena Flores

REU Final Reports

We investigated trends in air temperature, stream temperature and discharge for rivers across the continental United States from the summer months of 1996 to 2016. Using GAGES II from USGS and PRISM and programming language R we analyzed specific hydrological trends in Mann-Kendall’s tests. After collecting the slope values whether they were negative or positive and the P-Values, the significance of that slope, we mapped slopes of trends in GIS. Stream temperature increased 12% of stations across the summer, while air temperature increased 22% of stations, and discharge decreased 15% of stations, respectively. Seven day moving average of daily ...


Water Quality Factor Prediction Using Supervised Machine Learning, Kathleen Joslyn Jan 2018

Water Quality Factor Prediction Using Supervised Machine Learning, Kathleen Joslyn

REU Final Reports

The objective of this research is to explore prediction accuracy of water quality factors, with techniques and algorithms in machine learning consisting of a variation of support vector machines - Support Vector Regression (SVR) and the gradient boosting algorithm Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost). Both the XGBoost and SVR algorithms were used to predict nine different factors with success rates ranging from 79% to 99%. Parameters of these algorithms were also explored to test the prediction accuracy levels of individual water quality factors. These parameters included normalizing the data, filling missing data points, and training and testing on a large set of ...


Effects Of Land Development And Season On Heavy Metal Concentrations In Urban Streams, Helen Daigle Jan 2018

Effects Of Land Development And Season On Heavy Metal Concentrations In Urban Streams, Helen Daigle

REU Final Reports

Although it is generally understood that urban development can impact the quality of urban streams, there are many factors that affect the concentrations of pollutants being transferred from the built environment to a given output. This study examines the impact of land use surrounding urban streams, specifically, the degree of development and presence or absence of green infrastructure (GI) in these areas on heavy metal (HM) concentrations in Portland, Oregon. After collecting 1021 water quality samples from 2010-2018, we examined the difference in concentrations of HM pollutants across different combinations of land use and season. Increased levels of calcium, magnesium ...