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Theses/Dissertations

2014

Mathematics

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Relationships Between Prior Experiences, Current Teaching Contexts, And Novice Teachers' Use Of Concrete Representation For Mathematics Instruction, Elizabeth Lee Johnson Dec 2014

Relationships Between Prior Experiences, Current Teaching Contexts, And Novice Teachers' Use Of Concrete Representation For Mathematics Instruction, Elizabeth Lee Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

This case study documents the perceived influences on three novice elementary teachers’ use of concrete representations for teaching mathematics. In order to develop mathematical proficiency, students need access to a variety of representations (i.e. pictures, words, symbols, concrete materials, and real world contexts) to make sense of mathematical ideas. Three sources of data were collected: video-recorded lessons, interviews, and a focus group. Analyses indicated that although concrete representations were accessible to all three teachers, they were least used among the available representations. Verbal expression was most prominent, followed closely by abstract written symbols. Technology, which was not one of ...


Gifted Students In Mathematics: A Problem Solving Approach To Enrichment, Caylin Depuy Dec 2014

Gifted Students In Mathematics: A Problem Solving Approach To Enrichment, Caylin Depuy

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

In the United States mathematically gifted students frequently go unnoticed and most often receive the same education as their at-level peers (Ysseldyke, Tardrew, Betts, Thill, Hannigan, 2004). There is very limited funding available for gifted students and the identification and classification varies by state, often being decided by school district (National Association, 2014). Gifted American students are exposed to less challenging problems than those in other countries and, as a result, are falling behind in academic performance (Ross, 1993). This curriculum is designed to supplement the existing Geometry curriculum by offering eight unique, challenging problems that can be used for ...


Is More Always Better: Comparing The Effects Of Single And Multiple Learning Channels On Academic Performance, Samantha Ann Spillman Oct 2014

Is More Always Better: Comparing The Effects Of Single And Multiple Learning Channels On Academic Performance, Samantha Ann Spillman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Precision teaching (PT) is a measurement system used in multiple settings for all types of behavior, from driving to mathematics. The ultimate goal of PT is to develop fluent, free operant behaviors through analyzing response frequencies on a standard celeration chart. Research has found PT to be effective at improving both the speed and accuracy of academic skills. There is little research, however, in the effects of learning channels, a component of PT, as they relate to the acquisition of academic skills. The present study examined the relationship between single and multiple learning channels on the acquisition of mathematics skills ...


Examination Of High School Students' Understanding Of Geometry, Brantley Grant Pierce Aug 2014

Examination Of High School Students' Understanding Of Geometry, Brantley Grant Pierce

Master's Theses

Not every student learns geometry instruction the same. Inside today’s classroom, one will find a diverse collection of students with different learning styles, background knowledge, and cognitive abilities. Students with high cognitive skills may sit next to those who struggle to maintain the material of a single subject. It is the job of an educator to accept the students as they are and guide them through a successful academic journey. This process is called Differentiated Instruction. Gregory and Chapman, authors of Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All, state that the term differentiation is a philosophy that ...


An Authentic Mathematics Problem Competition And Its Effect On The Performance Of Advanced Sixth Grade Learners, Eric Bergerson Aug 2014

An Authentic Mathematics Problem Competition And Its Effect On The Performance Of Advanced Sixth Grade Learners, Eric Bergerson

Masters of Arts in Education Action Research Papers

The purpose of this study was to determine what effect an authentic mathematics problem competition would have on student performance by advanced sixth grade learners. The study was conducted in a public elementary school, in a sixth grade math classroom with twenty five advanced math students. The data sources included a student survey, weekly competition problems, chapter tests, and field notes. The results showed a definite relationship between success in the competition and improved performance in the math class. For students who did well in the competition their chapter test scores improved during the five weeks of the competition. Also ...


Student Application Of The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus With Graphical Representations In Mathematics And Physics, Rabindra R. Bajracharya Aug 2014

Student Application Of The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus With Graphical Representations In Mathematics And Physics, Rabindra R. Bajracharya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One mathematical concept frequently applied in physics is the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC). Mathematics education research on student understanding of the FTC indicates student difficulties with the FTC. Similarly, a few studies in physics education have implicitly indicated student difficulties with various facets of the FTC, such as with the definite integral and the area under the curve representation, in physics contexts. There has been no research on how students apply the FTC in graphically-based physics questions.

This study investigated student understanding of the FTC and its application to graphically-based problems. Our interest spans several aspects of the FTC ...


Impact Of Mathematics Computer-Assisted Instruction On English Language Learner Achievement, Christie Jacquelyn Jay Aug 2014

Impact Of Mathematics Computer-Assisted Instruction On English Language Learner Achievement, Christie Jacquelyn Jay

Theses and Dissertations

This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of supplemental mathematics computer-assisted instructional programs on the achievement of students in grades three and four over a two year period. This study evaluates the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) supplemental interventions through the lens of the sheltered instruction approach to teaching English Language Learner (ELL) students. The students who took part in the intervention attended nine elementary schools in one Arkansas district in the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 school years. Data from Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) assessments were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA with pretest and two posttests over the course of two school years ...


The Connection Between Language And Writing In Mathematics, Rebeca A. Kolupski Jul 2014

The Connection Between Language And Writing In Mathematics, Rebeca A. Kolupski

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Abstract

Literacy is an important aspect to include with all mathematics because it allows for students to construct new knowledge in a meaningful way. I think that students will be much more successful when they can see the connection between the two, as all literacy elements are included within mathematics. Students must be able to read, write, speak, listen, and view to clearly communicate and interpret all mathematics. The purpose of this study was to explore whether my personal beliefs regarding mathematics and literacy matched my teaching practices within the classroom in both districts where I taught. I collected data ...


Using Schematic-Based And Cognitive Strategy Instruction To Improve Math Word Problem Solving For Students With Math Difficulties, Lisa L. Morin Jul 2014

Using Schematic-Based And Cognitive Strategy Instruction To Improve Math Word Problem Solving For Students With Math Difficulties, Lisa L. Morin

Communication Disorders & Special Education Theses & Dissertations

For students with math difficulties (MD), math word problem solving is especially challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine a math word problem solving strategy, bar model drawing, to support students with MD. The study extended previous research that suggested that schematic-based instruction (SBI) training delivered within an explicit instruction framework can be effective in teaching various math skills related to word problem solving. As a more generic schema approach, bar model drawing may serve as an effective form of SBI that can be developed across word problems. Moreover, the bar model approach has the potential to enhance ...


Enhancing Self-Monitoring And Self-Reflection Through A Self-Regulatory Skills Intervention Embedded In A Middle School Mathematics Curriculum, Gregory Digiacomo Jun 2014

Enhancing Self-Monitoring And Self-Reflection Through A Self-Regulatory Skills Intervention Embedded In A Middle School Mathematics Curriculum, Gregory Digiacomo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-regulatory strategy intervention designed to improve participants' calibration accuracy, self-regulatory skills, and math achievement. Monitoring and self-reflection processes were the main focus of this intervention as they are key processes in many well-validated models of self-regulated learning and have been found to impact academic achievement and overall self-regulatory skill (Bol et al., 2010; Dunlosky & Rawson, 2011; Hacker et al., 2008; Nietfeld et al., 2005). The participants were 30 sixth and seventh grade students who were learning about probability as part of their normal math curriculum during the study. They were ...


Technology Adoption In Secondary Mathematics Teaching In Kenya: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study, Leonard Mwathi Kamau May 2014

Technology Adoption In Secondary Mathematics Teaching In Kenya: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study, Leonard Mwathi Kamau

Dissertations - ALL

Abstract

This study examined the factors related to technology adoption by secondary mathematics teachers in Nyandarua and Nairobi counties in the Republic of Kenya. Using a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach, I collected qualitative data from interviews and classroom observations of six teachers to better understand statistical results from the quantitative survey of 135 teachers, and drew on Rogers' (2003) diffusion of innovations theory. In the initial quantitative phase, using multiple regression analysis, I identified six explanatory variables related to technology adoption that resulted in R square of 61.2% and adjusted R square of 59.3%. These six variables ...


Calculator Usage In Secondary Level Classrooms: The Ongoing Debate, Nicole Plummer May 2014

Calculator Usage In Secondary Level Classrooms: The Ongoing Debate, Nicole Plummer

Honors College Theses

With technology becoming more prevalent every day, it is imperative that students gain enough experience with different technological tools in order to be successful in the “real-world”. This thesis will discuss the debate and overall support for an increased usage of calculators as tools in the secondary level classroom. When the idea of calculators in the classroom first came to life, many educators were very apprehensive and quite hesitant of this change. Unfortunately, more than 40 years later, there is still hesitation for their usage; and rightfully so. While there are plenty of advantages of calculator use in the classroom ...


The Impact Of Computer-Adaptive Benchmark Data And Assessment Literacy On Student Achievement And Motivation In Mathematics, Sheryl J. Rushton May 2014

The Impact Of Computer-Adaptive Benchmark Data And Assessment Literacy On Student Achievement And Motivation In Mathematics, Sheryl J. Rushton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past several decades there has been an emphasis in educational research on student assessment and achievement in mathematics. Formative assessments are designed to inform the instructional decision making process and require assessment literacy to interpret and use data provided by these assessments. Many teachers and students were lacking assessment literacy; therefore, they were unable to adjust their instruction and study habits to increase student performance on summative assessments. This study investigated the impact Scholastic Math Inventory (SMI) benchmarks and assessment literacy training had on summative assessments and student motivation in mathematics. The researcher analyzed unit posttest scores and ...


Common Themes Associated With Teacher-Identified Obstacles To Implementing Change In Mathematics Instruction Attributable To Participation In Mathematics Professional Development, Ronald A. Twitchell May 2014

Common Themes Associated With Teacher-Identified Obstacles To Implementing Change In Mathematics Instruction Attributable To Participation In Mathematics Professional Development, Ronald A. Twitchell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study had three purposes: first, explore any common phenomenon of secondary mathematics teachers’ experience in secondary mathematics professional development (MPD); second, determine if there were positive changes in teacher attitudes after completing secondary MPD; and finally, if a positive change in teacher attitude was identified, describe the shared experiences in secondary MPD to in a way that cannot be revealed through ordinary observations. It was the intent of this study to identify positive changes in teacher attitudes not to measure their magnitude. This study implemented a mixed methods design using descriptive statistics and categorical analysis on data from pre- ...


The Academic Preparation And Background Of Public Secondary Mathematics Teachers In Utah 1966-1967, Charles Crittenden May 2014

The Academic Preparation And Background Of Public Secondary Mathematics Teachers In Utah 1966-1967, Charles Crittenden

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A random survey was conducted to determine the academic preparation and background of the public secondary mathematics teachers in the state of Utah.

The survey indicated that there is a wide variance in the teacher mathematics preparation between the three types of public secondary schools. The class B high schools have a smaller percentage of well prepared mathematics teachers than either the class A high schools or the junior high schools.

The following facts were discovered: (1) 22.03 percent of all the surveyed mathematics teachers had between 1 and 15 quarter hours of college mathematics preparation, (2) 5.22 ...


Teachers' Beliefs And Practices Regarding Homework: An Examination Of The Cognitive Domain Embedded In Third Grade Mathematics Homework, Pandora Dell Bedford May 2014

Teachers' Beliefs And Practices Regarding Homework: An Examination Of The Cognitive Domain Embedded In Third Grade Mathematics Homework, Pandora Dell Bedford

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of third grade math teachers''beliefs and practices regarding homework, to explain how teachers''beliefs and practices regarding homework aligned to the framework of the Revised Bloom's'Taxonomy Cognitive Domain, and to determine the administrative influences on homework practices. The data were collected during October and November 2013. Six third grade math teachers (primary unit of analysis) and four principals (secondary unit of analysis) were interviewed from Dell School District. Each participant (teacher and principal) was interviewed for approximately one hour. A second meeting was set at ...


A Mathematics Curriculum Study In Trigonometric Graphs To Align With The Common Core Standards, Julie M. Howell Apr 2014

A Mathematics Curriculum Study In Trigonometric Graphs To Align With The Common Core Standards, Julie M. Howell

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were written by The National Governors Association (NGA), in collaboration with the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) in 2010, and was adopted by 45 states in an attempt to nationalize the United States curriculum in English and mathematics. Now it is up to the states to implement new curriculum to align to these standards. In the third year of high school mathematics, students are introduced to radian measures and trigonometric functions, and these abstract mathematical topics can be difficult for them to learn. The lesson plans contained within this curriculum project are ...


The Role Of Teachers In Ability-Tracked Mathematics Classrooms, Danyelle M. Doldoorian Apr 2014

The Role Of Teachers In Ability-Tracked Mathematics Classrooms, Danyelle M. Doldoorian

Senior Theses and Projects

Tracking, or ability grouping, is a salient feature of the American education system. As opposed to most studies on tracking which investigate student achievement and student experiences, this study investigates the role of teachers in a tracked curriculum. The goals of this study are to discover how teachers feel about tracking and to understand how teachers operate their classrooms with respect to the different ability groups. I conducted observations of tracked middle and high school mathematics classrooms and directed interviews with the teachers of these tracked classes. I found that teachers alter their language, classroom pace, quality of review, and ...


An Examination Of The Relationship Between Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities In General Education Classrooms And Student Success As Measured By Public School District Graduation Rates, Dropout Rates, And Act Mathematics Performance, Renee Anne Rudloff Feb 2014

An Examination Of The Relationship Between Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities In General Education Classrooms And Student Success As Measured By Public School District Graduation Rates, Dropout Rates, And Act Mathematics Performance, Renee Anne Rudloff

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

The accountability of No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2001) provided assurance that “all children (would) have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging state academic achievement standards and state academic assessments” (Section 1001). According to research, subgroups such as students with disabilities have historically underperformed on state assessments (Darling-Hammond & Rustique-Forrester, 2005; Eckes & Swando, 2009). Measuring their progress holds the school district, teachers, and students accountable for the results, thereby raising expectations, improving teaching, and increasing learning.

In Michigan, students seeking a standard diploma must meet rigorous curriculum standards, which include Algebra I and Algebra II (MDE-MMC, 2012). Additionally, Michigan public school students take a battery of state-mandated assessments, including the ACT in their 11th grade school year. To provide exposure to these courses, students with disabilities are placed in general education classrooms to receive the same instruction as their non-disabled peers (IDEIA, 2004). The term inclusion describes this arrangement, consistent with the terminology stated in Section 612(a) (5) (a) of IDEIA (2004). With graduation tied to rigorous curriculum requirements, high-stakes testing, and greater stipulations to receive a school diploma, engaging students with disabilities at the secondary level through inclusion has become a priority (Bost & Riccomini, 2006; Christenson, & Thurlow, 2004; Johnson, Stout, & Thurlow, 2009; Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2001; Thurlow & Johnson, 2000).

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between the percentage of time students with disabilities spend in general education classrooms and student success. Student success was ...


Proportional Reasoning Unit Correlated To The Common Core State Standards, Yelena Melnichenko Jan 2014

Proportional Reasoning Unit Correlated To The Common Core State Standards, Yelena Melnichenko

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This project showcases the curriculum for the study of proportional reasoning in 7th grade math class aligned to the Common Core State Standards in mathematics. This project also includes the history of the paradigm shift from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), the first set of national standards. How the CCSS, have changed the proportional reasoning unit that is taught in 7th grade will also be presented. The curriculum utilizes the best practices, such as the workshop model, and uses them to address the CCSS. The unit of ...


Number Sense Development During The Preschool Years: Relations Within And Between Key Skill Indicators, Joy C. Polignano Jan 2014

Number Sense Development During The Preschool Years: Relations Within And Between Key Skill Indicators, Joy C. Polignano

Theses and Dissertations

Early numeracy skills are predictive of later mathematics achievement; therefore, technically adequate screening tools are needed to identify young children who may be at risk for developing mathematics difficulties. The Individual Growth and Development Indicators - Early Numeracy (myIGDI-EN) is a curriculum-based measure of four key early numeracy skills: quantity comparison fluency (QCF), oral counting fluency (OCF), one-to-one correspondence counting fluency (OOCCF), and number naming fluency (NNF). MyIGDI-EN yields scores found to be technically adequate at one point in time and sensitive to growth across the preschool year in mixed-age samples of preschool children. However, age-based developmental trajectories of numeracy skills ...


Supporting Middle School Students With Emotional Or Behavioral Disorders In Blended Learning: A Fraction Intervention Using Virtual Manipulatives, Barbara Serianni Jan 2014

Supporting Middle School Students With Emotional Or Behavioral Disorders In Blended Learning: A Fraction Intervention Using Virtual Manipulatives, Barbara Serianni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019

Students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are more likely than other students with disabilities to drop out of school (Blackorby & Wagner, 1996) and suffer societal consequences that include higher probabilities and rates of incarceration, poverty, drug abuse, homelessness, low wages, and unemployment (Bradley, Doolittle, & Bartolotta, 2008; Wagner, 1995). High school graduation is a critical factor to improve post-secondary outcomes for students with EBD; yet it is often mathematics, specifically algebra, that stands in the way of graduation (Blackorby & Wagner). Students with EBD often enter middle school lacking foundational mathematics skills, such as fractions, which sets them up to struggle with pre-algebra and ultimately fail algebra (U.S. Department of Education, 2008). The purpose of this study was to improve the ability of middle school students with EBD to access online grade-level mathematics content by providing fraction remediation to improve conceptual fraction knowledge and procedural fluency. The intervention consisted of Initial Fraction Ideas, an intervention curriculum from the Rational Number Project (RNP; Cramer, Behr, Post, & Lesh, 2009), in conjunction with three online virtual manipulatives (VM). The unique blended learning environment of this study provided the opportunity to evaluate the use of an evidence-based fraction intervention, in conjunction with VMs, in a single subject, multiple baseline across subjects design. Fluency ...


Measuring Student Satisfaction In Online Math Courses, Antoinette M. Davis Jan 2014

Measuring Student Satisfaction In Online Math Courses, Antoinette M. Davis

Theses and Dissertations--Curriculum and Instruction

Colleges and universities worldwide have struggled to find a way to measure student satisfaction in online courses. This study examined the growth of math courses that are delivered in the online format. This study aims to address many gaps in the research literature concerning distance education using technology. In particular, it is the intention of this study to investigate satisfaction and performance of students as a result of taking online courses.

There has been an expanding concern over whether students are satisfied and can perform well in courses taken in an online environment. Satisfaction and performance in distance education have ...


The Effectiveness Of The Flipped Classroom, Raymond Szparagowski Jan 2014

The Effectiveness Of The Flipped Classroom, Raymond Szparagowski

Honors Projects

This research study explores the “flipped” or “inverted” classroom and its effects on student learning. The flipped classroom is a form of education in which students learn new content during out-of-class-time instead of the traditional review exercises that are normally given, which opens up class time for activities, problem solving, and other forms of instruction. During this study, a flipped classroom was implemented in a high school mathematics course. Data was collected from student grades, a pre and post survey, a class interview/discussion, and my personal notes from teaching. My results indicate that some potential benefits of the flipped ...


How Do District Level And Building Level Leaders Collaborate To Implement Mandated Change?, Gwendolyn Zimmermann Jan 2014

How Do District Level And Building Level Leaders Collaborate To Implement Mandated Change?, Gwendolyn Zimmermann

Dissertations

This research study examined how school leaders, in particular the associate superintendent of curriculum and a junior high school principal, in the same district collaborated to plan for and implement mandated change. In this research study, the mandated change was that of the State's adoption of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics.

This study utilized a case study methodology. The case study included one case of an associate superintendent of curriculum for the district and a junior high school principal located in suburban Cook County bounded within the timeframe of August 2012 to October 2013. The district identified ...


Effectiveness Of Technology-Integrated Instruction On High School Students' Mathematic Achievement Scores, Michele Lee Ramsay Jan 2014

Effectiveness Of Technology-Integrated Instruction On High School Students' Mathematic Achievement Scores, Michele Lee Ramsay

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In an effort to improve mathematics retention and increase assessment scores, the public school district under study implemented Study Island into their Grade 9 algebra program. Study Island is a commercialized web-based program, customized to specific state standards and applied as a supplemental instructional tool. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Study Island with general education students and to determine whether the effectiveness of replacing some traditional mathematic instruction with technology was beneficial. The theoretical foundation stemmed from Bloom's work on mastery learning, which holds that children can learn if given the proper environment ...


How Teacher Beliefs About Mathematics Affect Student Beliefs About Mathematics, Kelly Smith Jan 2014

How Teacher Beliefs About Mathematics Affect Student Beliefs About Mathematics, Kelly Smith

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


A Systematic Review Of Research On Successful African American Students In Mathematics: Implications For Seminole High School, Trung Vong Jan 2014

A Systematic Review Of Research On Successful African American Students In Mathematics: Implications For Seminole High School, Trung Vong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019

The purpose of this study was to synthesize the counter-narratives of mathematically successful African American students. The gap in educational achievement between African American and White students is well documented in the United States, especially in mathematics education. Although Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test scores have increased for both groups at Seminole High School, the gap has remained over 30% for nearly a decade. Most research on this topic has focused on the reasons why African American students fail to achieve. Various individual, social, and organizational factors have been suggested. However, a growing body of research has highlighted the stories of ...


An Analysis Of Parent, Student, And Staff Satisfaction With Supplemental Educational Services (Ses) To Improve Student Achievement Among At-Risk High School Students In Failing Schools, Cynthia A. Williams-Lanier Jan 2014

An Analysis Of Parent, Student, And Staff Satisfaction With Supplemental Educational Services (Ses) To Improve Student Achievement Among At-Risk High School Students In Failing Schools, Cynthia A. Williams-Lanier

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine parent, student, administrator, and staff satisfaction with supplemental education services (SES) provided at a small, nonprofit, community-based, African-centered program (Alkebu-lan Village) that focused on improving English language arts and mathematics achievement among at-risk high school students. Alkebu-lan Village, an SES provider, offered an integrated comprehensive program that combined academic tutoring with breakfast and lunch, as well as social and physical activities. A mixed methods study was conducted to determine if participation in a SES (Alkebu-lan Village) improved high school students’ reading and mathematics achievement. Student records were used to obtain the pre ...


Classworks As A Means To Gaining Equity In The General Education Math Classroom: Perceptions Of Students Receiving Special Education Services, Diane Marshall Jan 2014

Classworks As A Means To Gaining Equity In The General Education Math Classroom: Perceptions Of Students Receiving Special Education Services, Diane Marshall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the importance of math steadily increasing, researchers in the field of special education have made efforts to increase the performance of students with disabilities (Fuchs et al., 2008; Gersten, Jordan, & Flojo, 2005). Despite the deficits these students face, the trend has been for many years that most students with disabilities in math receive their instruction in the general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions that students receiving special education services have regarding the effectiveness of Classworks, a computer-assisted instructional program, in helping them gain equity in the general education math classroom. Critical Disability Theory (CDT) provided the theoretical framework for the study. One of the elements important to CDT is giving voice to persons with disabilities. Traditionally, the voices of persons with disabilities have been suppressed and marginalized when the person speaks out against the mainstream views of disability. CDT allows the voices of persons with disabilities to be heard and valued. Critical Pedagogy was a second theoretical framework for this study. Critical Pedagogy seeks to end the oppression and marginalization of specific groups of students. The researcher explored students; perspectives of Classworks through individual interviews and group observations.

This study found that students viewed Classworks as an effective method of improving computational math skills. Students appreciated the immediate feedback and self-paced environment that Classworks provided and reported that these features gave them more confidence in their math skills. Students also reported, however, that these features were not available to them in the general education classroom, causing them to ...