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G74-182 Caring For African Violets, Don Steinegger, John E. Watkins, Anne Vidaver, Frederick P. Baxendale Jan 1974

G74-182 Caring For African Violets, Don Steinegger, John E. Watkins, Anne Vidaver, Frederick P. Baxendale

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

African violets are low, compact plants with attractive dark green, thick, hairy leaves. This NebGuide covers various aspects of caring for them.

The African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) is one of the most satisfactory flowering houseplants. It is a low, compact plant with attractive dark green, thick, hairy leaves. The violet-like flowers are borne in small panicles just above the foliage. Besides various shades of blue-violet, there are also pink, fuschia, and white cultivars (varieties). Newer violets include not only cultivars with single flowers, but also those with semi-double or double rows of petals. Bi-colored flowers and those with a contrasting ...


G74-98 Buying A Center Pivot, John W. Addink Jan 1974

G74-98 Buying A Center Pivot, John W. Addink

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

A center-pivot sprinkler system is a medium cost, low labor irrigation method. A few of these systems have been high cost, high labor irrigation methods. Consideration of a few details in the purchase of the system can help prevent the high cost and/or high labor.

Many different types of systems are available today. Consideration must be given to soil texture and slope of the field to be irrigated with the center-pivot. This publication covers what to look for when purchasing a center-pivot sprinkler system.


G74-165 Understand Your Soil Test: Calcium, Magnesium, Boron, Copper, Chlorine, Molybdenum, Delno Knudsen, K.D. Frank Jan 1974

G74-165 Understand Your Soil Test: Calcium, Magnesium, Boron, Copper, Chlorine, Molybdenum, Delno Knudsen, K.D. Frank

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

It is possible to analyze soil samples for any of the 13 essential elements which plants obtain from the soil. This does not mean that the results obtained can be used to predict adequacy or deficiency for plant growth.

The value obtained from any chemical procedure used to determine each element must be shown to be related to (1) crop response from application of that element (correlation) and (2) the soil test level at which response occurs (calibration). Crop response is usually measured as yield, but may also be a quality factor. Field plot and greenhouse research are used to ...


G74-149 Bloat Prevention And Treatment, Rick Stock, Richard J. Rasby, Duane Rice Jan 1974

G74-149 Bloat Prevention And Treatment, Rick Stock, Richard J. Rasby, Duane Rice

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses the types of bloat which may occur in cattle and methods to prevent and treat bloat.

Bloat is a form of indigestion marked by an excessive accumulation of gas in the rumen. Immediately after cattle consume a meal, the digestive process creates gases in the rumen. Most of the gases are eliminated by eructation (belching). Gases that are trapped and not eructated may form a foam or froth in the rumen which further prevents their elimination. Froth formation can be caused by many factors resulting from interactions between the animal, rumen microorganisms, and differences in plant biochemistry.


G74-154 Mosquito Control Guide (Revised 1974), John B. Campbell, David L. Keith, W. Kramer Jan 1974

G74-154 Mosquito Control Guide (Revised 1974), John B. Campbell, David L. Keith, W. Kramer

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the order Diptera. Although there are some 50 species of mosquitoes in Nebraska, fewer than a dozen are important.

This NebGuide discusses the life cycle, control and impact of mosquitoes common to Nebraska.


G74-142 Harvesting And Preserving Hay Crop Silage, Rick Grant, Rick Stock Jan 1974

G74-142 Harvesting And Preserving Hay Crop Silage, Rick Grant, Rick Stock

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide describes principles of successful hay crop harvest, silage preservation, management techniques to obtain high quality hay crop silage, and proper use of silage storage facilities.

Most hay (legume and grass) crops can be ensiled, or made into silage, successfully. For best feeding value and preservation, consider the special requirements for ensiling each crop.

Hays to be ensiled should be selected on the basis of economics. Which are the most profitable for supplying nutrients? For example, legumes have a relatively higher value for dairy herds than for beef finishing operations because of dairy cows' higher requirement for protein.


G74-170 Nitrates In Livestock Feeding, Richard J. Rasby, Rick Stock, Bruce Anderson, Norman R. Schneider Jan 1974

G74-170 Nitrates In Livestock Feeding, Richard J. Rasby, Rick Stock, Bruce Anderson, Norman R. Schneider

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide describes symptoms, causes, prevention and treatment of nitrate poisoning in livestock.

Nitrate poisoning in cattle occurred long before the use of nitrogen fertilizers. In the late 1800s there were reports of cornstalk poisoning in Nebraska, and nitrate poisoning from oat hay in North and South Dakota and from weeds in the high-organic matter soils in Florida and Wisconsin.

Nitrate concentrations in feeds for livestock depends more on plant species and environmental conditions prior to harvest than on the amount of available nitrogen in the soil.


G74-157 Foot Rot, Don Hudson Jan 1974

G74-157 Foot Rot, Don Hudson

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Foot rot (necrotic pododermatitis, foul foot) can be a very annoying problem. Once started in a herd and "seeded" in the soil, it may persist for quite a long time. Although the incidence of foot rot may not be high at any one time, it requires constant observation to prevent serious economic loss.

The bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum has been reported to cause foot rot. However, researchers have not been able to reproduce typical foot rot lesions with this organism.

Recent research at the University of Missouri indicates that a combination of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus are the predominant bacteria ...


G74-100 Feeding High Moisture Corn, Terry L. Mader, Paul Q. Guyer, Rick Stock Jan 1974

G74-100 Feeding High Moisture Corn, Terry L. Mader, Paul Q. Guyer, Rick Stock

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

In recent years the use of high moisture grain has become more popular due to the increased costs of handling and dry feed grains. For cattle feeders in particular, storing grains as high moisture is one practice that can improve their competitive position and reduce costs. Using high moisture grains allows greater opportunity to design a system that will minimize harvest, storage and feed processing costs.

Grains such as sorghum and wheat have been stored as high moisture, but corn is the principal high moisture grain stored. High moisture corn can be processed and stored as whole shelled corn, ground ...


G74-136 Grain Sorghum Processing For Beef Cattle, Rick Stock, Terry L. Mader Jan 1974

G74-136 Grain Sorghum Processing For Beef Cattle, Rick Stock, Terry L. Mader

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses the feeding value of grain sorghum relative to corn and various grain processing methods for grain sorghum.

It has been widely recognized that grain sorghum (milo) must be processed to be efficiently used by finishing cattle. Grain sorghum shows more improved utilization from processing than corn, wheat and barley. Dry ground or rolled grain sorghum has a relative feeding value of 85% to 95% (avg 90%) of dry rolled corn. Processing grain sorghum by more sophisticated methods (early harvesting, steam-flaking, etc.) greatly enhances its feeding value.

Chemical composition suggests that there should be less difference in the ...


G74-187 Care Of Cactus In The Home, Dale T. Lindgren Jan 1974

G74-187 Care Of Cactus In The Home, Dale T. Lindgren

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

The care and propagation of cacti is featured in this NebGuide. A special section on Christmas cactus is included.

Cacti are among the most fascinating groups of indoor plants. Often described as arid desert plants, they also are found in forests and on prairies. In Nebraska several native species of cactus intermingle with prairie grasses.


G74-186 Cannas, Donald E. Janssen, Don Steinegger Jan 1974

G74-186 Cannas, Donald E. Janssen, Don Steinegger

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Cannas are quick growing, vigorous ornamental plants with heavy foliage and large flowers.

Flower colors range from dark red to light green. Leaf colors can be reddish-purple, bronze or green. They are used most effectively for bedding plants in public parks and larger home grounds where they can be planted in front of taller shrubbery and viewed from a distance. Their vigor and size make them less desirable for planting in restricted areas.


G74-189 Growing Dahlias, Don Steinegger, John E. Watkins, Frederick P. Baxendale Jan 1974

G74-189 Growing Dahlias, Don Steinegger, John E. Watkins, Frederick P. Baxendale

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Propagation, culture, diseases, and insects of dahlias are covered here.

The dahlia is a versatile flowering plant, providing a wide array of sizes, forms and colors. Flowers range from half-inch pompons to giants. Flower forms vary from daisy-shaped singles to fully double types with intermediate forms, such as anemone.

Dahlia cultivars which flower the first year from seed are referred to as annuals. Many of these annuals form tuberous roots the first year. These tuberous roots can be saved for use next year.


G74-188 Amaryllis Culture, Don Steinegger, John E. Watkins Jan 1974

G74-188 Amaryllis Culture, Don Steinegger, John E. Watkins

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

The hybrid amaryllis (Hippeastrum) is a tender bulb easily grown in pots. Amaryllis is prized for its huge showy flowers ranging from scarlet or crimson to white in color, and often striped or mottled.

Amaryllis can be grown outdoors throughout the year in mild climates, but must be grown indoors in Nebraska except during the warm summer months. Amaryllis is prized for its huge showy flowers ranging from scarlet or crimson to white in color, and often striped or mottled. Most amaryllis are Dutch or African hybrids selected for flower size, color and ease of forcing. The usual flowering season ...


G74-121 Sandbur Control In Field Corn (Revised January 1999), Gail A. Wicks, Robert G. Wilson Jr. Jan 1974

G74-121 Sandbur Control In Field Corn (Revised January 1999), Gail A. Wicks, Robert G. Wilson Jr.

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Sandbur can be a major weed problem in cornfields if not properly controlled. This NebGuide discusses mechanical and chemical alternatives for controlling sandbur.

Sandbur is a problem weed on coarse to fine-textured soil. The North Platte Valley, southwest and west central Nebraska, and the Sandhills are areas in the state where sandbur is a major weed problem in corn. Sandbur seldom becomes a primary weed problem in eastern Nebraska. Both field (Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.) and longspine [Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fern.] sandbur grow in Nebraska.


G74-117 Alfalfa In Swine Diets (Revised November 1988), Duane Reese, D. Murray Danielson Jan 1974

G74-117 Alfalfa In Swine Diets (Revised November 1988), Duane Reese, D. Murray Danielson

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Nebraska ranks first in dehydrated alfalfa meal and seventh in alfalfa hay production in the United States, with production in all counties of the state. With this availability of alfalfa, its use in swine diets should be considered.

The performance and economic considerations of alfalfa in swine diets are detailed here, and information on mixing diets is provided.


G74-149 Bloat Prevention And Treatment (Revised July 1996), Dale Grotelueschen, Richard J. Rasby, Don Hudson, Bruce Anderson Jan 1974

G74-149 Bloat Prevention And Treatment (Revised July 1996), Dale Grotelueschen, Richard J. Rasby, Don Hudson, Bruce Anderson

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Bloat is a form of indigestion marked by an excessive accumulation of gas in the rumen. Immediately after cattle consume a meal, the digestive process creates gases in the rumen. Most of the gases are eliminated by eructation (belching). Any interruption of this normal gas elimination results in gas accumulation or bloat.

This NebGuide discusses the types of bloat which may occur in cattle and methods to prevent and treat bloat.


G74-125 Oats In Swine Diets (Revised December 1981), Ernest R. Peo, Donald B. Hudman, Mike Brumm Jan 1974

G74-125 Oats In Swine Diets (Revised December 1981), Ernest R. Peo, Donald B. Hudman, Mike Brumm

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Oats are not considered a standard feed grain in swine diets in Nebraska because of the small acreage planted. However, oats can be used by all ages of swine with some limitations. The feeding value of oats is 80 percent that of corn. With proper formulation, limiting the amount of oats in diets will cause no reduction in swine performance. The nutritive content of a feed grain is the primary factor in determining its use. This NebGuide discusses the processing of oats for swine diets, gestation diets, lactating diets, starter diets, and growing-finishing diet.


G74-123 Weed Control In Reduced Tillage Corn (Revised May 1982), Russell Moomaw, Alex Martin, David P. Shelton Jan 1974

G74-123 Weed Control In Reduced Tillage Corn (Revised May 1982), Russell Moomaw, Alex Martin, David P. Shelton

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Weeds compete with corn plants for water, nutrients and light. Historically, the soil has been extensively tilled to prepare a seedbed and to lessen or remove weed competition. This tillage centered around moldboard plowing.

Results of a recent survey indicate that most Nebraska farmers now use some form of reduced tillage, with the moldboard plow being used on only 11 percent of Nebraska's corn acreage. Reduced tillage is used in many forms.

This NebGuide discusses how to control weeds using the different types of tillage systems.


G74-170 Nitrates In Livestock Feeding (Revised July 1996), Richard J. Rasby, Bruce Anderson, Norman Schneider Jan 1974

G74-170 Nitrates In Livestock Feeding (Revised July 1996), Richard J. Rasby, Bruce Anderson, Norman Schneider

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Most forages contain some nitrates. When feeds containing nitrates are consumed by ruminants, nitrates are changed in the rumen to ammonia that is then converted by bacteria in the rumen into microbial protein. Nitrates are not always toxic to animals.

This NebGuide describes signs, causes, prevention and treatment of nitrate poisoning in livestock.


G74-154 Mosquito Control Guide (Revised August 1983), John B. Campbell Jan 1974

G74-154 Mosquito Control Guide (Revised August 1983), John B. Campbell

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

The annoying bite of the mosquito not only interferes with human work and leisure time but may also transmit encephalitis. Persisent mosquito attacks on catttle can cause weight loss and force cattle out of river pastures.

The life cycle, control, and impact of mosquitoes common in Nebraska are discussed.


G74-113 A Quick Test For Atrazine Carryover (Revised March 1989), Alex Martin, R.N. Stougaard, Patrick J. Shea Jan 1974

G74-113 A Quick Test For Atrazine Carryover (Revised March 1989), Alex Martin, R.N. Stougaard, Patrick J. Shea

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

How can you tell if you have atrazine carryover in your fields? Plants grown in soil samples can tell.

Residues of atrazine may remain in the soil and affect some susceptible crops the next year. Crops most often affected include soybeans, field beans, sugarbeets, alfalfa, oats, wheat and many broadleaf horticultural crops.

Attempts to predict the extent of carryover and damage to sensitive crops the year following atrazine use have been only partially successful. The rate of atrazine disappearance and, therefore, the amount remaining the next year, is affected by soil texture, pH and organic matter content, as well as ...


G74-171 Summer Annual Forage Grasses (Revised January 1986), Bruce Anderson, Paul Guyer Jan 1974

G74-171 Summer Annual Forage Grasses (Revised January 1986), Bruce Anderson, Paul Guyer

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses production practices, methods of use, and precautions for using summer annual grasses.

Summer annual grasses are used for summer pasture, green chop, hay, silage, and winter pasture. They are often used as sources of emergency forage. In addition, residues of summer annuals make an excellent seedbed mulch for new stands of perennial grass, particularly on sands.

The summer annual grasses most often used for forage in Nebraska are sudangrass, hybrid sudangrass, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids, and forage sorghums. Foxtail millet and pearl millet are used occasionally. Each of these grasses has unique growth characteristics that require proper management for ...


Ec74-219 1974 Nebraska Swine Report, Larry L. Bitney, Bobby D. Moser, Murray Danielson, P.J. Cunningham, D.R. Zimmerman, Keith E. Gilster, Ronald K. Christsenson, Roger W. Mandigo, K.L. Neer, M.S. Chesney, G.R. Popenhagen, R. Gene White, Alex Hogg, William Ahlschwede, E.R. Peo Jr, R.D. Schnieder, James A. Deshazer, L.F. Elliott, R. D. Fritschen Jan 1974

Ec74-219 1974 Nebraska Swine Report, Larry L. Bitney, Bobby D. Moser, Murray Danielson, P.J. Cunningham, D.R. Zimmerman, Keith E. Gilster, Ronald K. Christsenson, Roger W. Mandigo, K.L. Neer, M.S. Chesney, G.R. Popenhagen, R. Gene White, Alex Hogg, William Ahlschwede, E.R. Peo Jr, R.D. Schnieder, James A. Deshazer, L.F. Elliott, R. D. Fritschen

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This 1974 Nebraska Swine Report was prepared by the staff in Animal Science and cooperating departments for use in the Extension and Teaching programs at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Authors from the following areas contributed to this publication: Swine Nutrition, swine diseases, pathology, economics, engineering, swine breeding, meats, agronomy, and diagnostic laboratory. It covers the following areas: breeding, disease control, feeding, nutrition, economics, housing and meats.


G74-131 No-Till Corn In Alfalfa Sod, Alex R. Martin, Russell S. Moomaw Jan 1974

G74-131 No-Till Corn In Alfalfa Sod, Alex R. Martin, Russell S. Moomaw

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Nebraska produces about 1,740,000 acres of alfalfa annually. Corn or grain sorghum usually follows alfalfa in the crop rotation. The moldboard plow or chisel plow are commonly used to break up alfalfa sod for corn planting. The plow is a high consumer of energy, requiring about 2.25 gallons of diesel fuel per acre.

Research conducted in Nebraska has been used to develop a system in which the alfalfa is killed with herbicides and corn is planted directly into the sod without tillage. Plowing is eliminated and energy requirements can be reduced to about 1/4 that used ...


G74-166 Creep Feeding Beef Calves, Richard J. Rasby, Ivan G. Rush, James A. Gosey Jan 1974

G74-166 Creep Feeding Beef Calves, Richard J. Rasby, Ivan G. Rush, James A. Gosey

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Effects of creep feeding calves are covered here. Gross income of the cow/calf enterprise is partially dependent on weaning weight of the calves. Three possible non-genetic ways of increasing calf weaning weight are to increase milk production of the dam, increase forage consumption of the calf, or provide supplemental feed to the calf to increase nutrient intake. Management practices exist to increase standing forage quality, but management of that grass for the calf only is difficult. Likewise, increasing milk production of the dam requires greater feed inputs and possibly supplemental feed. Creep feeding studies consistently have shown an increase ...


G74-202 Wheat Soil-Borne Mosaic Disease (Revised October 2001), John E. Watkins Jan 1974

G74-202 Wheat Soil-Borne Mosaic Disease (Revised October 2001), John E. Watkins

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Host range, symptoms, disease cycle, and control options for wheat soil-borne mosaic disease are discussed.

Wheat soil-borne mosaic virus affects wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing primarily in central, eastern and west central Nebraska. This disease occurs annually; however, its effect on crop production in Nebraska varies from year to year due to variety selection, cropping practices and environmental conditions favoring disease development. In years when spring temperatures remain cool for extended periods, the virus remains active in infected plants, enhancing symptom development and increasing yield loss. The virus reduces tillering and affects kernel weights and test weights.


G74-108 Wilts Of Cucurbits (Revised October 1994), James R. Steadman, David L. Keith, Laurie Hodges Jan 1974

G74-108 Wilts Of Cucurbits (Revised October 1994), James R. Steadman, David L. Keith, Laurie Hodges

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Discussion covers the symptoms, disease cycles, and control measures for bacterial and Fusarium wilts of cucurbits, including cucumbers, cantaloupe, watermelons, squash, and pumpkins. Wilt caused by squash vine borer also is covered.


G74-93 Dry Bean, Sugarbeet Insect Control (Revised October 1980), Arthur F. Hagen Jan 1974

G74-93 Dry Bean, Sugarbeet Insect Control (Revised October 1980), Arthur F. Hagen

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

The success and usefulness of the control measures mentioned in this guide will vary due to methods of application, climatic conditions, and other factors. These recommendations are presented for the benefit of Nebraska farmers. Insecticides should be used with caution and labels should be of recent date. Information in this guide is based on University of Nebraska research results, USDA recommendations and label registrations.


G74-154 Mosquito Control Guide (Revised March 1996), John B. Campbell, David L. Keith, W. Kramer Jan 1974

G74-154 Mosquito Control Guide (Revised March 1996), John B. Campbell, David L. Keith, W. Kramer

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the order Diptera, the same one as flies. Worldwide there are over 3,000 species of mosquitoes, 150 of which are found in the United States. In Nebraska there are fewer than a dozen important species. Distribution of mosquitoes ranges from the Arctic to the Tropical Rain Forests.

The life cycle, control, and impact of mosquitoes common to Nebraska are discussed.