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University of Northern Iowa

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Graduate Research Papers

Psychology

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The Attitudes Of Typically Developing Young Children Toward Their Peers With Disabilities : A Review Of The Literature, Sara Elizabeth Kayser Jan 2016

The Attitudes Of Typically Developing Young Children Toward Their Peers With Disabilities : A Review Of The Literature, Sara Elizabeth Kayser

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on young children's attitudes toward their peers with disabilities and its impact on the social interactions between typically developing preschoolers and their peers with disabilities. A three-step search and selection process resulted in eleven studies to be reviewed. The findings in these studies are presented around the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of attitude formation. Results indicate that while typically developing young children have a simple understanding of disabilities and state their intention to play with and include peers with disabilities they are significantly less likely to play and ...


Teaching Perfectionism Through Cartoons Compared To Bibliotherapy For Primary Grade Students, Miranda L. Zousel Jan 2012

Teaching Perfectionism Through Cartoons Compared To Bibliotherapy For Primary Grade Students, Miranda L. Zousel

Graduate Research Papers

Many students, especially high achievers, develop perfectionist tendencies during early childhood. It is important to teach students early to manage their perfectionism to avoid many negative consequences of neurotic perfectionism such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, procrastination , or underachievement, and to avoid entrenchment of behaviors. Traditionally, bibliotherapy and role-play have been used to help students recognize perfectionistic traits and learn strategies for ameliorating negative effects. But cartoon analysis is another potentially useful approach.

This pretest-posttest control group - experimental group design study of first, second and third graders (n = 46) compared concept acquisition and enjoyment of learning about perfectionism under two ...


Using Positive Behavior Instructional Support (Pbis) In Early Childhood, Megan Merkel Jan 2012

Using Positive Behavior Instructional Support (Pbis) In Early Childhood, Megan Merkel

Graduate Research Papers

Challenging behaviors in early childhood education are becoming recognized as a serious barrier to social-emotional development and an indication of severe maladjustment in school and adult life. Educational professionals have been seeking to define, elaborate, and improve on existing knowledge related to the prevention and resolution of young children's challenging behaviors. The current literature review was conducted to describe the relationship between children's challenging behavior and implementing Positive Behavior Instructional Support (PBIS) and Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) in early childhood classrooms and programs. In addition, this review presents conclusions, recommendations, suggested educational policies, and needed future research.


Exercise Intervention, Thomas Earl Loney Jan 2010

Exercise Intervention, Thomas Earl Loney

Graduate Research Papers

Depression is a major cause of hardship in the U.S., both in terms of individual mental health and cost of treatment. Exercise and physical activity presents a low-cost alternative to achieve the same positive alleviation of depressive symptoms as medications and psychotherapy. There is a large body of research linking exercise to an increase in positive emotions, as well as a range of other benefits.

This paper will discuss some reasons counselors may consider exercise intervention for clients suffering from clinical depression, describe the use of this intervention, as well as leading theories explaining the mechanics behind the emotionally ...


Attachment And The Schools, Jennifer N. Allan Jan 2009

Attachment And The Schools, Jennifer N. Allan

Graduate Research Papers

In order to be effective workers in the schools, school staff members must be able to form some sort of relationship with individual students. The ability of students to form relationships depends upon the attachments they have formed with their caretakers. The purpose of this literature review was to explore different types of attachment, interventions that can be used with students who have attachment issues, and how attachment can affect schools all of which are given from. the perspective of a school counselor. The literature review investigates and summarizes the impact both healthy and unhealthy attachment has on a student ...


Applications For Parent-Child Relationship Concerns, Christy A. F. Jenkins Jan 2009

Applications For Parent-Child Relationship Concerns, Christy A. F. Jenkins

Graduate Research Papers

The parent-child relationship is the foundation for formative life experiences and is a common diagnosable concern in the professional counseling and human service field. This work briefly addresses the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis V 61.20 Parent Child Relational Problem, providing prevalence rates, and related risks as well as two specific intervention strategics. Intervention strategies include the use of temperament traits and the communication of love between individuals. A handout follows the text of this work which may be used with clients.


Reactive Attachment Disorder, Kalen J. Espy Jan 2009

Reactive Attachment Disorder, Kalen J. Espy

Graduate Research Papers

Reactive Attachment Disorder, or RAD, has several possible causes usually stemming from traumatic childhood events. The attachment disorders were initially explored in 1948 by John Bowlby which led to the attachment theory being established in the 1960's. Attachment is the bond a child makes with other human beings, allowing for a healthy emotional and psychological growth. Attachment is developed primarily from birth to two years of age and up to the age of five.

There are four attachment styles and four phases that a child must go through to develop a healthy attachment to a caregiver. A child who ...


Creating An Accessible Child Development Resource For Family Home Child Care Providers Focusing On Child-Initiated Play, Paula Buck Jan 2009

Creating An Accessible Child Development Resource For Family Home Child Care Providers Focusing On Child-Initiated Play, Paula Buck

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this project was to create a newsletter for family home child care providers that presented easy-to-read, research based information regarding child-initiated play and developmentally appropriate practices and their incorporation in a family child care setting. The newsletter also addressed the need for creating and maintaining a balance between offering child-initiated opportunities and providing structure in a family child care setting.

A review of the literature revealed that nearly half of family home child care providers have no specialized training in the field of child care, child development, or early childhood education. Caregiver education and training is a ...


Social Phobia, Sarah S. Cosley Jan 2009

Social Phobia, Sarah S. Cosley

Graduate Research Papers

Social phobia is a common diagnosis for people of all ages. In the United States alone millions of people suffer from Social Phobia. People who suffer from social phobia can have problems in many areas of their life including: work, school, relationships, and daily functioning. Symptoms associated with social phobia can range from general fears to specific fears. A discussion of the definition of social phobia, symptoms, treatment, and application will be explored in the following paper.


Aspergers Syndrome, Miquel K. Anastasi Jan 2009

Aspergers Syndrome, Miquel K. Anastasi

Graduate Research Papers

Aspergers Syndrome has recently become a "popular" topic in the mental health fields. More and more school aged children are being formally diagnosed with the disorder. Yet, many professionals do not truly understand the nature of Aspergers syndrome beyond being a form of autism. In this paper Aspergers Syndrome is defined and compared with Autism and the causes and possible treatments are discussed, particularly from biological and sociocultural points of view.


Grief And Loss : The Effects On Children And The School Counselor's Role, Hope Nicole Bleckwehl Jan 2008

Grief And Loss : The Effects On Children And The School Counselor's Role, Hope Nicole Bleckwehl

Graduate Research Papers

School counselors may play a major role in the lives of grieving children. It is inevitable counselors will work with children having grieving issues. Children do grieve and their grieving process may look the same or different than adults. Children's experiences with death, developmental level, and individual differences all effect how a child will react to the loss of a loved one or a pet. The grieving process, developmental considerations, gender differences and common sources of loss are discussed in the following paper. Interventions a school counselor may use with children in classroom guidance, group counseling, and individual counseling ...


Growing Epidemic Of Videogame Addiction, Christopher S. Hager Jan 2008

Growing Epidemic Of Videogame Addiction, Christopher S. Hager

Graduate Research Papers

Videogames are rapidly becoming more popular with children and adults alike. Ever since the mid 1980s, videogames have been a major part of pop culture and a widely accepted form of entertainment. With more advances of technology and internet, online gaming has also evolved. Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games such as Everquest and World of Warcraft have become a topic of addiction (msnbc.com, 2008). Some individuals have neglected jobs, families, and personal well-being to continue to play these games, with signs of addiction mimicking substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association is even considering involving videogame addiction as a ...


How Poverty Affects Social Development, Behavior, And Academics Of Children : How Can School Personnel Help?, Jessica Holm-Blackburn Jan 2008

How Poverty Affects Social Development, Behavior, And Academics Of Children : How Can School Personnel Help?, Jessica Holm-Blackburn

Graduate Research Papers

This paper discusses how poverty affects the social development, behavior, and academics of children. It also provides information to professionals who work with children to explain how children in poverty may demonstrate increased behavioral and emotional problems. Additionally, it explores what school personnel can do to help improve outcomes for students in poverty. A case example of a partnership created in Georgia is utilized to help articulate these concepts. The sources cited are all from recent published literature.


"Feelin' Blue, Oh What To Do?": Coping With Negative Emotions, Jana L. Brinkman Jan 2007

"Feelin' Blue, Oh What To Do?": Coping With Negative Emotions, Jana L. Brinkman

Graduate Research Papers

Over the past five years I have had the opportunity to work with children and youth, ages birth to eighteen, in a variety of environments. The settings in which I have interacted with children include nonprofit agency environments, after school programs, church environments, parks and recreation programs, individual and small group counseling sessions, classroom guidance settings, and home environments. My own observations and experiences along with those of parents, school staff, university faculty, fellow undergraduate and graduate students, and co-workers have supported my conclusion that children from early childhood to high school youth struggle with knowing how to appropriately respond ...


Sandplay With Children In The School Setting, Sophie I. Banwarth Jan 2007

Sandplay With Children In The School Setting, Sophie I. Banwarth

Graduate Research Papers

Sandplay therapy, developed by Margaret Lowenfeld, is a technique where children choose miniature objects to place in a sand tray to create a concrete representation of their internal struggles. The counselor's role is to create a safe and protected environment and does not impose personal suggestions or ideas. The counselor can choose to facilitate different types of sandplay with a child: directed, nondirected, static, moving, or interactive. Sandplay therapy offers techniques such as hide and seek, family sand trays, mazes, and self-figures. Sandplay therapy is effective with children in the school setting. Teachers report that students return to class ...


Abuse And Dissociation Disorder, Myrtle Godfrey Jan 2007

Abuse And Dissociation Disorder, Myrtle Godfrey

Graduate Research Papers

Child sexual abuse is widely regarded as a cause of mental problems in adult life. The damage inflicted by child sexual abuse.has an affect on the child's capacity to develop trust, intimacy and sexuality. Sexually abused children not only encounter assaults on their developing sense of sexual identity, but a blow to their interpretation of the world as a safe environment, and their developing sense of others as trustworthy. In addition, childhood sexual abuse is correlated with higher levels of dissociation. (Fleming, J. & Mullen, P. E., 1998). Of the victims that were abused by someone with whom he ...


Building Relationships To Support Self-Regulation, Sherice Hetrick-Ortman Jan 2007

Building Relationships To Support Self-Regulation, Sherice Hetrick-Ortman

Graduate Research Papers

Discouraged students come to school unable to learn. Emotional and social factors affect their intrapersonal and interpersonal awareness and place them at high risk for school failure. This paper discusses the application of strategies influenced by; sociomoral atmosphere, trust development, self regulation, emotional intelligence, attachment theory, and cultural awareness.

The research addresses the question: Will emotionally discouraged children be able to regulate their emotions through positive relationship building with the classroom teacher? The results contribute to our knowledge of how to support children's ability to regulate themselves in the absence of external devices.


Exercise : Nature's Defense Against Depression And Anxiety, Holly A. Dorenkamp Jan 2007

Exercise : Nature's Defense Against Depression And Anxiety, Holly A. Dorenkamp

Graduate Research Papers

Exercise and mental health is a relatively new area of study within health care and mental health disciplines. Whereas many mental health professionals focus on the mental status of clients, research suggests that physical health, exercise in particular, has a positive impact on mental health and well-being. Currently, typical treatment approaches lean toward psychotropic medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, mental health issues such as depression and anxiety are becoming so widespread that other effective and affordable treatment approaches and options are greatly needed and vital to the overall mental health of society. Utilizing exercise in the treatment ...


Dealing With Grief And Depression Issues In Schools, Nykole L. Conrad Jan 2007

Dealing With Grief And Depression Issues In Schools, Nykole L. Conrad

Graduate Research Papers

Grief is an obstacle that every child and adolescent experiences at some point. Grief can cause or worsen depressive states. The number of children and adolescents that experience grief related depression has been rising at an alarming rate for the past few decades. Studies show that the frequency of grief and associated depression increases progressively from preschool years through adolescence. Approximately 5% of all adolescents are affected by depression. Grief is not the only cause of depression; however, grief related depression is an issue that warrants notice. It is important that school staff members are aware of the signs and ...


Introversion : Relationship With Mental Well-Being, Elizabeth A. Balder Jan 2007

Introversion : Relationship With Mental Well-Being, Elizabeth A. Balder

Graduate Research Papers

This paper explores connections between introversion and decreased mental well-being. The author sought to discover whether introverts are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than extroverts. Overall findings show introverts are more vulnerable than extroverts to depression and decreased mental well-being. Introverts are more likely to be compliant and have lower self-esteem than extroverts, and also have less social support than extroverts, which can be detrimental when experiencing depression. Western culture gives preference to extroverted individuals, which pressures introverts to attempt to change their personalities.


Implementing Bibliotherapy: Noah & Friends, Ryan Ealy Jan 2006

Implementing Bibliotherapy: Noah & Friends, Ryan Ealy

Graduate Research Papers

For this project, I have decided to write a series of short stories. It is titled Noah and Friends. These stories will teach students about diversity, peer pressure, and role models. Reading stories can be used as a great therapeutic tool as well a unique way to teach and a fun way for students to learn. Through reading stories students can learn about themselves through characters in books that are dealing with conflicts similar to what they are currently experiencing. This allows them to gain insight about their problems as well as learn different solutions they could try to solve ...


Working With Children Suffering From Abuse And Neglect, Shalon L. Frye Jan 2006

Working With Children Suffering From Abuse And Neglect, Shalon L. Frye

Graduate Research Papers

This paper examines the history of advocacy for the rights and safety of children suffering from abuse and neglect in the United States and more specifically in the state of Iowa. It looks at statistical data concerning the incidence of child abuse and its correlation to age and ability level. It addresses the developmental, psychological, emotional, and physical effects of child abuse. This paper also outlines the role of the school counselor in helping children who are victims of abuse and neglect, as well as gives interventions that may be used to assist this population.


Nebbe's Nature Nest : A Summary Of An Animal Assisted Therapy Camp, Trisha L. Ames Jan 2006

Nebbe's Nature Nest : A Summary Of An Animal Assisted Therapy Camp, Trisha L. Ames

Graduate Research Papers

Two graduate students conducted a small animal assisted therapy camp. The main goal for this camp was to enhance and promote the campers' socialization skills and self-esteem through the use of animal assisted therapy. Two pre and post measurement scales were used to evaluate the children's loneliness and self-concept. The campers participated in a one-week camp lasting approximately three hours a day. To meet desired lesson goals, the campers engaged in direct animal contact and specific animal assisted activities. The following is a complete description and reaction to the animal assisted therapy camp led by Trisha (Hobbiebrunken) Ames, Nicole ...


Play Therapy With Victims Of Child Abuse, Annie E. Jessen Jan 2006

Play Therapy With Victims Of Child Abuse, Annie E. Jessen

Graduate Research Papers

Child abuse is a very serious issue around the world. An estimated 906,000 children were determined to be victims of child abuse or neglect in the United States in 2003. Child fatalities are the most tragic consequence of maltreatment. Play therapy provides children with the ideal environment where they feel safe and they may experience their feelings without restriction.

Oftentimes play allows children to distance themselves from experiences that are quite painful if expressed directly to a therapist. When assessing the needs of children, it is important for play therapists to assess the phenomenological impact of the abuse, the ...


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder In Children And Adolescents, Mary R. Driscoll Jan 2006

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder In Children And Adolescents, Mary R. Driscoll

Graduate Research Papers

Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents has only been researched for the past fifteen to twenty years. Despite the estimates from state and local child protective services that approximately 896,000 children were victims of child abuse or neglect in 2002 (National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect, 2002), the vast majority of research and techniques used in the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents has stemmed from research focused on adults. This report will provide a summary of current perspectives on the definition, assessment, and treatment of PTSD in adolescents.


A Solution-Focused Approach To School Counseling, Holly Dawn Honey Jan 2006

A Solution-Focused Approach To School Counseling, Holly Dawn Honey

Graduate Research Papers

Solution-focused brief therapy has only recently been discovered as an effective counseling strategy in a school setting based on its time-limited, positive approach to work with students. Though this approach has not been researched in depth, there have been several studies documenting its effectiveness with school age children. This paper will provide an overall view of solution-focused brief therapy as well as some specific techniques for all levels of school counseling.


The Effects Of Emotional Intelligence In Everyday Life : What Counselors Can Do To Reinforce E.I. In Couples Counselings, Bridget M. Bencke Jan 2006

The Effects Of Emotional Intelligence In Everyday Life : What Counselors Can Do To Reinforce E.I. In Couples Counselings, Bridget M. Bencke

Graduate Research Papers

This paper will explore the aspects that make up emotional intelligence, compare IQ to EQ, and explain how emotional intelligence plays a role in the schools and in the workplace. This paper will identify how counselors can guide and support couples to recognize their feelings and develop healthy relationships with their spouses. Although techniques involving emotional intelligence skills are important for clients in individual sessions, there has been further research done with couples regarding therapy work and EI (Goleman, 1995). Therefore, this paper will focus on "emotional intelligence in couples" counselors, but will touch on EI in the schools and ...


The Implications Of Anger And School Violence, Ronda Hilbert Jan 2005

The Implications Of Anger And School Violence, Ronda Hilbert

Graduate Research Papers

A series of highly publicized school shootings in the Untied States generated the misperception of an epidemic of school violence. Fears of school violence stimulated an ill-advised expansion of zero tolerance school discipline policies and the widespread distribution of profiles or warning signs of potentially dangerous students for use by school administrators. This paper presents that little is known about student threats of violence, although students in special education tend to commit disciplinary violations at a higher rate than regular education students according to some studies. Threats of violence pose a dilemma for educators, who must balance federal requirements, the ...


Play Therapy, Melissa A. Hardman Jan 2005

Play Therapy, Melissa A. Hardman

Graduate Research Papers

Play therapy techniques are valuable tools for a variety of professionals who work with children. One need not be a registered play therapist to implement play techniques when working with child clients. There are many types of clients that would benefit from play therapy. There are several different theoretical approaches, but the researcher chose to focus on Adlerian Play Therapy, Client-Centered Play Therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy, and Psychodynamic Play Therapy. The paper considers the best location to implement play techniques, by urging the counselor to be aware of the setting's location within the building, ease of cleaning, available space ...


Overview Of Attachment Disorder And Effective Treatments For Children, Kathryn H. Hedican Jan 2005

Overview Of Attachment Disorder And Effective Treatments For Children, Kathryn H. Hedican

Graduate Research Papers

When children experience extreme chronic trauma as a result of the effects of the disruption of healthy attachment patterns, a disorder known as Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) can develop. The importance for mental health counselors to understand the etiology of RAD cannot be overemphasized. Symptoms most often associated with this disorder include the inability to trust, failure to develop intimate relationships, or show affection, lack of self-confidence, low self-esteem, and anti-social behaviors and attitudes (Levy & Orlans, 1998 as cited in Sheperis, Renfro-Michel, & Doggett, 2003). Highlighting the foundational work of Erikson, Harlow, Bowlby, and Ainsworth includes a brief overview of research ...