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2016

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Study Skills Self Monitoring For Adolescents With Adhd, Rachel Michelle Lesse Dec 2016

Study Skills Self Monitoring For Adolescents With Adhd, Rachel Michelle Lesse

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to see how self-monitoring affected academic progress among high school aged students with ADHD. Students were monitored throughout their study skills class period, where they learned to monitor themselves by assessing a variety of factors, such as personal grades, missing assignments, and personal reflection. Of the three students monitored, two increased grades in most of their academic subjects, and all increased their homework production post intervention. The study did not go without various limitations, however future implications are discussed as to the importance of this study.


Online Versus On-Ground: Student Outcomes And The Influence Of Student Engagement In A College Success Course, Theresa Elizabeth Orosz Dec 2016

Online Versus On-Ground: Student Outcomes And The Influence Of Student Engagement In A College Success Course, Theresa Elizabeth Orosz

Theses and Dissertations

Online course enrollments are growing despite concerns about higher withdrawal rates and lower persistence rates, academic performance, and levels of engagement (Bambara, Harbour, Davies, & Athey, 2009; Blackner, 2000; Jaggars & Xu, 2010; Xu & Jaggars, 2011). College success courses, which are meant to bolster new students' academic skills and foster engagement, are being offered online, placing academically inexperienced students in a high risk learning environment. This mixed methods study sought to understand the experience of community college students enrolled in online and on-ground sections of a college success course and how engagement may have influenced their outcomes. Despite similarly optimistic outlooks about course learning outcomes achievement, online students fared significantly worse than their on-ground peers in terms of final exam grades, overall course grades, and term GPA. While course abandonment occurred in the online sections, withdrawal and persistence rates were not significantly different; however more online students returned in the next semester on a part time basis. For both groups of students, academic engagement exceeded social engagement, as time and technology impacted their approach to the course. The challenges first semester online students encounter and the limitations of the Learning Management System as a measure of engagement are discussed, along with implications for practitioners and recommendations for future research.


Students' Lived Experiences Of The Realization Of Academic Wrongness (Raw), Dana Carol Kemery Dec 2016

Students' Lived Experiences Of The Realization Of Academic Wrongness (Raw), Dana Carol Kemery

Theses and Dissertations

Being wrong is a common phenomenon for students in academic environments; however this phenomenon has yet to be described from the student perspective. The purpose of this phenomenologic inquiry is to describe the realization of academic wrongness (RAW) as experienced by senior level nursing students during a high stakes testing period. Observations, class documents, communications, and semi-structured interviews were collected to gain a full description for the realization of academic wrongness within context and as this phenomenon unfolded for the students. The data were analyzed using Moustakas (1994) 7 step phenomenological process. Fourteen invariant constituents emerged during data analysis which ...


Black Minds Matter: The Academic Identity Of First Year African American Stem Students, Christa Dawn Platt Dec 2016

Black Minds Matter: The Academic Identity Of First Year African American Stem Students, Christa Dawn Platt

Theses and Dissertations

A national push exists to increase the number of African American students who pursue STEM majors (Baber, 2014). While African American students have high aspirations to pursue STEM disciplines, an incongruence remains between their aspirations and their attainment of STEM degrees (Archer, Dewitt, Osbourne, 2015). This work seeks to critically underscore the structural issues that impede African American students in their journey as STEM majors. These impediments have been explored as factors that influence the identity of African American students. In the spirit of Critical Race Theory, the goal of this study is to give voice to first year African ...


Encouraging Professional Competency Development Of Higher Education Administration Graduate Students Through Supervised Student Affairs Practice, Andrew S. Tinnin Dec 2016

Encouraging Professional Competency Development Of Higher Education Administration Graduate Students Through Supervised Student Affairs Practice, Andrew S. Tinnin

Theses and Dissertations

Professional preparation and socialization of student affairs educators and their competency development is increasingly important in today's higher education environment (ACPA & NASPA, 2015; Janosik, Creamer, Hirt, Winston, Saunders, & Cooper, 2003; Schuh, Jones, & Harper, 2010). This professional preparation often occurs during graduate programs in higher education administration, and features a supervised practice component (CAS, 2012; Janosik, Cooper, Sauders, & Hirt, 2015). The purpose of this grounded theory study is to explore the process of competency development of higher education administration graduate students as part of their professional socialization into the student affairs profession. The intent of the study is to derive a grounded theory of how site supervisors contribute to professional socialization and competency development of student affairs graduate students. Nine graduate students and eight supervisors from ...


Pathways To A Brighter Future: Narratives Of Latino Students’ Perceptions At Community College, Columba Myra Gaytan-Morales Dec 2016

Pathways To A Brighter Future: Narratives Of Latino Students’ Perceptions At Community College, Columba Myra Gaytan-Morales

Theses and Dissertations

Helping Latino students into leadership roles begins with a college experience. Latino students are the largest and fastest growing student population within community colleges, yet they are less likely to graduate. Blame is often placed on minority students and their families for the students’ poor academic performance. Deficit thinking models have impacted this way of thinking and this adds to the variety of factors that prevent students’ from successfully completing a college degree. An analysis of nine Latino students’ college experiences was examined to determine the types of barriers that were evident. Critical Race Theory and Latino Critical Race narrative ...


Improving The Speech Intelligibility By Cochlear Implant Users, Behnam Azimi Dec 2016

Improving The Speech Intelligibility By Cochlear Implant Users, Behnam Azimi

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, we focus on improving the intelligibility of speech for cochlear implants (CI) users. As an auditory prosthetic device, CI can restore hearing sensations for most patients with profound hearing loss in both ears in a quiet background. However, CI users still have serious problems in understanding speech in noisy and reverberant environments. Also, bandwidth limitation, missing temporal fine structures, and reduced spectral resolution due to a limited number of electrodes are other factors that raise the difficulty of hearing in noisy conditions for CI users, regardless of the type of noise. To mitigate these difficulties for CI ...


School Selection Patterns Choice And Traditional Public Schoolsthrough The Lenses Of Rational Choice Theory And Behavioral Economics Theory, Steven Krull Dec 2016

School Selection Patterns Choice And Traditional Public Schoolsthrough The Lenses Of Rational Choice Theory And Behavioral Economics Theory, Steven Krull

Theses and Dissertations

This study uses rational choice theory and behavioral economics theory to examine parent considerations when selecting an enrollment rich traditional public school (one that grew or sustained enrollment) for their child. Traditional public schools provide children general academic instruction at a school determined by the geographic boundary of their home. For many years, traditional public schools were the dominant publically funded institution for educating children. However, in the current era of school choice, parents now can select from a variety of educational options. In Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS), traditional public schools compete for students with private voucher schools, inter-district open ...


Talkin' Back And Shifting Black; Black Motherhood, Identity Development And Doctoral Study, Amber Tucker Dec 2016

Talkin' Back And Shifting Black; Black Motherhood, Identity Development And Doctoral Study, Amber Tucker

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how the context of doctoral study within predominantly white and elite research institutions in the Midwest facilitates identity development among Black doctoral women student parents. This phenomenological study employed Black feminist epistemologies as both a methodological underpinning and interpretive lens to examine how seven Black women doctoral student parents negotiate and made meaning of their intersectional identities.

The six key findings that emerged from this study were: (1) negotiating intersectionality as trauma in childhood; (2) negotiating microaggressions related to invisibility/hypervisibility; (3) negotiating structural macroaggressions as violence; (4) hidden costs of ...


Stronger Together : The Hull House Woman’S Club And Public Health Activism, Megan Lee Schwalm Dec 2016

Stronger Together : The Hull House Woman’S Club And Public Health Activism, Megan Lee Schwalm

Theses and Dissertations

Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr opened Hull House, Chicago’s first settlement house, in 1889 as a means of confronting poverty, poor housing conditions, disease, discouragement, and other ills that flourished in the predominately immigrant Halstead neighborhood. Because Hull House volunteers lived at the House, in the center of the community, they were well-equipped to respond knowledgeably to the neighborhood conditions. Hull House residents worked for reform in areas such as education, labor, juvenile protection, immigration, welfare, housing, and suffrage and they provided the community with a plethora of activities and services during the Progressive Era. As the community ...


Growth Mindset And Fluency In The Art Classroom, Heather Michele Seibel Dec 2016

Growth Mindset And Fluency In The Art Classroom, Heather Michele Seibel

Theses and Dissertations

This research explores the relationship between mindsets and divergent thinking skills. Specifically, the research questions sought to answer whether there was a positive association between a higher presence of divergent thinking skills and a creative growth mindset, as well as the impact environment has on creative growth. A total of 184 second and sixth grade students from a larger urban school district were surveyed. Data collection included: student surveys, two divergent thinking assessments, direct observation of the students and teacher notes. Results indicate most students identify with a creative growth mindset, but are lacking specific strategies to demonstrate creative growth ...


An Examination Of The Psychometric Properties Of The Student Risk Screening Scale For Internalizing And Externalizing Behaviors: An Item Response Theory Approach, Sara E. Moulton Dec 2016

An Examination Of The Psychometric Properties Of The Student Risk Screening Scale For Internalizing And Externalizing Behaviors: An Item Response Theory Approach, Sara E. Moulton

Theses and Dissertations

This research study examined the psychometric properties of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors (SRSS-IE) using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods among a sample of 2,122 middle school students. The SRSS-IE is a recently revised screening instrument aimed at identifying students who are potentially at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). There are two studies included in this research. Study 1 utilized the Nominal Response and Generalized Partial Credit models of IRT to evaluate items from the SRSS-IE in terms of the degree to which the response options for each item functioned as intended ...


Enhancement Of Decision-Making Performance In Older Adults, Christopher Minh Nguyen Dec 2016

Enhancement Of Decision-Making Performance In Older Adults, Christopher Minh Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Older adults are faced with many complex and critical decisions regarding retirement, health care, finances, and living situation, and their ability to make such decisions successfully has a profound impact on the individual and society as a whole. Numerous neurologically and psychiatrically healthy older adults do not make advantageous decisions: they get swindled and make poor financial choices. The vulnerability of such older adults has been postulated to be the result of disproportionate aging of the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether decision-making performance among older adults can be improved as a result of pharmacological ...


Being A “Nǚ Tóngzhì” In The United States: The Sexual Orientation Identity Acculturation And Enculturation Processes Of Taiwanese International Sexual Orientation Minority Women, Angel Yiting Cheng Dec 2016

Being A “Nǚ Tóngzhì” In The United States: The Sexual Orientation Identity Acculturation And Enculturation Processes Of Taiwanese International Sexual Orientation Minority Women, Angel Yiting Cheng

Theses and Dissertations

Acculturation process has been associated with various mental health outcomes among Taiwanese/Chinese international students (Wang & Mallinckrodt, 2006; Zhang & Goodson, 2011), and those who also identify as sexual orientation minority may have unique acculturation processes compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Oba & Pope, 2013; Quach, Todd, Hepp, & Mancini, 2013). Limited understanding has been established on the impact of dual cultural exposures and the multiple marginalized identities may have on international sexual orientation minority’s sexual orientation identity development, particularly for women from countries with Chinese cultural heritages.

Using Consensual Qualitative Research method, this dissertation focuses on gaining understanding of the experiences of Taiwanese sexual orientation minority women (nǚ tongzhi) developing sexual orientation identity during their residence in the U.S. Results indicate the overall accepting social and ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of School-Level Factors And Their Impact On The Racial Achievement Gap, Atiera Lauren Coleman Dec 2016

A Quantitative Analysis Of School-Level Factors And Their Impact On The Racial Achievement Gap, Atiera Lauren Coleman

Theses and Dissertations

Utilizing the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) dataset, I examined the racial composition of schools and classrooms, disciplinary variables, levels of reading and math levels, test scores, and other aspects of schools to analyze effectively the marginal effects of being a black student within schools. Focusing on the dependent variables of test scores, classroom ability level, and suspension rates, I controlled for non-school related factors in order to isolate the impact of school influences on academic achievement, utilizing Hierarchical Linear Models. The results of this study indicate that early school tracking as well as ...


Examining The Lived Experience Of Caregivers Learning A Home Program From A Pediatric Occupational Therapist, Michelle Finet Dec 2016

Examining The Lived Experience Of Caregivers Learning A Home Program From A Pediatric Occupational Therapist, Michelle Finet

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of family caregivers as they learned a home program from an occupational therapist for their child. Gaining information from the caregiver on experiences with patient education may enable therapists to develop an understanding of the needs of caregivers during the educational process that occurs when a therapist is giving the caregiver a home program. Meeting the learning needs of the caregivers may possibly reduce the amount of overall therapy needed by the child. This phenomenological approach sought to answer the following research questions: (a) what are the lived experiences ...


The Effects Of A One-To-One Ipad Initiative: A Case Study, Michael Flanagan Dec 2016

The Effects Of A One-To-One Ipad Initiative: A Case Study, Michael Flanagan

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative case study explored the ways that teachers in a single private middle school integrated one-to-one tablet use in to their classroom practice. The case study also explored how and in what ways the students and teachers perceived that school-provided one-to-one student access to tablets affected student learning. The review of relevant literature included the use of technology in instruction, external factors affecting teachers, and the perception of the effect of technology on student learning.

Over the last thirty years, there has been an increase of computer and tablet use in the classroom (Harold, 2016; Reidel, 2014; Smerdon, Cronen ...


Assessing Model-Data Fit For Compensatory And Non-Compensatory Multidimensional Item Response Models Using Vuong And Clarke Statistics, Leanne Freeman Dec 2016

Assessing Model-Data Fit For Compensatory And Non-Compensatory Multidimensional Item Response Models Using Vuong And Clarke Statistics, Leanne Freeman

Theses and Dissertations

The primary importance of the study was that no statistics were able to provide probabilistic statements about model-data fit between the non-nested compensatory and non-compensatory MIRT models. Secondarily, the Vuong and Clarke statistics have been utilized prolifically in economics and political science and have great potential to contribute to educational measurement. Finally, application of the Vuong and Clarke statistics will not only reduce the damage of misspecified MIRT models but will also promote the use of less known models, in this case, the non-compensatory models.

The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the Vuong and Clarke statistics can ...


Did Magnet Schools Improve Student Educational Outcomes As A Tool Of Desegregation?, Maureen Elizabeth Pylman Dec 2016

Did Magnet Schools Improve Student Educational Outcomes As A Tool Of Desegregation?, Maureen Elizabeth Pylman

Theses and Dissertations

Magnet schools were implemented in American school districts beginning in the 1970s as part of desegregation plans often required by court order. Magnet schools had three primary goals: provide innovative educational programming, attract students from across school districts, and assist with desegregation. Research evaluating the implementation of magnet schools found that they did effectively desegregate schools (Arcia 2006; Steel and Levine 1994). However, the educational outcomes of magnet schools have not been evaluated, particularly using longitudinal student data, to evaluate magnet school effectiveness. Popular press, the use of effective pedagogy, selection procedures, and exclusivity lead to expectations that magnet schools ...


Understanding How Students With Learning Disabilities From An Urban Environment Experience Nature-Based Informal Learning, Thor Antonio Stolen Dec 2016

Understanding How Students With Learning Disabilities From An Urban Environment Experience Nature-Based Informal Learning, Thor Antonio Stolen

Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that there is an achievement gap with students of color in the urban environment and their White non-urban peers (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001; National Research Council, 2012) additionally an achievement gaps exists between students with disabilities and their non-disabled peers (National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2011). The demand for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) preparation is growing and more students need to be prepared in school for STEM careers (Carlson, 1997). The didactic traditional style of teacher led text book reading has proven unsuccessful for large groups of urban youths and students with disabilities (Kahle, Meece, & Scantlebury, 2000; Haberman ...


A Terror Management Theory Based Intervention For Anxiety In Spouses Of Cancer Patients: A Multiple-Baseline Study, Adam Michael Lewis Dec 2016

A Terror Management Theory Based Intervention For Anxiety In Spouses Of Cancer Patients: A Multiple-Baseline Study, Adam Michael Lewis

Theses and Dissertations

As the U.S. population ages the number of family caregivers is expected to rise. Family caregivers are a valuable source of informal healthcare services for patients and the public, in terms of reducing healthcare costs. However, research suggests family caregiving is not only financially costly for individuals, but associated with a number of medical and mental health risks, with spouses at higher risk for negative outcomes compared to other family members. Traditional evidence-based therapies for stress in family caregivers have been shown to be minimally efficacious with spouses. No therapies take into account the existential nature of spouse caregiver ...


Leveling The Playing Field: Teacher Perception Of Integrated Stem, Engineering, And Engineering Practices, Bridgette Fincher Dec 2016

Leveling The Playing Field: Teacher Perception Of Integrated Stem, Engineering, And Engineering Practices, Bridgette Fincher

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions and approaches of 14 third-through-fifth grade Arkansan elementary teachers towards integrative engineering and engineering practices during 80 hours of integrated STEM professional development training in the summer and fall of 2014. This training was known as Project Flight. The purpose of the professional development was to learn integrated STEM content related to aviation and to write grade level curriculum units using Wiggins and McTighe’s Understanding by Design curriculum framework. The current study builds upon on the original research.

Using a mixed method exploratory, embedded QUAL[quan] case study design ...


Reasonableness And Clarity Of Tenure Expectations: Gender And Race Differences In Faculty Perceptions, Rodica Lisnic Dec 2016

Reasonableness And Clarity Of Tenure Expectations: Gender And Race Differences In Faculty Perceptions, Rodica Lisnic

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation studies how higher education policies and practices can affect faculty retention and proposes changes that higher education institutions need to make to retain their faculty. Faculty assessment of reasonableness of tenure expectations is explored in the first manuscript and faculty perceptions of clarity of tenure expectations are explored in the second and third manuscripts. Job satisfaction data from a sample of 2438 tenure-track assistant professors at research universities is used.

The first manuscript investigates the reasonableness of tenure expectations as it relates to work-life balance. The focus is on whether women’s and men’s appraisal of departmental ...


Examining Exemplary P-20 Partnerships Using A Mixed Methods Approach, Elizabeth Erin Smith Dec 2016

Examining Exemplary P-20 Partnerships Using A Mixed Methods Approach, Elizabeth Erin Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Historically, P-12 schools and institutions of higher education have operated independently of each other, creating a gap that acts as a barrier between high school and postsecondary institutions. This gap is blamed for many societal issues including high college remediation rates, low college-going rates among minority groups, and low six-year college graduation rates. P-20 partnerships, agreements between P-12 schools and institutions of higher education with the purpose of improving the P-20 education system, have emerged as a way to address these problems.

From laboratory schools in the 19th century to modern-day professional development schools, P-20 partnerships in teacher education have ...


Attachment Styles And Trust Propensity In Females With Borderline Personality Disorder, Jacob Matthew White Dec 2016

Attachment Styles And Trust Propensity In Females With Borderline Personality Disorder, Jacob Matthew White

Theses and Dissertations

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is one of the most frequently encountered and complex disorders in mental health care. Interpersonal impairment is a central issue for individuals with BPD. This complex disorder has received negative stigma along with historically more females than males receiving this diagnosis (Linehan, 1993). Therefore, this study examined a clinical sample of 30 females diagnosed with BPD. Through the collection of data this study used the following measures: a basic demographic questionnaire gathering specific age, ethnicity, current relationship status, parental relationship status, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark & Shaver, 1998), and the Propensity to Trust Scale (PTS; Frazier, Johnson, & Fainshmidt, 2013). The data was evaluated through descriptive statistics, a Shapiro-Wilk’s Test of Normality, a Kurkal-Wallis H test, and a Spearman’s rho correlation. Two tailed Cronbach’s =.05 level was used as the significance standard for all statistical procedures. As hypothesized, rs(28) = -.375, p = .041, the data indicated a significant negative correlation between avoidance and propensity to trust in females with BPD. Additionally, congruent with previous meta-analytic research findings (Agrawal, Gunderson, Holmes, & Lyons-Ruth, 2004), the majority of participants 93% reported an insecure style of attachment with preoccupied as the most frequent style of attachment reported. The following manuscript examines attachment styles and propensity to trust in females with BPD; clinical implications and future ...


On The Air, On The Hill: The Story Of Radio At The University Of Arkansas, Blake Ryan Sutton Dec 2016

On The Air, On The Hill: The Story Of Radio At The University Of Arkansas, Blake Ryan Sutton

Theses and Dissertations

On the Air, On the Hill: The Story of Radio at the University of Arkansas is a film about the past, present, and future of radio on campus at the U of A. From the original campus station KFMQ in 1924, to the present day student station KXUA and the region’s NPR affiliate KUAF, the film explores not only the rich history of radio at the U of A, but also what the future holds for campus radio in the face of an ever-changing media landscape. The film draws from interviews with Fayetteville historians, as well as the major ...


How Select Groups Of Preservice Science Teachers With Inquiry Orientations View Teaching And Learning Science Through Inquiry, Peggy Diana Ward Dec 2016

How Select Groups Of Preservice Science Teachers With Inquiry Orientations View Teaching And Learning Science Through Inquiry, Peggy Diana Ward

Theses and Dissertations

Although hailed as a powerful form of instruction, in most teaching and learning contexts, inquiry-based instruction is fraught with ambiguous and conflicting definitions and descriptions. Yet little has been written about the experiences preservice science teacher have regarding their learning to teach science through inquiry. This project sought to understand how select preservice secondary science teachers enrolled in three UTeach programs in Arkansas conceptualize inquiry instruction and how they rationalize its value in a teaching and learning context. The three teacher education programs investigated in this study are adoption sites aligned with the UTeach Program in Austin, TX that distinguishes ...


Evidence For The Validity Of The Student Risk Screening Scale In Middle School: A Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Matthew Porter Wilcox Dec 2016

Evidence For The Validity Of The Student Risk Screening Scale In Middle School: A Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Matthew Porter Wilcox

Theses and Dissertations

The Student Risk Screening Scale—Internalizing/Externalizing (SRSS-IE) was developed to screen elementary-aged students for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD). Its use has been extended to middle schools with little evidence that it measures the same constructs as in elementary schools. Scores of a middle school population from the SRSS-IE are analyzed with Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MCFA) to examine its factor structure, factorial invariance between females and males, and its reliability. Several MCFA models are specified, and compared, with two retained for further analysis. The first model is a single-level model with chi-square and standard errors adjusted for the ...


Task-Level Feedback In Interactive Learning Enivonments Using A Rules Based Grading Engine, John Shadrack Chapman Dec 2016

Task-Level Feedback In Interactive Learning Enivonments Using A Rules Based Grading Engine, John Shadrack Chapman

Theses and Dissertations

In order to improve the feedback an intelligent tutoring system provides, the grading engine needs to do more than simply indicate whether a student gives a correct answer or not. Good feedback must provide actionable information with diagnostic value. This means the grading system must be able to determine what knowledge gap or misconception may have caused the student to answer a question incorrectly. This research evaluated the quality of a rules-based grading engine in an automated online homework system by comparing grading engine scores with manually graded scores. The research sought to improve the grading engine by assessing student ...


Finnish Teacher Collaboration: The Behaviors, Learning, And Formality Of Teacher Collaboration, Bruce H. Eschler Dec 2016

Finnish Teacher Collaboration: The Behaviors, Learning, And Formality Of Teacher Collaboration, Bruce H. Eschler

Theses and Dissertations

Finnish teachers continue to receive significant attention among educators, educational leaders, and policy makers in the United States and around the globe. In addition, teacher collaboration continues to receive support as a meaningful part of teacher work and practice. Teacher collaboration is frequently described in various ways within different contexts. This study aims to: (a) better understand the nature of Finnish teacher collaboration by examining three teacher collaboration behaviors (sharing information and knowledge, planning, and problem-solving); (b) explore the extent to which Finnish teacher collaboration is formal (or school-required) collaboration and informal (or voluntary) collaboration; and (c) investigate the extent ...