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Full-Text Articles in Education

Balanced Literacy Versus Basal Reading Instruction For Urban African-American, Title I Third-Grade Students, Julie Ann Perkins Apr 2006

Balanced Literacy Versus Basal Reading Instruction For Urban African-American, Title I Third-Grade Students, Julie Ann Perkins

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study compared third-grade reading achievement of urban African-American, Title I students using a basal reading series with those using a balanced literacy program to determine whether the highly structured skills-based methods advocated by The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act actually foster or impede reading achievement in an urban school setting.

Two hundred forty-five third-grade African-American, Title I students from an urban elementary school in southeastern Virginia served as subjects for the study. Subjects were studied as intact groups to avoid disruption in the educational setting. Participants in the control group were third-grade classes of urban African-American, Title I ...


The Effects Of Breakthrough To Literacy On The Phonological Awareness Skills Of Students In Early Elementary School, Amy W. Woodward Apr 2005

The Effects Of Breakthrough To Literacy On The Phonological Awareness Skills Of Students In Early Elementary School, Amy W. Woodward

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study researched the effects of Breakthrough to Literacy (1998), a phonological awareness computer-based program, on elementary school students in grades kindergarten through three. The treatment group received the Breakthrough to Literacy program in kindergarten. The control group received the traditional curriculum without this program. The students were assessed on phonological awareness skills at the end of kindergarten, the fall and spring of grade one and grade two. Their reading comprehension skills were also assessed at the end of grade 3. Results indicate that Breakthrough to Literacy improved the phonological awareness skills of students who received the program in grades ...


An Examination Of The Effects Of The America Reads Tutoring Program And Tutor Training On The Attitude And Academic Achievement Of Urban At-Risk Minority Students, Tami C. Al-Hazza Jul 2002

An Examination Of The Effects Of The America Reads Tutoring Program And Tutor Training On The Attitude And Academic Achievement Of Urban At-Risk Minority Students, Tami C. Al-Hazza

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The American educational system is struggling to identify methods of preventing early reading failure. Many schools are implementing tutoring intervention programs to supplement classroom instruction and to help meet the needs of struggling at-risk readers. Although there is substantial research on tutoring programs that employ professional teachers, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of non-professional volunteer tutoring programs.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the America Reads tutoring program and tutor training on the reading achievement and reading attitude of urban, at-risk, K–3 minority students. The population sample was drawn from ...


The Effects Of The Help One Student To Succeed (Hosts) Program On The Reading Achievement Of At-Risk 4th And 5th Grade Elementary Students, Kelvin L. Bradley Apr 2001

The Effects Of The Help One Student To Succeed (Hosts) Program On The Reading Achievement Of At-Risk 4th And 5th Grade Elementary Students, Kelvin L. Bradley

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study investigated the effects of the Help One Student to Succeed (HOSTS) tutoring program on the reading achievement of at-risk 4th and 5th grade elementary students, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Academic Skill (TAAS). Seventy-eight 4th and 5th grade at-risk students from four Title I elementary schools in the Plano Independent School District participated in the study. Thirty-nine of these students were enrolled in the HOSTS program and were matched to a comparison group of students according to ethnicity, age, gender, grade, free or reduced lunch, bilingual and English as a Second language ...


The Effects Of Inclusion Of Students With Learning Disabilities On Urban Fourth-Grade General Education Students, Brenda E. Cox Apr 1999

The Effects Of Inclusion Of Students With Learning Disabilities On Urban Fourth-Grade General Education Students, Brenda E. Cox

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study examined the impact of fully included students with learning disabilities on the academic achievement and classroom behavior of urban elementary fourth grade students. To achieve these purposes, data were collected by using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Multilevel Battery (ITBS) of general education students and students with at-risk profiles, Kaufman Tests of Educational Achievement (KTEA) of students with disabilities, completed Individualized Education Program (IEP) objectives of students with disabilities, report card grades of all students, and referrals to principal for inappropriate behavior of all students. Staff and parent surveys and student interviews were another source of data ...


An Evaluation Of The Accelerated Reader Program In Grades 3–5 On Reading Vocabulary, Comprehension, And Attitude In An Urban Southeastern School District In Virginia, Carol Ann Howard Jan 1999

An Evaluation Of The Accelerated Reader Program In Grades 3–5 On Reading Vocabulary, Comprehension, And Attitude In An Urban Southeastern School District In Virginia, Carol Ann Howard

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to study recreational reading in third, fourth, and fifth grade urban students in a school district in Southeastern Virginia. The widely-used Accelerated Reader (AR) was the tool examined in the promotion of recreational reading. Recreational reading studies have been done on a broad economic spectrum (Advantage Learning Systems, 1997; Paul, 1996; Paul, VanderZee, Rue & Swanson, 1996). A gap in knowledge exists as to whether recreational reading programs, using AR, are effective with the urban elementary students. The major research questions determined if recreational reading, using Accelerated Reader, influenced reading vocabulary, comprehension, and attitude when socioeconomic status was low.

Using the pre-experimental design, seven Title I schools in urban Southeastern Virginia participated in pre-testing in September/October 1998 and post-testing in May/June 1999. Two independent variables, each with three levels, were manipulated: Type of AR Usage i. e. low (0–20 points), average (21–74 points), high (75 and above points) and Grade Level i.e. three, four, and five. Dependent variables reading vocabulary and comprehension were measured using the Gates-MacGinitie Tests of Reading, Form L (Gates-MacGinitie, 1989) on 755 students. The dependent variable attitude was measured on 515 students who completed The Elementary Reading Attitude Scale (ERAS) (McKenna & Kear, 1990).

Positive findings are as follows: (1) At pretesting 75% or greater of all students tested below grade level in both reading vocabulary and comprehension. At post-testing, after the AR treatment had been administered for the duration of the school year, the percentage of students testing below grade level for reading vocabulary and comprehension significantly decreased. (2) Results of the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were significant for Type of AR Usage and Grade Level effect. When descriptive statistics, Type of Reader, were examined, significant differences between pre-test and post-test assessment of vocabulary and comprehension were noted. (3) review of the data for the mean difference in vocabulary and comprehension by Grade Level and Type of AR Usage indicated that as participation in the AR program increased, the mean score differences also increased. (4) An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) format was used to analyze attitude data revealed that only the “Type of AR Usage” effect was significant.

Negative findings are as follows: (1) Frequency data indicated that 51.8% of the sample earned low AR usage status, whereas 11.8 % of the students obtained high AR usage during the school year. “Below grade level readers” composed 33% of the “low AR usage” group and only 2% of the “high AR usage” group. (2) The computation of the mean difference on the ERAS scores may have been affected by statistical regression. Caution in interpretation of results is recommended.

In summary, results of the current study concluded that recreational reading, using AR, increases reading vocabulary, comprehension, and attitude, providing it is utilized as intended. Recommendations to school administrators and researchers are as follows: (1) Increase Student Participation in recreational reading ensuring proper use of the AR program with a focus on understanding the characteristics and needs of the “below grade level” reader; (2) Study factors affecting reading performance.


The Impact Of Total Quality Management On Student Achievement And School Improvement Team Performance In An Urban Elementary Setting, Jennette Ann Straus Apr 1996

The Impact Of Total Quality Management On Student Achievement And School Improvement Team Performance In An Urban Elementary Setting, Jennette Ann Straus

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between TQM and student achievement, and TQM and faculty scores on the High PERFORMing Team Survey.

Currently, there exists no research which indicates that TQM can solve the problems of the urban schools. TQM is recommended by experts when the staff is highly educated, when management supports TQM, when team leaders can run meetings effectively, and when the organization can afford lost time and productivity while its team learns necessary skills.

The TQM schools used in this study began the transition to TQM in 1991. Reading comprehension and mathematics scores ...


Multiple Intelligences And The Gifted Identification Of African-American Students, Oscar Scott Jr. Jul 1995

Multiple Intelligences And The Gifted Identification Of African-American Students, Oscar Scott Jr.

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

There have been three national reports addressing giftedness: Education of the Gifted and Talented: Report to the Congress of the United States by the U.S. Commissioner of Education (1972) AKA the Marland Report; The National Report on Identification: Assessment and Recommendations for Comprehensive Identification of Gifted and Talented Youth (1982) AKA the National Report on Identification; and National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's Talent (1993) AKA National Excellence. All have documented the underrepresentation of African-American students in programs for the gifted and talented and the disproportionate reliance on standardized intelligence and achievenent tests for gifted and talented ...


Effects Of Direct Reading Instruction On Literacy Achievement In Urban, Literature Based Classrooms, Steven M. Scarcelli Jan 1995

Effects Of Direct Reading Instruction On Literacy Achievement In Urban, Literature Based Classrooms, Steven M. Scarcelli

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This research examined two similar groups of first grade students and two different approaches to reading instruction within a whole language/literature based curriculum. The sample population for this research was drawn from four randomly assigned first grade classes attending an elementary school with urban characteristics. Teacher selection was based on results from the Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profile. Teachers in the experimental group implemented an approach that utilized a daily format for reading instruction developed by Dr. Patricia Cunningham. This approach involved strategies including phonics, writing, teacher directed, and self selected reading instruction. Teachers in the control group used ...


Elementary Guidance Services In Urban And Rural Schools In Tidewater, Virginia, Berkley Edgerton Ashby Jan 1992

Elementary Guidance Services In Urban And Rural Schools In Tidewater, Virginia, Berkley Edgerton Ashby

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to assess the relative importance of the ten most significant components of an elementary guidance program. A second purpose was to identify differences in guidance services provided in selected urban and rural schools and also the perceived effectiveness and adequacy of the services as viewed by counselors and teachers. The study was conducted with elementary guidance counselors and elementary teachers in 48 urban and 48 rural schools in Tidewater, Virginia.

The National Study of School Evaluation instrument for secondary schools was modified for use in this study. A pilot study of the revised instrument ...


Sleep Patterns And The Behavior Of Children In The Second-, Third-, And Fourth-Grades In Urban Public Schools, Yolanda Cardelli Hampel Oct 1991

Sleep Patterns And The Behavior Of Children In The Second-, Third-, And Fourth-Grades In Urban Public Schools, Yolanda Cardelli Hampel

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This investigation examined the relationship between nocturnal sleep patterns and behaviors in the classroom of seventy-four girls and fifty-nine boys from second-, third-, and fourth-grades attending five urban public schools in Norfolk, Virginia.

The dependent variables were the classroom behavior that was subdivided into five personality areas for objective assessment of the student's adjustment areas labeled self, social, school, home, and physical. The objective assessment was observed and documented on a seventy-eight item questionnaire by their primary classroom teachers who were familiar with the subjects behavior. The parents observed and recorded data on a sleep log listing independent variables ...


A Study On Teacher Change To Developmentally Appropriate Practice In The Primary Grades Of An Urban Elementary School, Kerry Sullivan Lambert Oct 1991

A Study On Teacher Change To Developmentally Appropriate Practice In The Primary Grades Of An Urban Elementary School, Kerry Sullivan Lambert

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this research was to study the process of change from traditional teaching practices to developmentally appropriate practices (DAP), following training. The population for this study consists of kindergarten and first grade teachers, in urban elementary school comprised of student at-risk for school failure. Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were utilized. The quantitative measures provide evidence of the degree of change made by teachers and render a context for the qualitative findings. The variables of DAP were measured pre- and post-training to determine change in teaching practices that occurred after training. Two observation instruments were utilized to measure ...


Characteristics Of Families And Home Environments That Facilitate The Successful Adaptation Of Children Into A Formal School Environment, Janice Elich Monroe Apr 1991

Characteristics Of Families And Home Environments That Facilitate The Successful Adaptation Of Children Into A Formal School Environment, Janice Elich Monroe

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to determine what characteristics of families are most likely to enhance the development of social capital in young urban school children and to determine which of these characteristics or combination of characteristics contribute to a child's ability to adapt positively to a formal school environment. This purpose was accomplished through the design and implementation of an ex post facto study utilizing qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The sample for this study included 33 second grade students from four target schools in the Norfolk Public School System who were identified as disadvantaged and as ...


A Comparison Of The Academic Achievement Of Urban Second-Grade Pupils With Different Forms Of Public Preschool Experience, Elva Williams Hunt Jul 1989

A Comparison Of The Academic Achievement Of Urban Second-Grade Pupils With Different Forms Of Public Preschool Experience, Elva Williams Hunt

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

Assessment of the potential value of the preschool experience has prompted urban educators to consider the advantages of preschool service delivery by the public schools. Urban policy makers ponder whether or not advocacy for preschool education should include advocacy of the provider. This study addressed the provision of preschool service for students from urban low-income families.

The grade placement of students born in three consecutive years was observed to determine their progress during the first three years of public schooling. Students were categorized with regard to their participation in preschool: some had attended a public school system preschool, First Step ...


The Identification Of Gifted Children At The Kindergarten And First-Grade Level In An Urban And Rural Population, Flora Carter Roberts Apr 1989

The Identification Of Gifted Children At The Kindergarten And First-Grade Level In An Urban And Rural Population, Flora Carter Roberts

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study examined the nomination procedures and assessment instruments employed in the gifted programs in ten urban and four rural southeastern Virginia school divisions. The procedures and instruments were examined in relation to the proportionate number of black and white children nominated for and determined eligible for the gifted program at kindergarten and grade one. The odds-ratio, a measure of association, was the primary data analysis technique employed.

In urban divisions in which K-1 membership was reported as white, black, other, white children were four times as likely to be a member of the gifted program at the end of ...


A Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Two Urban Kindergarten Beginning Reading Programs On Student Oral Reading Performance And Attitudes Toward Reading, Ann-Carol Banton Holley Jan 1988

A Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Two Urban Kindergarten Beginning Reading Programs On Student Oral Reading Performance And Attitudes Toward Reading, Ann-Carol Banton Holley

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the whole language and the Writing to Read beginning reading programs on oral reading performance and attitudes toward learning to read in school. The research population totaled 128 kindergarten students from two elementary schools within the same urban school system. This population consisted of a complete population sample of sixty-one students at the whole language school and sixty-seven Writing to Read students chosen by random selection to represent all classes and teachers at the other school.

Oral reading performance and attitude toward reading of the two groups were compared ...


The Effects Of Classification Systems On Management And Access In Selected Elementary School Libraries, Ellen L. Miller Jul 1986

The Effects Of Classification Systems On Management And Access In Selected Elementary School Libraries, Ellen L. Miller

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

Without an adequate access and delivery system for "easy" books, young children are locked out of the vast literary resources of elementary school libraries. The research described in this dissertation was conducted for the purpose of investigating the extent to which a variation in classification systems corresponded to variations in management and access. Elm's Classification System and H. W. Wilson's "E" classification for "easy" books were the two systems involved in the study.

In the spring of 1985, a questionnaire was mailed to 38 librarians in the public school systems in four cities in the Tidewater Area of ...


An Inquiry Into The Influence Of Expressive Writing Practice On The Transactional Writing Abilities Of Selected Fourth Grade Students, Maureen Elliott Hook Jul 1986

An Inquiry Into The Influence Of Expressive Writing Practice On The Transactional Writing Abilities Of Selected Fourth Grade Students, Maureen Elliott Hook

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The study is an inquiry into the influence of expressive writing practice on the transactional writing abilities of selected fourth grade students. It is based on the ideas of James Britton, an English theoretician concerned with writing. The study was formulated to investigate how the process of writing occurs. Writing research is at an early stage, and this study will expand the knowledge of the field.

The study consisted of a treatment group receiving intensive practice with expressive writing over the course of one semester while the control group did not. A posttest was administered which involved the students having ...


The Effect Of Mobility On The Academic Performance Of Grade Six Students In An Urban School, Arnold Hugo Lindblad Jr. Jan 1986

The Effect Of Mobility On The Academic Performance Of Grade Six Students In An Urban School, Arnold Hugo Lindblad Jr.

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of mobility on the standardized achievement test scores of grade six students in an urban school. The study sought to (1) identify the degree of mobility experienced by grade six students in the Chesapeake Public Schools; (2) identify the degree of mobility within the Chesapeake Public Schools; (3) determine the socio-economic, gender, and ethnic characteristics of the extra-city mobile, intra-city mobile, and non-mobile grade six students; (4) determine if there were differences in the standardized achievement test scores of extra-city mobile, intra-city mobile, and non-mobile grade six students; and (5 ...