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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Development And Support Of Geometric And Spatial Concepts In Preschool- And Kindergarten-Aged Children, Laura J. Becker Dec 2016

The Development And Support Of Geometric And Spatial Concepts In Preschool- And Kindergarten-Aged Children, Laura J. Becker

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of the literature review is to discuss the development of geometric and spatial concepts in preschool- and kindergarten-aged children. This development can be seen through the children's mental and manual rotation, as well as children's experiences with spatial reasoning. The factors that influence these concepts, such as spatial talk and spatial play are also examined. This review identifies ways that teachers can support the development of geometric and spatial concepts in the classroom, such as exposure to materials, pedagogy, interventions, and their own professional development. The conclusion of this literature review synthesizes the evidence, discusses recommendations ...


Art-Integration Through Making Dioramas Of Women Mathematicians’ Lives Enhances Creativity And Motivation, Audrey C. Rule, Dana L. Atwood-Blaine, Clayton M. Edwards, Mindy M. Gordon Dec 2016

Art-Integration Through Making Dioramas Of Women Mathematicians’ Lives Enhances Creativity And Motivation, Audrey C. Rule, Dana L. Atwood-Blaine, Clayton M. Edwards, Mindy M. Gordon

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Creativity is essential for solving problems in the workplace, natural environment, and everyday life, necessitating that creativity be nurtured in schools. Identification of factors that intrinsically motivate students to learn difficult or initially unappealing content is also important. This project, in which 24 racially diverse fifth grade girls created dioramas of the lives of diverse successful women mathematicians, explored the girls’ reactions to art integration into mathematics through a phenomenological qualitative analysis of their products, essays, and responses to questionnaires. The project supported the Next Generation Science Standard for engineering design, Standard 3-5-ETS1-1 and two National Core Arts Standards for ...


Three- And Four-Year Olds Learn About Gears Through Arts Incorporation, Dessy Stoycheva, Leann M. Perkins Dec 2016

Three- And Four-Year Olds Learn About Gears Through Arts Incorporation, Dessy Stoycheva, Leann M. Perkins

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This research paper explores art integration into a science lesson unit that follows the Next Generation Science Standards (K-PS2-1) and focuses on the effects on memory retention of key concepts along with levels of enjoyment. An experiment was conducted with children ages 3 and 4 teaching scientific concepts about gears while incorporating student-made art products. The children were assigned to alternating experimental (art-integrated) or control (no art) conditions during the four stages of the lesson. The results did not show statistically significant differences at the alpha = 0.05 level between conditions in the amount of information retained based on the ...


Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using Scamper And Animal Adaptation Ideas, Mahjabeen Hussain, Anastasia Carignan Dec 2016

Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using Scamper And Animal Adaptation Ideas, Mahjabeen Hussain, Anastasia Carignan

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This study explores to what extent the SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange) technique combined with animal adaptation ideas learned through form and function analogy activities can help fourth graders generate creative ideas while augmenting their inventiveness. The sample consisted of 24 fourth grade students (14 female, 10 male) ages 9-10 at a suburban Midwestern elementary school. A repeated-measures design involving all participants alternately in the two conditions measured students under each treatment condition. In the experimental condition, students used SCAMPER charts with animal adaptation ideas to generate ideas to improve a product using ...


Second-Graders Beautify For Butterflies, Andrea E. Anderson, Jessica A. Meier Dec 2016

Second-Graders Beautify For Butterflies, Andrea E. Anderson, Jessica A. Meier

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical article presents activities that support previous research suggesting the integration of art with science is beneficial to the learning and cooperative processes of children. The project showcased here highlights the ability of elementary school children to collaborate with their peers for problem solving and critical thinking through the artistic use of observation and sketching. This article discusses effective lesson activities in which students combined art and science by creating and cultivating a butterfly garden on the school’s property.


Who Moved Those Rain Clouds To Town? Making Windbirds To Learn About The Power Of Wind, Deepanee Samarakoon, Latisha L. Smith Dec 2016

Who Moved Those Rain Clouds To Town? Making Windbirds To Learn About The Power Of Wind, Deepanee Samarakoon, Latisha L. Smith

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

In this practical article, a kindergarten teacher shares a lesson designed to teach students about the power of wind. To address the Next Generation Science Standards engineering standards, students discussed the negative and positive aspects of wind and made daily weather observations (K-ESS2-1). Students constructed bird-shaped windsocks, called windbirds, to explore how the shape of the object allowed it to move in the wind (K-2-ETS1-2). To address the National Core Arts Standards, creative arts were integrated as students designed cylindrical windbirds of colorful materials. The windbirds were used to observe the effects of wind in the students’ outdoor environment at ...


Water Play, Jane E. Cline, Brandy A. Smith Dec 2016

Water Play, Jane E. Cline, Brandy A. Smith

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old prekindergarten students direct the path of water on a vertical pegboard water table with strategically-placed, attached plastic cups with holes drilled into them that leak streams of water into each other. Students enhanced their retelling of the story of the Billy Goats Gruff by placing student-made watercolor artwork along the path of the water ...


Using Creativity From Art And Engineering To Engage Students In Science, Mason Albert Kuhn, Scott Greenhalgh, Mark Mcdermott Dec 2016

Using Creativity From Art And Engineering To Engage Students In Science, Mason Albert Kuhn, Scott Greenhalgh, Mark Mcdermott

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

STEAM education, referring to integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics, is a contemporary buzzword that is popular in many schools. In particular, many elementary school teachers who have been tasked to incorporate STEM teaching, because of the requirements of the Next Generation Science Standards, attempt to apply the arts in their science curriculum because they feel more comfortable using instructional approaches that incorporate creative activities such as crafts, drawing, and model construction than the core practices of STEM disciplines. Teachers can use the creative arts activities in two ways to enhance the STEM learning environment: 1) Using creative processes ...


Spatial Thinking Skills And Stem Connections: How Does This Issue Address Them?, Audrey C. Rule Dec 2016

Spatial Thinking Skills And Stem Connections: How Does This Issue Address Them?, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

In this editorial, the Editor considered the importance of spatial thinking skills to STEM careers, provided examples of ways scientists use spatial thinking, noted sex and socioeconomic differences in spatial skill proficiency, and reviewed ways that activities included in articles in this issue involved spatial thinking. Brief summaries and preview images were provided for the articles in the issue. The four-component spatial thinking classification scheme with categories of intrinsic-static, intrinsic-dynamic, extrinsic-static and extrinsic dynamic was applied to the activities from this issue of the Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions. All categories of this classification scheme were addressed, providing ...


Learning Form And Function By Dance-Dramatizing Cultural Legends To Drum Rhythms Wearing Student-Made Animal Masks, Phyllis Gray, Audrey C. Rule, Gloria Kirkland Holmes, Stephanie R. Logan, Andrea L. Alert, Cynthia A. Mason Oct 2016

Learning Form And Function By Dance-Dramatizing Cultural Legends To Drum Rhythms Wearing Student-Made Animal Masks, Phyllis Gray, Audrey C. Rule, Gloria Kirkland Holmes, Stephanie R. Logan, Andrea L. Alert, Cynthia A. Mason

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This study examined the self-efficacy in science, art, dance, and music; attitudes concerning contributions of people of various ethnic/cultural groups; and science learning of students involved in an after-school arts-integrated science enrichment project. Students dramatized three traditional animal legends from African, Native American, and Mexican cultures to drum beats while wearing student-made papier-mâché helmet crest masks of the animal characters. They learned the structure and functions of the featured animals through slide shows, embedded explanations in the play scripts, and hands-on form and function analogy materials that related the form and function of animal body parts to manufactured items ...


Third Graders Explore Sound Concepts Through Online Research Compared To Making Musical Instruments, Kyrie D. Borsay, Page Foss Oct 2016

Third Graders Explore Sound Concepts Through Online Research Compared To Making Musical Instruments, Kyrie D. Borsay, Page Foss

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This study is an exploration of several lessons on sound taught to third grade students using one of the Next Generation Science Standards (3-5-ETS1) and arts integration. A counterbalanced, pretest- posttest- distal posttest design experiment was conducted to compare student knowledge and attitudes between the control and experimental conditions. Control activities included learning about either stringed or percussion instruments (whichever not addressed in the experimental condition) through online searches for information and writing a factual paragraph; experimental activities included creating a percussion or stringed instrument using classroom art materials purchased with an imaginary budget. One group experienced the experimental condition ...


Shadow Puppet Plays In Elementary Science Methods Class Help Preservice Teachers Learn About Minority Scientists, Phyllis Gray, Audrey C. Rule, Anneliese Gentzsch, Denise Tallakson Oct 2016

Shadow Puppet Plays In Elementary Science Methods Class Help Preservice Teachers Learn About Minority Scientists, Phyllis Gray, Audrey C. Rule, Anneliese Gentzsch, Denise Tallakson

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical article describes an arts-integrated project with engineering design and science concepts from the Next Generation Science Standards, art principles from the National Arts Standards, as well as ideas under the theme of “Culture” from the National Council for the Social Studies Standards. Preservice teachers in an undergraduate science methods class researched the background, life, and accomplishments of a minority scientist by reading books and articles about the person. They created a script to present the experiences and contributions of the scientist to other preservice teachers and, eventually, elementary students. Shadow puppets were constructed out of cardboard to portray ...


Preschoolers Explore Greenhouses By Visiting A Greenhouse, Making A Model, And Growing Plants, Leann M. Perkins, Dessy Stoycheva Oct 2016

Preschoolers Explore Greenhouses By Visiting A Greenhouse, Making A Model, And Growing Plants, Leann M. Perkins, Dessy Stoycheva

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical lesson on greenhouses implements standards of the Next Generation Science Standards (K-2 ETS I-2; K-LS1-1) and the preschool objectives from the Teaching Strategies GOLD. Teaching Strategies GOLD is an assessment tool available online and in print that can be used with any developmentally appropriate early childhood curriculum. The lesson structure follows the 5E’s Learning Cycle Constructivist Model for teaching and the project-based, hands-on approach to learning. The preschool-aged children went on a field trip to a working greenhouse and then collaborated in groups to produce a three-dimensional model of a greenhouse as arts integration into this science ...


Designing An Earthquake-Proof Art Museum: An Arts-And Engineering-Integrated Science Lesson, Anastasia Carignan, Mahjabeen Hussain Oct 2016

Designing An Earthquake-Proof Art Museum: An Arts-And Engineering-Integrated Science Lesson, Anastasia Carignan, Mahjabeen Hussain

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

In this practical arts-integrated science and engineering lesson, an inquiry-based approach was adopted to teach a class of fourth graders in a Midwest elementary school about the scientific concepts of plate tectonics and earthquakes. Lessons were prepared following the 5 E instructional model. Next Generation Science Standards (4-ESS3-2) and the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards for fourth grade (Visual Arts: Creating 1.14a, Visual Arts: Creating 2.1.4a, and Visual Arts: Creating 3.1.4a) were addressed challenging students to create an earthquake-resistant structure to support a clay sculpture in a model of an art gallery for an ...


Editorial: Welcome To The Journal Of Stem Arts, Crafts, And Constructions, Audrey C. Rule Oct 2016

Editorial: Welcome To The Journal Of Stem Arts, Crafts, And Constructions, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions is a scholarly journal that seeks to engage professionals, including preK-12 teachers, in a conversation about the benefits of arts integration; the ways that the STEM subjects can be integrated with the arts to produce effective teaching (STEAM Education); and how the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), can be effectively implemented with integrated arts, crafts, or constructions. Manuscripts, including guest editorials, are blind peer-reviewed by usually two reviewers and an associate editor or by three reviewers. This editorial explains the Journal’s origin in a faculty professional learning community. The Journal has ...


The Effects Of Argumentation On Student Motivation In Mathematics, Julie Kirkpatrick Jan 2016

The Effects Of Argumentation On Student Motivation In Mathematics, Julie Kirkpatrick

Honors Program Theses

As a future educator, I am going to need to motivate my students to learn mathematics and be engaged deeply with the material. Because mathematics is a required subject for students, mathematics teachers must employ various strategies to motivate their students. Something that has motivated me in past mathematics courses has been the chance to form arguments and defend them in class. Argumentation in mathematics classrooms has been included in the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice as Practice Standard 3: “Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others” (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief ...


Motion Virtual Manipulatives In The Elementary Math Classroom, Cole Boudreau Jan 2016

Motion Virtual Manipulatives In The Elementary Math Classroom, Cole Boudreau

Honors Program Theses

An application was developed to aid in teaching core mathematical concepts to kindergarten through third grade students. This software would be available at minimal cost when compared to current alternatives, and was designed specifically with effectiveness in mind. A framework called motion virtual manipulatives was developed, allowing to the creation of a touch-based application on any flat wall or surface. The application developed implemented multiple forms of manipulatives, each designed to allow for ease-of-use. The application is planned to be tested in classrooms with the aid of a secondary application developed to analyze the use of this project’s application ...


Proportional Reasoning In Middle Level Mathematics Textbooks, Rebecca Holzrichter Jan 2016

Proportional Reasoning In Middle Level Mathematics Textbooks, Rebecca Holzrichter

Honors Program Theses

Since textbooks are common tools used by teachers to organize what they teach, including proportional reasoning, it would be beneficial to teachers if these materials could provide a useful framework to help students meet the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (National Governor’s Association, 2010). Therefore the purpose of my research is to critically analyze middle school textbooks. To be able to accomplish that task I will first identify critical components of proportional reasoning. Identifying the critical components will provide a framework in which to assess the tasks in the middle level mathematics textbooks. I will then evaluate the ...


Preservice And Practicing Teacher Science Inquiry Projects: An Analysis Of Their Understanding Of The Inquiry Process, Benjamin D. Olsen Jan 2016

Preservice And Practicing Teacher Science Inquiry Projects: An Analysis Of Their Understanding Of The Inquiry Process, Benjamin D. Olsen

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

Student conducted inquiry is an essential component of the Next Generation Science Standards and considered to be a core goal of teaching science methods. Teachers need to understand what student inquiry entails, to be able to successfully conduct their own inquiry investigations, and to understand this process well so as to guide original student inquiry investigations. Some suggest that, as a result of No Child Left Behind legislation, an entire generation of students have missed out on inquiry-based elementary science instruction. Research indicates that many preservice teachers find it difficult to bridge knowledge of subject matter with pedagogy – making use ...


Developing Authentic Summative Assessments That Correlate To The Next Generation Science Standards For A Middle School Science Classroom, Nick Bushkofsky Jan 2016

Developing Authentic Summative Assessments That Correlate To The Next Generation Science Standards For A Middle School Science Classroom, Nick Bushkofsky

Graduate Research Papers

A major shift in science education has occurred in the state of Iowa and it involves the adoption of performance expectations from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) standards. The new curriculum demanded by NGSS will instigate a learning shift for science teachers in Iowa. They must re-format lessons and assessments to encompass their target NGSS standards. This creative component has analyzed six targeted NGSS performance standards and has developed high quality summative authentic assessments correlated to the targeted NGSS standards.


Frequently-Used Discipline And Management Techniques In The Cedar Valley, Gabriel Gedlinske Jan 2016

Frequently-Used Discipline And Management Techniques In The Cedar Valley, Gabriel Gedlinske

Honors Program Theses

The primary goal of this research is to observe frequently-used classroom management techniques in the Cedar Falls Community School District. The observed techniques and the philosophies behind them will then be compared to the methods and philosophies of educational researchers and theorists. Classroom management is an area that is often underrepresented in the plethora of courses required of college undergraduates, as can be observed at the University of Northern Iowa. Of the 120 total credit hours required of an undergraduate student for graduation, exactly three are devoted to classroom management. Furthermore, those three credit hours, or one class, may not ...


Equitable Discourse In Middle School Mathematics Classrooms: With Emphasis On Girls And The Mathematically Gifted, Merci F. Day Jan 2016

Equitable Discourse In Middle School Mathematics Classrooms: With Emphasis On Girls And The Mathematically Gifted, Merci F. Day

Honors Program Theses

Discourse is a tool used by mathematics teachers to help deepen mathematical understanding and build students’ mathematical identities. Teachers face the challenge of establishing and maintaining classroom norms that help discussions deepen mathematical understanding as well as meet the needs of all of their students. The researcher focused on what girls and the mathematically gifted need from discourse and how to create an equitable environment for all students. Girls need to be given equitable opportunities to voice their thoughts, and mathematically gifted students need to be adequately challenged, not just given more work. The researcher interviewed three teachers who employ ...


Extending Mathematic Learning Beyond The Classroom Through Online Discussion And Reflection, Linsey Zimmerman Jan 2016

Extending Mathematic Learning Beyond The Classroom Through Online Discussion And Reflection, Linsey Zimmerman

Graduate Research Papers

This review explores the research (2002-2015) focusing on the use of writing in the high school mathematics classroom incorporating blogs and online discussion. Thirty articles were identified and analyzed which provided information on how writing in the math classroom was developed and carried out. The research found that extending the mathematical learning through writing creates a sense of community among students, allows student reflection and application, and helps students gain a deeper understanding of a mathematical concept. Implications of the research and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Sound : The Study Of Differentiating Pitch And Volume With Preschoolers, Jennifer Lyn Miller Jan 2016

Sound : The Study Of Differentiating Pitch And Volume With Preschoolers, Jennifer Lyn Miller

Graduate Research Papers

I designed an exploratory study for adapting an early elementary physics of sound science module to use in preschool. The purpose of the study was to observe and collect data regarding the use of an inquiry-based physical knowledge activity, implemented in a play-based preschool setting, and how this knowledge could assist in advancing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education in early childhood.

Using random sampling from a classroom of 20 students, I chose six participants between the ages of four and five. As prekindergarten children experimented with sound, I probed understanding of two of the main concepts in the ...


Strengthening Early Mathematics In Early Childhood Classrooms : A Professional Development Project, Jennifer Lynn Jansen Jan 2016

Strengthening Early Mathematics In Early Childhood Classrooms : A Professional Development Project, Jennifer Lynn Jansen

Graduate Research Papers

This project outlines a series of professional development sessions for preschool teachers that focus on early mathematics. Each session emphasizes key mathematical content and builds teachers' understanding and positive attitudes toward mathematics. Teachers also explore how children's knowledge and skills in the content topics develops and examine examples of children at various levels of understanding and stages of learning with regard to mathematical content.

The sessions also emphasize how the mathematical content can be explored in preschool classrooms in ways that support children's foundational learning in the area of mathematics. Another element of this project is the use ...


Analysis Of The Stebi-B Instrument As It Is Used To Predict The Science Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs Of Preservice Elementary Teachers, Martha Alice Stone Jan 2016

Analysis Of The Stebi-B Instrument As It Is Used To Predict The Science Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs Of Preservice Elementary Teachers, Martha Alice Stone

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

Using the STEBI-B tool in a pre/post-test setting is common in educational research when measuring the influence of course work on the science teaching self-efficacy of preservice elementary teachers. This study was the first to use the STEBI-B in conjunction with a self-reflective tool to evaluate the influence of a required science content course on the science teaching self-efficacy of 54 preservice elementary teachers.

Concurrent collection of three sets of data happened at the beginning and at the end of an Inquiry into Earth & Space Science course designed for preservice elementary teachers. The self-reflective instrument measured science-teaching self-efficacy from a quantitative standpoint by having the participant rate their confidence towards teaching science on a scale from 1-10. The participants also provided a justification for their rating, which provided the qualitative data for this study. The mixed method design of this study captured the results from the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data.

The results of the quantitative analysis found that although both the STEBI-B and the QUAN-SR instruments showed significant increases (p < .001 for both) in the preservice teacher’s science teaching self-efficacy from beginning to end of the test period the correlation of these data showed mixed results. There was little correlation between the normalized gains of the STEBI-B and the normalized gains of the QUANSR data for all 54 participants, r = .260. There was, however, a large correlation between the STEBI-B scores versus the quantitative self-reflective scores for two of the demographic groups, the participants who were juniors and the participants who had taken two previous science content courses, r = .806 and r = .716 respectively. These two groups represented the more experienced preservice teachers in the study making their understanding of self-efficacy more comprehensive. Because of their robust understanding of self-efficacy, their quantitative self-reflective scores supported their STEBI-B scores. The conclusion drawn from these results was that the STEBI-B instrument might do a better job of measuring the science-teaching self-efficacy level of the more experienced preservice teacher.

In analyzing the qualitative self-reflective data of the 54 participants, I used a constant comparative analysis. Qualitative responses by the participant indicated what factors the preservice teacher had identified as influencing their science teaching selfefficacy. The five categories of factors that emerged from the data were Cognitive Knowledge, Experience as a Student, Emotional State, Experience as a Teacher and Outside Factors. These five categories tie in closely with the six sources of self-efficacy discovered by Bandura (1977) and Palmer (2006).

The fact that the Experiences as a Teacher Category was the least cited category in this study was of concern from a science educator’s standpoint. The factors in this category, according to previous research (Bandura, 1977; Palmer, 2006), should be the most influential factors in predicting self-efficacy. For them to be ...