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Full-Text Articles in Education

Mechanism For Leadership Development And Effectiveness: The Relationship Between Followership, Leadership, And Psychological Capital, Saurabh Gupta Dec 2018

Mechanism For Leadership Development And Effectiveness: The Relationship Between Followership, Leadership, And Psychological Capital, Saurabh Gupta

Dissertations

Research supports the strategic role of a leader in improving individual and organizational performance (Day et al., 2009; Kaiser & Curphy, 2013). Developing leadership and enhancing leadership effectiveness remains at the forefront of organizational strategic plans (Day et al., 2009; Kaiser & Curphy, 2013). However, a majority of leadership development efforts fail in their purpose, which causes a leadership crisis in many organizations (Fernández-Aráoz, Roscoe, & Aramaki, 2017; Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014; Kaiser & Curphy, 2013; Madanchian, Hussein, Noordin, & Taherdoost, 2017; Pfeffer, 2015; Wakefield, Abbatiello, Agarwal, Pastakia, & van Berkel, 2016). Neglecting the role of followership and using inappropriate measures of leadership effectiveness are among the reasons of ineffective leadership development programs.

This study examined a mechanism for leadership development and effectiveness consisting of the relationship between followership, leadership, and psychological capital. The study examined followership as a predictor and psychological capital as an outcome and measure of leadership effectiveness. The study also examined the relationship ...


The Efficacy Of A Goal-Based Study Skills Course For Academically At-Risk, First-Generation, African American, Female Students, Sarah Beth Garrison Dec 2017

The Efficacy Of A Goal-Based Study Skills Course For Academically At-Risk, First-Generation, African American, Female Students, Sarah Beth Garrison

Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to identify effective intervention strategies used in a goal-based study skills course for academically at-risk, first-generation, African-American, female students. Based on the theoretical framework from goal, motivation and achievement theories (Covington, 2000; Kuh, 2007; Nicholls, 1984), this study provided an analysis of research regarding the academic success and persistence of at-risk students. An explanatory mixed-method design was employed that consisted of two phases. The first phase of the study used quantitative data to test for difference in GPA and academic status between the control and treatment group. Quantitative data was also used to identify ...


Examining The Perceived Influence Of A Comprehensive Youth Development Program For Promoting Black Male High School Persistence, Richard Gray Walker Dec 2017

Examining The Perceived Influence Of A Comprehensive Youth Development Program For Promoting Black Male High School Persistence, Richard Gray Walker

Dissertations

Black male youth in the United States drop out of high school at a rate consistently higher than their White counterparts. A lack of academic persistence contributes to lower workforce participation rates among Black Americans, which leads to lower national productivity and unrealized personal prosperity. Youth development research has developed an extensive body of knowledge regarding possible causes and contributing factors of minority high school dropout. Literature shows youth experience higher dropout rates when they grow up in adversity. Adversity risks such as dysfunctional families, cultural discontinuity between home and school, dysfunctional neighborhoods, or low-expectations from teachers contribute to graduation ...


Tootling With A Randomized Independent Group Contingency In A High School Setting, John Dylan Ken Lum Aug 2017

Tootling With A Randomized Independent Group Contingency In A High School Setting, John Dylan Ken Lum

Dissertations

Tootling is a procedure where students report their classmates’ positive and prosocial behavior. The present study examined the effects of tootling on students’ disruptive and academically engaged behavior in three general education high school classrooms. An A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to assess the effects of the intervention. Students wrote tootles anonymously on paper slips and placed them into a marked container. Unlike previous tootling studies, a randomized independent group contingency procedure was used to reward the students to reduce the number of steps required to implement the intervention. At the end of the class period, teachers randomly drew three ...


The Good Behavior Game: Effects On And Maintenance Of Behavior In Middle-School Classrooms Using Class Dojo, Komila Dadakhodjaeva Aug 2017

The Good Behavior Game: Effects On And Maintenance Of Behavior In Middle-School Classrooms Using Class Dojo, Komila Dadakhodjaeva

Dissertations

Classroom management is one of the key components for successful instruction and affects both instructors and learners. Although most frequent discipline strategies in schools involve punitive actions, research suggests that using positive statements to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors is more appropriate and effective. A form of a group-oriented contingency that focuses on desirable behaviors is a positive variation of the Good Behavior Game (GBG). The GBG has been used widely in its original form, focusing on undesirable behaviors, and more research is needed on its positive version. Another strategy that can be used within classrooms is Class Dojo, a ...


Maintenance And Generalization Of Preschool Teachers' Use Of Behavior Specific Praise Following In Situ Training, Zachary Charles Labrot 7947921 Aug 2017

Maintenance And Generalization Of Preschool Teachers' Use Of Behavior Specific Praise Following In Situ Training, Zachary Charles Labrot 7947921

Dissertations

This study tested the efficacy of in situ training via a multiple baseline design across participants for increasing four Head Start teachers’ use of behavior specific praise (BSP) in classroom settings while evaluating concomitant changes in their classes’ behavior. Of further interest was the extent to which Head Start teachers maintained and generalized use of BSP in untrained settings. The results of this study indicate that in situ training was effective for increasing Head Start teachers’ use of BSP above baseline rates and generally maintained above a predetermined criterion (i.e., .5 BSP statements per minute). Data also indicate that ...


Effects Of A Tiered Intervention Package To Increase Teacher Behavior Specific Praise, Hannah Jeanne Cavell Aug 2017

Effects Of A Tiered Intervention Package To Increase Teacher Behavior Specific Praise, Hannah Jeanne Cavell

Dissertations

Disruptive behaviors have been shown to impact academic performance in the classroom. Praise is a commonly prescribed intervention to decrease classroom disruptive behaviors and increase academic engagement. In this study, an intervention package consisting of large-group training, verbal reminders, and visual performance feedback (VPF) combined with contingent preferred rewards was used to target three elementary school teachers’ use of behavior specific praise (BSP) in the classroom during a selected intervention period. Disruptive behaviors as nominated by teacher report were additionally assessed to determine if increased praise would lessen the frequency of class wide disruptive behaviors.

Using a multiple baseline design ...


Evaluation Of A Positive Version Of The Good Behavior Game Utilizing Classdojo Technology In Secondary Classrooms, William Blake Ford Aug 2017

Evaluation Of A Positive Version Of The Good Behavior Game Utilizing Classdojo Technology In Secondary Classrooms, William Blake Ford

Dissertations

Appropriate and effective classroom management skills are critical in supporting students’ academic, social, and behavior development in schools; however, teachers often cite needing help with classroom management as their greatest need. Given this concern, school psychologists need effective and efficient strategies to offer to teachers and school staff dealing with classwide behavioral difficulties. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an empirically supported interdependent group contingency intervention providing explicit classroom management techniques aimed at improving student behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a positive version of the GBG utilizing ClassDojo technology on classwide academically engaged ...


A Retro Development In Education: Evaluating The Feasibility Of Integrating Place-Based Education Into Mississippi Curriculum Standards, Colby K. Mcclain May 2017

A Retro Development In Education: Evaluating The Feasibility Of Integrating Place-Based Education Into Mississippi Curriculum Standards, Colby K. Mcclain

Honors Theses

This thesis evaluates the feasibility of integrating place-based environmental education activities from Think Green, Take Action: Books and Activities for Kids into the Mississippi Department of Education’s (MDE) Frameworks for Science and Social Studies for K-5. As children develop and experience the world, their ability to understand and interpret the surrounding environments expand; however, Mississippi schools are not focused on experiential environmental education, even though experiencing and understanding the surrounding environment is vital in fostering eagerness to learn. Due to a growing disconnect between humans and the natural world, this thesis examined 37 place- and environment-based activities for children ...


Using Digital Performance Feedback To Increase Teacher Treatment Integrity, Heather Marie Whipple Dec 2016

Using Digital Performance Feedback To Increase Teacher Treatment Integrity, Heather Marie Whipple

Master's Theses

In intervention research, assessing treatment integrity is important to establish functional control of the independent variable and make accurate decisions regarding treatment effectiveness. This study examined the effects of digital performance feedback (DPF) as a follow-up strategy for teachers to increase integrity. A multiple baseline design was utilized to determine the effectiveness of this strategy. Results from this study expanded previous literature on ways to promote treatment integrity and help move toward a science of intervention implementation. The primary dependent variable measured was treatment integrity. Student behavior was also assessed to determine if there is a relationship between treatment integrity ...


The Effects Of Tootling Combined With Public Posting In High School Classrooms, Sarah Joan Wright Dec 2016

The Effects Of Tootling Combined With Public Posting In High School Classrooms, Sarah Joan Wright

Master's Theses

A traditional tootling procedure was implemented along with a public posting component to determine the effects on academically engaged, disruptive, and passive off task behaviors in four general education high school classrooms. The study employed an A/B/B+C multiple baseline design across classrooms. The primary focus of the study was to assess potential increases in academically engaged behavior across intervention conditions. Students in the traditional tootling phase (B) were instructed to report on their peers’ positive, prosocial behaviors. At the end of the class period, the teacher silently read through the tootles and added the total toward the ...


Generalization Of Teachers' Use Of Effective Instruction Delivery Following In Situ Training, Joy Kathleen Wimberly Dec 2016

Generalization Of Teachers' Use Of Effective Instruction Delivery Following In Situ Training, Joy Kathleen Wimberly

Master's Theses

The efficacy of in situ training for increasing Head Start teachers’ use of effective instruction delivery in Head Start classrooms while evaluating concomitant increases in Head Start students’ compliance was examined in the current study. Of further interest was the extent to which Head Start teachers maintained and generalized accuracy of effective instruction delivery in untrained settings. Four Head Start teachers and four Head Start students served as participants in this study. A multiple baseline across participants was used to test the effects of in situ training on teachers’ accuracy of effective instruction delivery and students’ initiation compliance. Data were ...


Profiles Of Academic Commitment, Anna Jill Womack Aug 2016

Profiles Of Academic Commitment, Anna Jill Womack

Dissertations

Tinto (1993) found that only 15-25% of students who dropped out of college did so due to academic failure, while the reasons for leaving among the remaining group of students who dropped out were unknown. This suggests that the majority of students who drop out of college are likely doing so for reasons other than academic struggles. Researchers have suggested that individuals who are committed to their major are more likely to obtain a bachelor’s degree (Bowling, Beehr, & Lepisto, 2006; Den Hartog & Belschak, 2007; Duffy, Dik, & Steger, 2011; Goulet & Singh, 2002; Landrum & Mulcock, 2007), indicating that academic major commitment is a highly important aspect of academic persistence ...


Transition Outcomes Of Young Adults With Disabilities: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Perspective, Sabrina Michelle Singleton May 2016

Transition Outcomes Of Young Adults With Disabilities: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Perspective, Sabrina Michelle Singleton

Dissertations

Young adults with disabilities are impacted by the learning experiences they engage in as students that help shape their career development post-high school. Researchers have identified moderate-level transition predictors that improve post-school outcomes in employment, postsecondary education, and/or independent living. This study used the Social Cognitive Career Theory to examine if a relationship exists among race/ethnicity, gender, and disability type and transition predictors among young adults with disabilities in Mississippi who completed high school in May of 2013. Additionally, this study explored whether a relationship existed between career decision self-efficacy and engagement in employment or enrollment in postsecondary ...


Development And Validation Of A Survey Of Knowledge Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Laura Katherine Hansen Dec 2015

Development And Validation Of A Survey Of Knowledge Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Laura Katherine Hansen

Master's Theses

As autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more commonly diagnosed, having knowledge of the disorder becomes increasingly important for educators, parents, and the general public. Previous research regarding knowledge of ASD, focused mainly on knowledge possessed by those in the educational field, has found that individuals may perceive themselves as possessing average knowledge regarding ASD but have low actual knowledge (as defined by the researchers) regarding specific aspects of the disorder (Williams et al., 2011). Studies support the notion that there is a general lack of knowledge of different aspects of ASD among teachers; however, there has been little research regarding ...


Exploring Perceived Norms And Protective Strategies: Self-Consciousness And Gender As Moderators, Jeremy James Noble Dec 2014

Exploring Perceived Norms And Protective Strategies: Self-Consciousness And Gender As Moderators, Jeremy James Noble

Dissertations

College alcohol abuse has been a staple in the college environment over the past 30 years (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2011) resulting in numerous negative consequences (Hingson, Edwards, Heeren, & Rosenbloom, 2009). Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) reduce the negative consequences typically associated with alcohol use (Martens et al., 2004). A positive relationship exists between perceived norms of PBS use and PBS use (Benton, Downey, Glider, & Benton, 2008), and an individual’s level of self-consciousness moderates the relationship between perceived norms and alcohol use (LaBrie, Hummer, & Neighbors, 2008). The relationship between perceived norms and PBS use under the conditions of self-consciousness has yet to be assessed. The current study aimed to assess to what extent perceived norms predicted PBS use with private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness, and social anxiety as moderators. Due to gender differences observed in these variables (Johnston et al., 2011; LaBrie, Pedersen, Neighbors, & Hummer, 2008), gender was also assessed as a moderator. Results revealed that perceived norms predicted an increase in PBS use. Private and public self-consciousness also predicted an increase in PBS use. A three-way interaction emerged between descriptive norms, private self-consciousness, and gender. Implications for college student intervention and prevention programs are discussed, as well as limitations of the study and directions for future research.


Does Video Game Use Exacerbate The Relation Between Neurophysiological Deficits And Adhd Symptoms In Children And Adolescents?, James Kenneth Goodlad Iii Dec 2014

Does Video Game Use Exacerbate The Relation Between Neurophysiological Deficits And Adhd Symptoms In Children And Adolescents?, James Kenneth Goodlad Iii

Dissertations

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed based on behavioral symptoms but is thought to have a significant heritable neurological basis, and several brain structures have been implicated. Recent research has focused on the role of environmental factors that may influence the behavioral expression of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in children and teens, particularly when a biological predisposition exists. This study sought to broaden the literature base by examining the extent to which one environmental factor—video game use—moderated the relation between neuropsychological deficits in attention and inhibition and the behavioral symptoms of ADHD. It was hypothesized that gaming frequency and ...


The Effects Of Language Complexity On Natural And Emotion Concept Formation In Early Language Learners, Stephanie Eileen Jett Dec 2014

The Effects Of Language Complexity On Natural And Emotion Concept Formation In Early Language Learners, Stephanie Eileen Jett

Dissertations

The present study investigated the role of language complexity in natural and emotion concept formation ability in young children (two- to five-year-olds). Language complexity was measured by selections from the Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Childhood Development II, and concept formation was assessed at three levels of abstraction. The natural concepts were presented as two alternative discriminations on a touch-screen computer, as follows: subordinate level (lions versus tigers), basic level (cats versus dogs), and superordinate level (animals versus nonanimals). The following emotion categories were discriminated: subordinate level (anger versus sadness), basic level (positive [happiness and positive surprise] versus negative [anger ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of The Good Behavior Game With General Education High School Students Utilizing A Changing Criterion Component, Rachel Ritter Mitchell Aug 2014

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of The Good Behavior Game With General Education High School Students Utilizing A Changing Criterion Component, Rachel Ritter Mitchell

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the interdependent group contingency procedure known as the Good Behavior Game (GBG) with upper-level (i.e., 10th, 11th, and 12th grade) general education high school students utilizing a changing criterion design. The effectiveness of the GBG has been investigated with a variety of behaviors across many developmental levels; however, limited research has been done at the high school level. To date, only a few studies have examined the effectiveness of the GBG with a general education high school population, one with a single 9th grade classroom (Kleinman & Saigh, 2011 ...


Evaluating The Use Of Tootling For Improving Upper Elementary/Middle School Students' Disruptive And Appropriate Behavior, Abigail Melanie Lambert Aug 2014

Evaluating The Use Of Tootling For Improving Upper Elementary/Middle School Students' Disruptive And Appropriate Behavior, Abigail Melanie Lambert

Dissertations

The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature on a positive peer reporting procedure called Tootling. There has been limited research on the effectiveness of the Tootling intervention for reducing disruptive behavior in the classroom (Cihak, Kirk, & Boon, 2009; Lambert, 2012). Additionally, Tootling has primarily been utilized with lower elementary school students, and the present study evaluated the intervention procedures with upper elementary/middle school students (i.e., sixth and seventh grades). The current study also examined the effects of the Tootling intervention on individual target students referred for disruptive behavior in addition to classwide student behavior. An ABAB ...


Divorce And Forgiveness: A Comparison Between Genders, Alison Kathleen Johnson May 2014

Divorce And Forgiveness: A Comparison Between Genders, Alison Kathleen Johnson

Dissertations

Divorce has become more commonplace throughout time. This study was conducted to determine if there were any differences between genders concerning forgiveness of their ex-spouses. Four instruments including the Enright Forgiveness Inventory, Fisher Divorce Assessment, Learning Activities Survey, and structured qualitative interviews were used to determine the differences specifically with regard to how men and women forgive and at what rate they forgive.

The sample included divorced adults employed by the Mississippi Department of Mental Health and graduate students in the Department of Educational Studies and Research at a local university. A total of 31 completed surveys were returned, and ...


A Comparison Of Behavioral And Academically-Focused Goals Within The Mystery Motivator: Effects On Disruptive Behavior And Academic Performance, Christina Michelle Hardy Dec 2013

A Comparison Of Behavioral And Academically-Focused Goals Within The Mystery Motivator: Effects On Disruptive Behavior And Academic Performance, Christina Michelle Hardy

Dissertations

Class-wide group contingencies are effective for decreasing inappropriate behavior and increasing academic performance. An interdependent group contingency, a subtype of group contingencies, sets a specific goal for performance across the class, and a reward is delivered only if the group meets the specified criterion. One interdependent group contingency, the Mystery Motivator, has been designed to target behavioral or academically-based goals; however these goals have guided the type of data collected. There are no published studies, to date, that compare behavioral and academic goals and the effects of each type of goal on both decreasing disruptive behavior as well as improving ...


Effects Of Check In/Checkout With A Fading Procedure On The Academic Engagement And Problem Behavior Of Elementary School Students, Leila Mullooly Miller Aug 2013

Effects Of Check In/Checkout With A Fading Procedure On The Academic Engagement And Problem Behavior Of Elementary School Students, Leila Mullooly Miller

Dissertations

Though preliminary research indicates Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) is an effective intervention for improving problematic behavior in a variety of populations, the literature is limited in several ways. Several studies have relied on indirect measures of behavior, such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and teacher ratings, to determine the effectiveness of CICO. However, indirect measures are not always reliable indicators of student behavior change, whereas direct observation is known to be an accurate tool for behavioral measurement. Therefore, the current study evaluated the effects of CICO on levels of problem behavior and academic engagement for a group of four elementary school ...


The Impact Of A Dance Aerobics Program On Middle School Girls' Physical Activity Level, Self-Efficacy, And Decisional Balance, Alexis Suozzi Bridley Aug 2013

The Impact Of A Dance Aerobics Program On Middle School Girls' Physical Activity Level, Self-Efficacy, And Decisional Balance, Alexis Suozzi Bridley

Dissertations

Rates of childhood obesity have increased dramatically in recent years. Decrease in physical activity is among the leading causes, with adolescent females at greatest risk for obesity. School-based interventions have shown promise; however, few studies have considered the type of activity on physical activity level. According to the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), intrinsic readiness, self-efficacy, and perceived risks and benefits regarding change contribute to behavior change. Yet no known studies have considered the impact of intervention with a traditionally preferred activity on selfefficacy and decisional balance. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the impact of a 2- week dance aerobics program ...


Using Brief Experimental Analyses To Identify Effective Math Interventions For Early Elementary Students, Chelsi Ronatta Clark Aug 2013

Using Brief Experimental Analyses To Identify Effective Math Interventions For Early Elementary Students, Chelsi Ronatta Clark

Dissertations

athematics difficulties, this study aimed to use a brief experimental analysis (BEA) to identify effective interventions within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Participants included four lower elementary school students who exhibited marked problems in mathematics. The effects of mathematics interventions to increase mathematic computational fluency and accuracy were assessed during the BEA. The intervention that produced the greatest gains during the BEA was compared to the intervention that produced the least gains during an extended analysis phase. It was hypothesized that: (a) during a BEA of math interventions, students will demonstrate differential responding across interventions; (b) during a BEA ...


Examining College Students' Use Of Protective Behavioral Strategies From The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Melissa Ann Bonnell Aug 2013

Examining College Students' Use Of Protective Behavioral Strategies From The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Melissa Ann Bonnell

Dissertations

Previous studies on college alcohol use suggest that approximately 65 - 73 percent of college students drank alcohol within the past 30 days (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2011; Nelson, Xuan, Lee, Weitzman, & Wechsler, 2009). Researchers also suggest that with increasing levels of alcohol consumption, students are more likely to experience alcohol-related consequences such as missing class, involvement with the legal system and expulsion from school. Therefore, prevention efforts have attempted to reduce the associated economic and personal consequences experienced with increased alcohol consumption. Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) such as using a designated driver, setting a predetermined time to stop drinking, and alternating ...


The Effects Of School-Home Notes On Teacher Reports Of Academic Productivity And Disruptive Classroom Behaviors Of Middle School Students, Nichol Frances Pritchard Dec 2012

The Effects Of School-Home Notes On Teacher Reports Of Academic Productivity And Disruptive Classroom Behaviors Of Middle School Students, Nichol Frances Pritchard

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a schoolhome note (SHN) for increasing academic productivity and decreasing disruptive classroom behaviors of four middle high school students identified as at-risk for failure and/or dropout. Participants included four students from a middle school in a southern state referred for behavioral problems and low academic productivity. A changing criterion design with a withdrawal was employed to assess intervention effectiveness. Students’ levels of academic productivity and appropriate behavior were assessed using SHN point data. Percentage of disruptive behavior, weekly rates of office discipline referrals (ODRs), and frequencies of ...


Public Versus Private Praise: A Direct Behavioral Comparison In Secondary Classrooms, John Travis Blaze Aug 2012

Public Versus Private Praise: A Direct Behavioral Comparison In Secondary Classrooms, John Travis Blaze

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of teacher public and private praise on students’ appropriately engaged behavior (AEB) and disruptive behaviors (DB). Overall, four general education classrooms in southern Mississippi employed a multiple-baseline design across two pairs to assess the effects of public and private praise. Each classroom’s mean percentage of observed intervals of AEB and DB across public and private praise intervention phases was assessed and compared. Overall, visual analysis of the graphs, multilevel modeling, effect sizes, and odds ratios showed that both public and private praise were more effective than no treatment ...


Using The Good Behavior Game To Decrease Disruptive Behavior While Increasing Academic Engagement With A Headstart Population, Brandy Marie Hunt Aug 2012

Using The Good Behavior Game To Decrease Disruptive Behavior While Increasing Academic Engagement With A Headstart Population, Brandy Marie Hunt

Dissertations

The Good Behavior Game (GBG) has been widely supported as an effective intervention to alter a variety of target behaviors, in various settings, with varying age groups; however, there are areas warranting further investigation. Prior to the present study, no study has examined the GBG’s effectiveness in decreasing disruptive behaviors while increasing appropriate academic behaviors within a preschool population. The present study adds to the literature base by investigating the GBG’s effectiveness in simultaneously decreasing classroom disruptive behaviors while increasing appropriate behaviors. A multiple baseline design across three Headstart classrooms was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the ...


Evaluation Of Performance-Based And Pre-Set Conventional Criterion For Reinforcement In Check In-Check Out, Lauren Lestremau Harpole Aug 2012

Evaluation Of Performance-Based And Pre-Set Conventional Criterion For Reinforcement In Check In-Check Out, Lauren Lestremau Harpole

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two methods of criterion-setting, performance-based or pre-set conventional, as evidenced by improvements in children’s behavior. Participant behavior was evaluated through teacher reports of appropriate behavior and observed academically engaged behavior as well as decreases in problem behavior and disruptive behavior. Eight elementary school students in a Southeastern town referred for exhibiting behavior problems served as participants in addition to their teachers. The effects of the different methods of criterion setting on the dependent variables were evaluated. Teacher ratings of appropriate behavior were assessed through evaluation of Daily ...