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Full-Text Articles in Education

Novel Use Of Conceptual Change Framework Improves Video On Challenging Science Topic, Matthew J. Helmers, Timothy D. Youngquist, Nancy Grudens-Schuck Feb 2019

Novel Use Of Conceptual Change Framework Improves Video On Challenging Science Topic, Matthew J. Helmers, Timothy D. Youngquist, Nancy Grudens-Schuck

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Educational campaigns are more complicated when members of our audiences hold scientific misconceptions related to new technologies. Our prairie strips research and education team produced a brief, focused video aimed to dispel a misconception related to the effect of prairie strip plants' roots on agricultural drain tiles in the Midwest. Our "Field Tile Investigation" video was based on the conceptual change framework from science education and featured a discrepant event. The goal was to move farmers, landowners, and their advisors to an understanding of prairie strips that was more compatible with the scientific standard.


Writing Ourselves Into Existence: Healing Through Collaborative Curriculum Development, Bianca Ivette Laureano, Sara C. Flowers Drph Nov 2018

Writing Ourselves Into Existence: Healing Through Collaborative Curriculum Development, Bianca Ivette Laureano, Sara C. Flowers Drph

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

Here we offer an open exchange / evaluation of our experience as facilitator and editor (Bianca) and writer and collaborator (Sara) during the inaugural Women of Color Sexual Health Network Curriculum Lab which took place November 2017 in New Orleans, LA. In two months, 7 women and femmes of color who are sexuality educators wrote a robust curriculum for our communities that centers pleasure, social emotional learning competencies as early Freedom Schools implemented, sex and pleasure positive, using an intersectional framework and praxis, disability justice framework, inclusive of LGBTQ communities, and does not assume HIV negative status. This is one of ...


Transdisciplinary Graduate Training In Predictive Plant Phenomics, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Theodore J. Heindel, Patrick S. Schnable, Stephanie J. Strong, Jill Wittrock, Mary E. Losch, Julie A. Dickerson May 2018

Transdisciplinary Graduate Training In Predictive Plant Phenomics, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Theodore J. Heindel, Patrick S. Schnable, Stephanie J. Strong, Jill Wittrock, Mary E. Losch, Julie A. Dickerson

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Novel methods to increase crop productivity are required to meet anticipated demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. It is becoming feasible to use modern sensors and data analysis techniques for predicting plant growth and productivity based on genomic, phenotypic, and environmental data. To design and construct crops that deliver desired traits requires trained personnel with scientific and engineering expertise as well as a variety of “soft” skills. To address these needs at Iowa State University, we developed a graduate specialization called “Predictive Plant Phenomics” (P3). Although some of our experiences may be unique, many of the specialization’s principles ...


Perceptions Of Career And Technical Education By Pre-Service Students, Scott W. Smalley, Kelsey Sands May 2018

Perceptions Of Career And Technical Education By Pre-Service Students, Scott W. Smalley, Kelsey Sands

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Agricultural education programs are one component of Career and Technical Education (CTE). For CTE to be effective, educators teaching CTE courses must be able to make connections between the curriculum and real-life situations. This qualitative study explored self-reported perceptions of CTE by pre-service students. Wigfield and Eccles’ expectancy-value model of achievement was used as the framework for this study. Findings indicated that career and technical education provides benefits for everyone because it helps develop career skills. With the shortage of educators and budget cuts, career and technical education cannot continue to survive. Participants also describe characteristics of successful career and ...


Rapid Needs Assessment And Response Technique, Jacqueline Comito, Brandy Case Haub, Mark Licht Apr 2018

Rapid Needs Assessment And Response Technique, Jacqueline Comito, Brandy Case Haub, Mark Licht

Agronomy Publications

The rapid needs assessment and response technique (RNR) is a useful tool for Extension professionals seeking ways to improve workshop structure. Facilitators using RNR organize workshop participants in small groups and then rotate the groups through a series of stations where participants dialogue on questions central to the workshop topic. The technique helps adult learners actively engage with one another, thus improving their ability to learn the subject matter. Use of RNR also allows facilitators to understand participants' existing knowledge of a workshop topic and tailor their education to participants' specific questions and needs.


Walking Off The Runway To Find One’S Place In The Fashion Market-Developing New Curriculum To Enable Fashion Students To Gain Real-World Experience Outside The Runway, Cathy Starr Jan 2018

Walking Off The Runway To Find One’S Place In The Fashion Market-Developing New Curriculum To Enable Fashion Students To Gain Real-World Experience Outside The Runway, Cathy Starr

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

ITAA Proceedings


Job Stress, Burnout, And Professional Development Needs Of Mid-Career Agricultural Education Teachers, Amy Smith, Scott Smalley Jan 2018

Job Stress, Burnout, And Professional Development Needs Of Mid-Career Agricultural Education Teachers, Amy Smith, Scott Smalley

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Retaining high quality school-based agricultural education teachers is a growing concern across the United States. This study focused on mid-career agricultural education teachers’ perceptions of job stress, burnout, job satisfaction, and professional development needs related to National Quality Program Standards for Secondary Agriculture Education (The National Council for Agricultural Education, 2009). The target population for this study was participants in the 2013 NAAE eXcellence in Leadership for Retention (XLR8) professional development program. Overall, XLR8 participants indicated the highest levels of job stress related to Standard 2 – Experiential Learning and Standard 7 – Program Planning and Evaluation. Participants were least stressed over ...


Early Field Experience Course Students’ Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education Laboratory Environments, Trent Wells, Scott W. Smalley, Bryan D. Rank Jan 2018

Early Field Experience Course Students’ Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education Laboratory Environments, Trent Wells, Scott W. Smalley, Bryan D. Rank

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Laboratory instruction is an important component of school-based agricultural education (SBAE) programs (Phipps, Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008). Early field experience (EFE) coursework can be an important component of agricultural teacher preparation programs (Retallick & Miller, 2007). Through the use of a modified photovoice technique, we sought to identify the perceptions of students (i.e., preservice teachers) enrolled in an EFE course in relation to the laboratory environment component of the SBAE model. Students enrolled in a 40-hour EFE course photographed a laboratory environment at their placement site and completed a 250-word descriptive/reflective summary of the laboratory. Through open coding of the summaries, three prominent themes emerged: 1) project-based learning is widely used for instructional purposes; 2) laboratory environments are set up and arranged in particular fashions based on needs; and 3) laboratory environments are arranged as settings for effective learning. Within the photographs, the agricultural mechanics laboratory was most commonly identified as a laboratory environment. The EFE students identified laboratory environments are not always traditional in their scope, and classrooms can serve as laboratory environments. We recommend photovoice be further used as a tool to explore students’ perceptions of the realities of modern SBAE programs.


Over The Edge: Factors Nudging Mid-Career, School- Based Agriculture Teachers Out Of The Profession, Jay K. Solomonson, Michael S. Retallick Jan 2018

Over The Edge: Factors Nudging Mid-Career, School- Based Agriculture Teachers Out Of The Profession, Jay K. Solomonson, Michael S. Retallick

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

The field of agricultural education has experienced a consistent labor shortage the past several decades. Consequently, many school districts struggle to fill their open positions, while others are forced to shut down their agricultural programs completely due to inadequate staffing. Teacher attrition has been identified as a predominant factor behind the teacher shortage. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify factors influencing mid-career school-based agriculture teachers’ decision to stay in or leave the secondary agriculture teaching profession. Researchers developed and administered questionnaires, as well as conducted interviews, to gather data from current, mid-career agriculture teachers to answer the ...


Factors Contributing To Illinois School-Based Agriculture Teachers’ Final Decision To Leave The Classroom, Jay K. Solomonson, Debra S. Korte, Erica B. Thieman, Michael S. Retallick, Kari H. Keating Jan 2018

Factors Contributing To Illinois School-Based Agriculture Teachers’ Final Decision To Leave The Classroom, Jay K. Solomonson, Debra S. Korte, Erica B. Thieman, Michael S. Retallick, Kari H. Keating

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Teacher attrition is a significant problem nationally and a special challenge for school-based agriculture education programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate contributing variables associated with former Illinois school-based agriculture teachers and their decision to leave the profession. A four-factor conceptual model is proposed as a framework for explaining agriculture teacher retention or attrition and includes the multivariate constructs of Personal Factors, Working Conditions, Teacher Development, and Compensation. Demographic characteristics are explored as well as difference between novice and experienced teachers and their perceptions of attrition influences. This study is unique in that it reports survey data from ...


Evaluating First Year Agriculture Teachers’ Use Of Reflection, Amanda Meder, Scott Smalley, Michael Retallick Jan 2018

Evaluating First Year Agriculture Teachers’ Use Of Reflection, Amanda Meder, Scott Smalley, Michael Retallick

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Reflection is a useful tool which improves teaching approaches; however, many first-year teachers do not appear to reflect upon their instructional plans (McAlpine & Weston, 2000). Prior research has indicated preservice teachers are not utilizing the acquired reflective approaches learned throughout the teacher preparation program (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Kagan & Tippins, 1992; Reynolds, 1993). It is believed teachers fail to implement reflective practice in their professional practice because they have not acquired the pedagogical knowledge to effectively reflect (McAlpine & Weston, 2000). The primary purpose of this study was to determine if beginning agricultural education teachers employed a systematic approach of reflection, determine what components of the teacher preparation program aided in learning, how to reflect, and to examine first-year teachers’ gratification with the reflective approaches learned from Iowa ...


The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish Jan 2018

The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Citizen science has been shown to be an effective tool for increasing data collection, as well as a great benefit to those who participate in the research project. The rising costs and limited funding for conducting large-scale research projects make citizen science projects valuable assets for researchers. Understanding the impact of citizen science projects on the volunteers must be done to better engage with and retain the volunteers. The Growing Together project, a partnership between the ISU Extension and Outreach Master Gardener program and the Human Sciences Extension, was created to increase food security in Iowa. The two major components ...


Implementation Of The Food Safety Modernization Act Among Fruit And Vegetable Processors In The North Central Region, Jacques Ludwig Alexander Overdiep Iii Jan 2018

Implementation Of The Food Safety Modernization Act Among Fruit And Vegetable Processors In The North Central Region, Jacques Ludwig Alexander Overdiep Iii

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) is a food safety law that changed the way food companies are regulated to prevent foodborne illnesses. The FSMA Preventive Controls for Human Food rule was released September 2016 for facilities in manufacturing, processing, packing, and holding of human food. The North Central Region (NCR) Center for FSMA Training, Extension and Technical Assistance was founded by the Food and Drug Administration to assist with the education of processors around the Midwest. The NCR Center funded a project with three phases designed to help small fruit and vegetable processors in the Midwest understand their relationship ...


Perceived Distance And Instructional Design In Online Agriculture And Life Science Courses, Yahya S. Alotibi Jan 2018

Perceived Distance And Instructional Design In Online Agriculture And Life Science Courses, Yahya S. Alotibi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to describe relationships between factors that influence perceived transactional distance (course structure, course interaction, and learner autonomy) and instructional design aspects that help to reduce transactional distance from the learner's perspective. Using Transactional Distance Theory. Specifically, the study sought to identify the extent to which learners felt they were distant from their online course and describe relationships between online students’ perceived distance and factors of transactional distance (course structure, interactions, and learner autonomy).

An online survey was disseminated to 271 students who enrolled in online courses in the College of Agriculture and ...


Barriers And Motivators For Tractors Rops Retrofitting In Iowa, Charles V. Schwab, J. Gordon Arbuckle, H. Mark Hanna Jan 2018

Barriers And Motivators For Tractors Rops Retrofitting In Iowa, Charles V. Schwab, J. Gordon Arbuckle, H. Mark Hanna

Sociology Publications

Iowa State University Extension and Outreach conducted an assessment of Iowa farm operators’ perceptions about the barriers and motivators when considering retrofitting tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS). A statewide sample of approximately 2,000 farm operators were surveyed in the 2017 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. A series of questions were asked to evaluate the importance of potential barriers to decisions not to retrofit a tractor and potential motivators that could influence the decision to retrofit or purchase a tractor with ROPS. The survey received a 48% response rate with 999 responses. Among the 76% of Iowa farm ...


Utilizing Multivariate Analysis For Assessing Student Learning Through Effective College-Industry Partnerships, Caleb Burns, Shweta Chopra, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Gretchen A. Mosher Jan 2018

Utilizing Multivariate Analysis For Assessing Student Learning Through Effective College-Industry Partnerships, Caleb Burns, Shweta Chopra, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Gretchen A. Mosher

Political Science Publications

There is no doubt that college–industry collaborations are vital to the success of undergraduate students with engineering and technology majors. This collaboration provides students with an opportunity to bridge the gap between classroom education and real-world experience. Inviting industry representatives to engage in the classroom and involving students with professional organizations, student field trips, virtual plant tours, and industry-focused final projects are ways in which an instructor can incorporate student–industry engagement into their course. During their undergraduate degree program, students are required to participate in an internship program where they gain substantial industry engagement and opportunities to learn ...


Using Immediate Feedback To Improve Short-Term Learning In Extension, Erin W. Hodgson Jan 2018

Using Immediate Feedback To Improve Short-Term Learning In Extension, Erin W. Hodgson

Entomology Publications

Program evaluation is an important part of any extension program and is often a required component by funding agencies. Given declining resources in land-grant universities, we must be creative in evaluating the learning and adoption of our research-based recommendations. I used a survey tool to give immediate feedback to participants in a wide variety of situations. Results indicate adults were receptive to this evaluation method, and close-ended questions can provide reliable evaluation data in an extension program. People showed improved significant learning with this technique and it is a model for other extension personnel.


Perceptions Of Middle, High School And Community College Agricultural Teachers In Iowa Regarding Agricultural Awareness Concepts And Activities In The Middle School Curriculum: Grades 7-9, Abisoye Oyeyinka Odubanjo Jan 2018

Perceptions Of Middle, High School And Community College Agricultural Teachers In Iowa Regarding Agricultural Awareness Concepts And Activities In The Middle School Curriculum: Grades 7-9, Abisoye Oyeyinka Odubanjo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Teachers are relied upon to teach basic agricultural knowledge among young learners who are devoid of real-world agricultural experiences. The middle school serves as a tool for achieving this goal because self and environmental awareness, and career choices begin at this educational stage. Since agricultural teachers are the major driver of agricultural education program in the middle school, their perceptions regarding this program are important. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of agricultural teachers regarding teaching agriculture and selected course content in the middle school. The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a theoretical framework ...


Training Reduces The Drawing Detriments Associated With Categorical Perception, Larissa F. Arnold Jan 2018

Training Reduces The Drawing Detriments Associated With Categorical Perception, Larissa F. Arnold

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research suggests that categorical perception may interfere with a novice artist’s ability to accurately draw simple shapes. Specifically, when asked to draw two shapes of slightly different sizes, participants tend to exaggerate the categorical difference between the two and draw the small shape too small. Similarly, participants tend to draw oblique angles more oblique than they should be when they are close to perpendicular or overlapping. The current set of experiments investigated whether these categorical errors could predict participants’ drawing ability on a more complex drawing task. A simple linear regression revealed that categorical errors in angle could ...


Eliminating Writer’S Block: Flipped Classroom Meets Thinkspace, Janet Johnson, Maren Wolff, Samantha Pritchard, Holly Bender, Kajal Madeka Oct 2017

Eliminating Writer’S Block: Flipped Classroom Meets Thinkspace, Janet Johnson, Maren Wolff, Samantha Pritchard, Holly Bender, Kajal Madeka

ThinkSpace and Open TBL Presentations

This video interview elaborates the methodology that was presented at a Poster session at the Food & Nutrition Conference and Expo at Chicago, Oct 21 - 24, 2017.

Background: Students find writing the personal statement to be a challenging and anxiety-producing aspect of the internship application. We previously implemented Flipped Classroom and small group learning approaches into the Foundations of Dietetics course. While these strategies facilitated peer feedback on personal statements, students lacked a structured system for providing comments and were limited with in-class time to provide feedback.

Methods: Using ThinkSpace, a web-based active learning tool, students completed guided reflections in class ...


The Food Consumption Habits Of 145 Iowa Farm Families, P. Mabel Nelson, Elizabeth E. Hoyt, Laura Mclaughlin, Ethel Cessna Morgan Aug 2017

The Food Consumption Habits Of 145 Iowa Farm Families, P. Mabel Nelson, Elizabeth E. Hoyt, Laura Mclaughlin, Ethel Cessna Morgan

Bulletin

The food consumption habits of 145 Iowa farm families were studied from records of expenditures for food and of food produced by farms during one year. Forty-three families in the central part of the state near Ames, 49 families in the southwestern part near Corning, and 53 families near Oelwein in the northeastern part of the state cooperated in the study.

The nutritive values of the respective diets were calculated for the families in the Ames group and for the average of the families in each of the other two groups.

The energy values of these diets and their content ...


Value Of Family Living On Iowa Farms, Elizabeth Ellis Hoyt Aug 2017

Value Of Family Living On Iowa Farms, Elizabeth Ellis Hoyt

Bulletin

The average value of living1 of 147 Iowa farm families who kept accounts for one year was $1,624.95. The average size of household was 4.8 persons. For three-fourths of these families value of living fell between $1,200 and $2,400.

The farm furnished an average of 42.6 percent of the value of living of all families.

Food cost these families an average of $640.86, or 39.4 percent of the total value of living. Over three-fifths of the food was furnished by the farm. The average of all diets was adequate for energy ...


Influence Of The Animal's Age Upon The Quality And Palatability Of Beef, M. D. Helser, P. Mabel Nelson, Belle Lowe Aug 2017

Influence Of The Animal's Age Upon The Quality And Palatability Of Beef, M. D. Helser, P. Mabel Nelson, Belle Lowe

Bulletin

1. Beef from two-year-old and yearling steers is more desirable than beef from calves both in the feeder and finished stages.

2. Finished cattle show higher dressing and cutting yields than unfinished cattle.

3. The age of the animal has little influence on the percentages of the various cuts of beef.

4. Beef from young animals is lighter in color than that from older animals.

5. The distribution of fat thru the lean was more, satisfactory in the yearling and two-year-old beef than in beef from the calves.

6. Beef from older animals will ripen more satisfactorily than beef from ...


Organoleptic, Chemical, Physical And Microscopic Characteristics Of Muscles In Eight Beef Carcasses, Differing In Age Of Animal, Carcass Grade And Extent Of Cooking, Belle Lowe, Joseph Kastelic Jun 2017

Organoleptic, Chemical, Physical And Microscopic Characteristics Of Muscles In Eight Beef Carcasses, Differing In Age Of Animal, Carcass Grade And Extent Of Cooking, Belle Lowe, Joseph Kastelic

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Studies have been made of the organoleptic and some chemical, physical and microscopic characteristics of cooked and uncooked beef muscles obtained from carcasses of animals differing in age and quality. The beef animals were divided into pairs according to animal age and carcass grade. Group I included animals I and V - age, 18 months; carcass grade, Commercial. Group 2 included animals II and VI - age, 18 months; carcass grade, Choice. Group 3 consisted of animals III and VII - age, 6 months; carcass grade, Commercial. Group 4 included animals IV and VIII - age, 42-48 months; carcass grade, Commercial.

Roasts were obtained ...


Educational Needs Of Three Socio-Economic Groups Of Rural Homemakers In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle Jun 2017

Educational Needs Of Three Socio-Economic Groups Of Rural Homemakers In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In the belief that a study of the practices and problems of rural homemakers would yield information from which some of their educational needs could be inferred, a project was designed at the Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station to investigate the homemaking practices of rural homemakers in Iowa. Of special concern in the study were the practices and problems of women in the low socio-economic group who often are not served by adult education agencies. 1 If their practices and problems differ widely from those of the middle and high socioeconomic group, part of the explanation for their ...


Food Intakes Of 2,189 Women In Five North Central States, Pearl Swanson, Elisabeth Willis, Emil Jebe, Janice M. Smith, Margaret A. Ohlson, Alice Biester, Lida M. Burrill Jun 2017

Food Intakes Of 2,189 Women In Five North Central States, Pearl Swanson, Elisabeth Willis, Emil Jebe, Janice M. Smith, Margaret A. Ohlson, Alice Biester, Lida M. Burrill

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Nearly 2,200 women, ranging in age from 30 to more than 90 years, living in five North Central states, provided the 24-hour dietaries from which data summarized in this bulletin were obtained. The women interviewed in Iowa and South Dakota were selected by area-probability sampling methods, so that they represented all women over 29 years of age in each of these two states. Four other samples were drawn from three urban centers: one from Urbana, Illinois; two (one white, one Negro) from Lansing-East Lansing, Michigan; and one from St. Paul, Minnesota.

The mean nutritive values of 24-hour dietaries reported ...


Management Aspects Of School Lunch Programs In Iowa, Beatrice Donaldson, Grace M. Augustine Jun 2017

Management Aspects Of School Lunch Programs In Iowa, Beatrice Donaldson, Grace M. Augustine

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Efficient management of school lunch programs involves the operation of the food service to provide attractive, palatable and nutritionally adequate meals and the realization of the educational potentialities of such programs. These are recognized as important management aspects of feeding children at school.

This bulletin reports results of a survey of management aspects of school lunch programs in 25 Iowa schools which were drawn as a sample to represent the 622 Iowa schools in which full meals were served during the 1948-49 school year. The survey was made in connection with a regional study of the nutritional status of school ...


Educational Needs Of Less Privileged Homemakers In A Rural County In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle Jun 2017

Educational Needs Of Less Privileged Homemakers In A Rural County In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Even though only six states had a rural level of living index higher than Iowa in 1940, according to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, many families in Iowa were living at a level much below that suggested by the index and were at a disadvantage in income and in education. A study of the economic problems of farmers in Iowa in 1939 showed that 81 percent of them had a net cash income below $1,200 and 64 percent had a total income of less than $1,200. Even in the prosperous years after World War II when incomes in ...


Defrosting And Cooking Frozen Meat: The Effect Of Method Of Defrosting And Of The Manner And Temperature Of Cooking Upon Weight Loss And Palatability, Belle Lowe, Elma Crain, Georgia Amick, Mildred Riedesel, Louise J. Peet, Florence Busse Smith, Buford R. Mcclurg, P. S. Shearer Jun 2017

Defrosting And Cooking Frozen Meat: The Effect Of Method Of Defrosting And Of The Manner And Temperature Of Cooking Upon Weight Loss And Palatability, Belle Lowe, Elma Crain, Georgia Amick, Mildred Riedesel, Louise J. Peet, Florence Busse Smith, Buford R. Mcclurg, P. S. Shearer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The primary objective of this study was to determine the time for defrosting cuts of beef, veal, Iamb and pork by four methods and to consider the effect of the method of defrosting upon the palatability of the cooked meat. The methods of defrosting were: (1) in the refrigerator, (2) at room temperature, (3) in water and (4) during cooking.

Data to determine the weight loss during defrosting, weight loss during cooking, time for cooking and the amount of fuel needed for cooking were also recorded.

The methods of cooking employed with the different cuts of meat were roasting, broiling ...


Farm Family Housing Needs And Preferences In The North Central Region, Paulena Nickell, Marie Budolfson, Margaret Liston, Elisabeth Willis Jun 2017

Farm Family Housing Needs And Preferences In The North Central Region, Paulena Nickell, Marie Budolfson, Margaret Liston, Elisabeth Willis

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This bulletin reports the results of a survey of farm family preferences and activities as they relate to housing needs, carried on as a cooperative regional project by the agricultural experiment stations in 12 North Central states and the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics of the United States Department of Agriculture. A sample survey of nearly 900 households, made in the spring of 1948, provides a basis for making reliable estimates of the housing needs and preferences of the 2,270,000 households in the open-country portion of the North Central region.

The information obtained about preferences-about what ...