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Full-Text Articles in History

Crisis In The European Union: The Politics Of Integration, Engagement, And Dissent, 2008-2016, Edward I.C. Reminiskey Jun 2019

Crisis In The European Union: The Politics Of Integration, Engagement, And Dissent, 2008-2016, Edward I.C. Reminiskey

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This thesis is a comprehensive interpretation of European political history in the periodization from 2008 to 2016. The history begins with an exploration of the intellectual and political origins of the post-World War II project of European integration and the development of, and opposition to, the early institutions that eventually formed the contemporary assemblage of the European Union. Following a traditionally structured history, this work is styled as a ‘history of the present’ that specifies the role of the European Union in precipitating and attempting to overcome the financial and monetary crises, foreign policy quandaries on its Eastern periphery, an ...


Herbert Hoover And The Problem Of American Indians, Mary Levine May 2019

Herbert Hoover And The Problem Of American Indians, Mary Levine

Across the Bridge: The Merrimack Undergraduate Research Journal

In the 1930s, federal American Indian policy shifted dramatically away from seeking to end all tribes and break up reservation lands. The shift towards re-recognizing American Indian Native nations as enduring political entities is often characterized as beginning under President Roosevelt and with the guidance of John Collier. In fact, it was Roosevelt's predecessor, Herbert Hoover, who gave attention to and laid the foundation for this profound shift in federal Indian policy. This paper presents the historical evidence of Hoover's deeply held interest in American Indian affairs and the consequences of this interest. Hoover began his term as ...


Analysis Considering The Significance Of The Use Of Naval Blockades During The Napoleonic Wars, John J. Janora May 2019

Analysis Considering The Significance Of The Use Of Naval Blockades During The Napoleonic Wars, John J. Janora

The Exposition

During the course of the 18th and 19th centuries the British Navy took an age old method of manipulating and dominating an enemy, the naval blockade, and perfected it. The blockade was going to be used by a generation of admirals, captains, and crews in a way that would cause pain, financially, physically and psychologically, on a large swath of the western world, much of it specifically centered on ensuring that Napoleon and his aggressively expansionist France would pay too dear a price if they tried to move off of the European mainland. The British Navy and their continued use ...


The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning May 2019

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

An examination of Tolkien’s conception of history, the crisis of unpreparedness preceding the Second World War, and a relating of the story of Churchill’s warnings and eventual ascension to the position of Prime Minister. This study will compare the historical perspective of Tolkien, as represented in his fictional works, with the turmoil that transpired during the early days of WWII. Mostly, it will demonstrate how Tolkien’s view of history manifested itself within the context of the very perilous realities leading up to WWII. Nonetheless, a larger portrait of the nation of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, and their ...


1st Place Research Paper: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn May 2019

1st Place Research Paper: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

"A case study of the Czechoslovak New Wave and New Hollywood compares the functioning of cinematic movements under Communist and Capitalist societies. The period of the 1960s-70s in which these movements take place is emblematic of the shift from modernist to postmodernist structuring of society, which will be analyzed through the framework of Frederic Jameson, Alain Badiou, and Jean Baudrillard."


Mapping Policy Issues: A Simple, Active-Learning Exercise For Critical Thinking, Richard Holtzman May 2019

Mapping Policy Issues: A Simple, Active-Learning Exercise For Critical Thinking, Richard Holtzman

History and Social Sciences Faculty Journal Articles

Many students in my undergraduate American politics courses struggle to see policy issues as complex. Too often, they get stuck making surface-level observations or jumping straight to personal opinions, falling far short of critical thinking. This article introduces an active-learning exercise—situational mapping—that provokes students to recognize and think critically about the complexities of policy issues such as immigration, abortion, campaign financing, and guns. Adapted from a grounded-theory research technique, the goals of this mapping exercise are to (1) help students see policy issues as messy, (2) encourage them to “wallow in complexity” rather than oversimplify, and (3) provoke ...


The Diaspora Of Iranian Intellectuals In The 20th Century: Emigration And The Rise In Academic Internationalism, Skylar M. Deitch May 2019

The Diaspora Of Iranian Intellectuals In The 20th Century: Emigration And The Rise In Academic Internationalism, Skylar M. Deitch

Young Historians Conference

From the Achaemenid dynasty of the fifth century B.C.E., to the conquest of Persia by Mongol forces of Genghis Khan in the tenth century C.E., the Iranian monarchy withstood several political interventions, both domestic and foreign. The Iranian Cultural Revolution of 1979, however, toppled the longstanding Pahlavi dynasty of the nation, and inaugurated a democratic republic. The Revolution’s origins on university campuses and in the living rooms of the middle class continue to engage historical focus as a revolution sparked by the public. Students and professors alike who felt that the traditionalist regime persecuted a modernizing ...


Katanga Secession: The Growth And Manipulation Of Ethnic Associations, Hannah L. Mohtadi May 2019

Katanga Secession: The Growth And Manipulation Of Ethnic Associations, Hannah L. Mohtadi

Young Historians Conference

The Katanga province in the Democratic Republic of Congo remains one of the most minerally rich regions in the world, leading to many political and social interferences by foreign powers hoping to secure a part of the wealth. Following decades of oppressive colonial rule, the Democratic Republic of Congo gained independence from Belgium in 1960, sparking a violent political shift and allowing a secessionist movement to take place in Katanga. While it is commonly held that foreign powers manipulated indigenous leaders in order to remain a powerful source within the community, this assertion is inaccurate. Although external powers undoubtedly shaped ...


The Casualties Of U.S. Grand Strategy: Korean Exclusion From The San Francisco Peace Treaty And The Pacific Pact, Syrus Jin May 2019

The Casualties Of U.S. Grand Strategy: Korean Exclusion From The San Francisco Peace Treaty And The Pacific Pact, Syrus Jin

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

From August 1945 to September 1951, the United States had a unique opportunity to define and frame how it would approach its foreign relations in the Asia-Pacific region. As the dominant power in the Pacific after World War II and claiming direct authority over vanquished Japan, the United States had the liberty to design its own post-war vision for the entire region. Until 1951, American State Department diplomats and government planners, attempted—ultimately unsuccessfully—to harmonize the competing motivations of lingering World War II multilateralist idealism and Cold War geopolitics in a postcolonial, postwar world. This thesis examines U.S ...


“Nothing Wrong With Prejudice And Discrimination:” Omaha Newspaper Coverage Of The Civil Rights Movement In 1968, Charlotte Reilly May 2019

“Nothing Wrong With Prejudice And Discrimination:” Omaha Newspaper Coverage Of The Civil Rights Movement In 1968, Charlotte Reilly

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

This thesis discusses Omaha newspaper coverage of the Civil Rights Movement from January to April 1968. As the Vietnam War raged, racial tension continued to build in the United States, including Omaha, Nebraska. Despite its desegregation, a primarily white, male government controlled the city. The visit of Alabama Governor George Wallace, a widely known white-supremacist presidential candidate, and the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. exacerbated the anger already felt by black communities throughout the city. This thesis examines the accuracy and contrasting content of the Omaha Star, a newspaper created to serve the black community, and the Omaha ...


Interview Of Fred J. Foley, Jr., Ph.D., Fred J. Foley Ph.D., Jeanmarie Turner May 2019

Interview Of Fred J. Foley, Jr., Ph.D., Fred J. Foley Ph.D., Jeanmarie Turner

All Oral Histories

Dr. Fred Foley, Jr. was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in December of 1946. His parents were Fred Joseph Foley and Doris Nelson Foley. He moved to the Philadelphia area with his family when he was four years old. He is married, has three children and four grandchildren. He lived in Delaware County growing up. Dr. Foley attended St. Andrew's Grade School and Monsignor Bonner High School for Boys. He attended St. Joseph’s College as an undergrad majoring in Politics. He graduated with a B.A. in Politics in 1968. He attended Princeton University for his Master’s and ...


Cosmopolitan Democracy: Re-Evaluation Of Globalization And World Economic System, Muhammad Dalhatu May 2019

Cosmopolitan Democracy: Re-Evaluation Of Globalization And World Economic System, Muhammad Dalhatu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis examines cosmopolitan democracy theory as a method of addressing the problems of globalization. I begin by introducing the concept of “cosmopolitan democracy.” I then proceed to discuss contemporary political climate and its relation to critiques of globalization. Finally, I conclude by examining the elaborations of cosmopolitan democracy by various theorists as a way of addressing these problems. Chapter 1 introduces the work of David Held who introduced the concept in his book, Cosmopolitan Democracy and the Global Order: Reflections on the 20th Anniversary of Kant’s “Perpetual Peace.” Cosmopolitan democracy refers to global governance through democratic theory ...


Art And War: Republican Propaganda Of The Spanish Civil War, Jason Manrique May 2019

Art And War: Republican Propaganda Of The Spanish Civil War, Jason Manrique

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis focuses on propaganda used by the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) to gain support for their cause and win the war. It focuses on three forms of media: cinema, posters and photography, and it is divided into an introduction, three separate chapters, and a conclusion. In them I provide a historical context on the II Republic and the Civil War and analyze the effectiveness of concrete artworks to propagate the Republican message.


"I Deny Your Authority To Try My Conscience:" Conscription And Conscientious Objectors In Britain During The Great War, Albert William Wetter May 2019

"I Deny Your Authority To Try My Conscience:" Conscription And Conscientious Objectors In Britain During The Great War, Albert William Wetter

Honors Projects

During the Great War, the Military Service Act was introduced on January 27, 1916 and redefined British citizenship. Moreover, some men objected to the state’s military service mandate, adamant that compliance violated their conscience. This thesis investigates how the introduction of conscription reshaped British society, dismantled the “sacred principle” of volunteerism, and replaced it with conscription, resulting in political and popular debates, which altered the individual’s relationship with the state. British society transformed from a polity defined by the tenets of Liberalism and a free-will social contract to a society where citizenship was correlated to duty to the ...


Keith Haring: Silence = Death, Nellie Jalalian May 2019

Keith Haring: Silence = Death, Nellie Jalalian

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The American aids crisis is one of the most important epidemics of the contemporary world, yet many americans do not know the severity of the crisis or the true lasting effects on recent society. In my project I will go over personal accounts of individuals directly affected by the illness, like famed artist Keith Haring, to give it a more human perspective. I will also reflect on the art that was created at the time, and how that was reflective on the people affected. Aids is an immunodeficiency virus that has been proven difficult to diagnose in the early on ...


Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube Apr 2019

Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube

Madison Historical Review

Throughout the First World War, newspapers around the world mocked the British state for its lavish spending on captured German officers kept at Donington Hall, a refurbished English estate. Why was this camp such a controversial space of perceived decadence? I argue that its comforts seemed to linger from an earlier era, one in which military men exuded genteel civility as integral to their supposedly heroic service. The British state essentially enabled such treatment, and the public decried this space for sustaining the anachronism of aristocratic privilege in the face of a globalized total war. However, the German inmates expected ...


Oral Argument Tactics On The Supreme Court Bench: A Comparative Analysis Of Verbal Tools Used By Justices Sotomayor, Kagan, And Gorsuch, Corinne Cichowicz Apr 2019

Oral Argument Tactics On The Supreme Court Bench: A Comparative Analysis Of Verbal Tools Used By Justices Sotomayor, Kagan, And Gorsuch, Corinne Cichowicz

Politics Honors Papers

Oral argument scholars like Adam Feldman have categorized the Supreme Court justices’ behavior during oral argument using the approach-based method, labeling each as one-sided, even-handed, or restrained. This approach is too narrowly constructed. Scholars sometimes categorize justices in terms of the tools they use, which include questions, hypotheticals, declarations, interruptions, tone of voice, and silence (Feldman 2018a). Neither of these methods alone produce a nuanced analysis of each justice’s actions during an individual case or across a Term. As the Court’s composition and dynamics are continuously changing, scholarship on oral argument needs to adapt to become more effective ...


Two Poems: Stop Time Before; Forsaken Ones, Ánh-Hoa Thị Nguyễn Apr 2019

Two Poems: Stop Time Before; Forsaken Ones, Ánh-Hoa Thị Nguyễn

Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement

This creative work features two poems: Stop Time Before; Forsaken Ones


Don't Delete That Tweet: Federal And Presidential Records In The Age Of Social Media, Gabriel M. A. Elorreaga Apr 2019

Don't Delete That Tweet: Federal And Presidential Records In The Age Of Social Media, Gabriel M. A. Elorreaga

St. Mary's Law Journal

Statutes governing preservation of presidential records must be adapted to accommodate presidents’ evolving use of social media accounts. The Freedom of Information Act is meant to promote government transparency, and subjects governmental agencies to information requests from members of the public. However, as it relates to social media records, the problem is one of volume; are the means of preservation currently in place able to adequately address the vast amount of records created by a President’s use of social media? This Comment argues that they are not, although they do provide a useful basis for how to adapt record ...


Women Of The War: Female Espionage Agents For The Confederacy, Sarah Stellhorn Apr 2019

Women Of The War: Female Espionage Agents For The Confederacy, Sarah Stellhorn

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

Although historians have frequently examined the role of women on the home front during the Civil War, women who contributed to the cause in more direct ways, such as espionage, are often neglected. An in-depth examination of specific females spying for the Confederacy, such as Rose O’Neal Greenhow and Belle Boyd, proves that their actions, both remarkable and uncharacteristic of women at the time, had a direct impact on the war. A vast network of spies and smugglers existed not only in the southern and border states but also throughout the North, even in Washington D.C. itself. This ...


Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H. Tajer, Amir H. Zekrgoo Apr 2019

Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H. Tajer, Amir H. Zekrgoo

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The evolution of the concept of spiritual/religious wisdom (ḥikamt) by the Iranian Muslim philosophers from the 10th to 12th century, may be studied under three main trends namely Mashā’i (Peripatetic), Kalām (theology), and Ishrāq (Illumination). Despite the correlation among these trends each of them grew independently. Among the three, the Hikmat-i Ishrāq (Illumination Wisdom) which is also known as Ḥikamt-i Dhawqi (Intuitive Wisdom) of Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1153-1191) found a special place as it tended to bring together the philosophical and theological aspects of wisdom. This survey would address the development of ikmat (wisdom) among ...


Engaging Existing And Emergent Experiences: Narratives Among Young Filipinas On Guam, Tabitha Espina Velasco Apr 2019

Engaging Existing And Emergent Experiences: Narratives Among Young Filipinas On Guam, Tabitha Espina Velasco

Race and Pedagogy Journal: Teaching and Learning for Justice

While Filipino people comprise the second-highest percentage of the population on Guam, unfortunately there is not a comparable amount of scholarly publication about the Guam Filipino population, much less on Filipinas specifically. Although there is scholarly interest in this area, there is also concern over the availability of primary texts. Profound questions arise because of this dearth: In what ways are Filipinas on Guam writing about their experiences about life on the island? How can existing narratives be brought into conversation with emergent narratives? This paper responds to the perceived silence by advocating revolution through language, as educators on Guam ...


The Effect Of The American Presidency On The Behavior Of American Citizens: A Glimpse Into How Donald Trump Has Affected The Behavior Of The American Population, Carter Elliott Apr 2019

The Effect Of The American Presidency On The Behavior Of American Citizens: A Glimpse Into How Donald Trump Has Affected The Behavior Of The American Population, Carter Elliott

Student Scholar Showcase

Using data from a Gallup Poll conducted in 2018, and data from recent major events within the United States, I argue that the President of the United States has a significant impact on the overall behavior of American Citizens. In the two years since Donald Trump has taken office many things have taken place in America that have not been previously seen in the last several decades, or ever. I examine case studies such as The Unite the Right Rally, The 2017 Women’s March on Washington, media viewership and approval, voter turn-out rates, and hate crimes, which support the ...


A Modern-Day Review Of The Fort Pillow Massacre - Act Of War Or Genocide, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Apr 2019

A Modern-Day Review Of The Fort Pillow Massacre - Act Of War Or Genocide, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

On April 13th, 1864 Confederate Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked Union held Fort Pillow in western Tennessee. The event would later be known as the Fort Pillow Massacre where a number of African American soldiers were killed while trying to surrender to Confederate forces.

Forrest was one who had not been a graduate of a military academy, nor had any military experience. He had simply been a Memphis slave trader turned Confederate sympathizer who enlisted as a private in the Confederate Army on June 14th of 1861. However, he eventually financed and organized his own cavalry unit ...


Review Of Port Kembla: A Memoir (2019) - A Local History That Captures The Diversity Of Australia, Rowan Cahill Apr 2019

Review Of Port Kembla: A Memoir (2019) - A Local History That Captures The Diversity Of Australia, Rowan Cahill

Rowan Cahill

Review of the book by Pam Menzies, 'Port Kembla: A Memoir', an account of the history of the industrial town of Port Kembla on the South Coast of New South Wales, Australia. In the process of reviewing the book, Cahill ruminates on the nature of 'local history' as a cultural industry in Australia, and as a democratic activity. 


1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn Apr 2019

1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

This is Maddie Gwinn's submission for the 2019 Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize, which won first place. It contains her essay on using library resources, a three-page sample of her research project on how the Czech New Wave and New Hollywood cinema are defined by their agency in preserving and prescribing cultural meaning across their societies while being bound to their economic systems, and her works cited list.

Maddie is a senior at Chapman University, majoring in Film Production. Her faculty mentor is Dr. Carmichael Peters.


3rd Place Contest Entry: Aesthetic Activism: Protest Art In The Delano Grape Strike, Felicia Viano Apr 2019

3rd Place Contest Entry: Aesthetic Activism: Protest Art In The Delano Grape Strike, Felicia Viano

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

This is Felicia Viano's submission for the 2019 Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize, which won third place. It contains her essay on using library resources, a three-page sample of her research project on the use of art as a social movement tactic by the United Farm Workers during the Delano Grape Strike, and her works cited list.

Felicia is a senior at Chapman University, majoring in History and Peace Studies. Her faculty mentor is Dr. Robert Slayton.


Interview Of Margaret Mcguinness, Ph.D., Margaret Mcguinness Ph.D., Stephen Pierce Apr 2019

Interview Of Margaret Mcguinness, Ph.D., Margaret Mcguinness Ph.D., Stephen Pierce

All Oral Histories

Dr. Margaret McGuinness was born in 1953, in Providence, Rhode Island. She went to an all-girls Catholic high school called St. Mary’s Academy Bayview in Providence where she graduated in 1971. McGuinness went on to major in American Studies and Civilization as an undergraduate at Boston University graduating with a B.A in 1975. She continued her work at Boston University where McGuinness earned a master’s of theological studies (M.T.S) focusing on Biblical and Historical Studies in 1979. She would move to New York to work on her dissertation at Union Theological Seminary finishing with her ...


Inclusivity In Higher Education Core Curricula: Cultivating Justice In The Classroom, Joanna Timmerman Apr 2019

Inclusivity In Higher Education Core Curricula: Cultivating Justice In The Classroom, Joanna Timmerman

CIE Essay Writing Contest

No abstract provided.


The Complicated Cases Of Soghomon Tehlirian And Sholem Schwartzbard And Their Influences On Raphaël Lemkin's Thinking About Genocide, Steven Leonard Jacobs Apr 2019

The Complicated Cases Of Soghomon Tehlirian And Sholem Schwartzbard And Their Influences On Raphaël Lemkin's Thinking About Genocide, Steven Leonard Jacobs

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The article is an examination of the persons and trials of Soghomon Tehlirian and Sholem Schwartzbard, their political assassinations as acts of vengeance for genocide and pogroms, their trials and subsequent acquittals. It is also an examination of the influences of these two events on the evolved thinking of Raphael Lemkin on his conceptualization of the needs for an international law contra genocide. Finally, it also elaborates on what information is now available on both men and their associations, and what was known and unknown to Lemkin and whether or not these two cases remained centrally important to his understandings.