Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Architecture Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Lateral Strength And Ductile Behavior Of A Mortise-Tenon Connected Timber Frame, Alexandros Kouromenos Mar 2017

Lateral Strength And Ductile Behavior Of A Mortise-Tenon Connected Timber Frame, Alexandros Kouromenos

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The primary goals of this project were to examine the amount of lateral force resisted by a single-bay mortise-tenon connected timber moment frame, and to introduce ductile behavior into the mortise-tenon connections by adding a steel sleeve around a traditional wood peg. This research aimed to provide proof that traditional timber frames are capable of ductile racking while reliably complying with ASCE 7-10 building code drift speci! cations, implying an increase in the ASCE 7-10 ductility factor (R) for wood frames when used as lateral force resisting elements. A secondary goal was to promote traditional heavy timber framing as a ...


Structural Damage Detection By Comparison Of Experimental And Theoretical Mode Shapes, William George Rosenblatt Mar 2016

Structural Damage Detection By Comparison Of Experimental And Theoretical Mode Shapes, William George Rosenblatt

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Existing methods of evaluating the structural system of a building after a seismic event consist of removing architectural elements such as drywall, cladding, insulation, and fireproofing. This method is destructive and costly in terms of downtime and repairs. This research focuses on removing the guesswork by using forced vibration testing (FVT) to experimentally determine the health of a building. The experimental structure is a one-story, steel, bridge-like structure with removable braces. An engaged brace represents a nominal and undamaged condition; a dis-engaged brace represents a brace that has ruptured thus changing the stiffness of the building. By testing a variety ...


Structural Damage Detection Utilizing Experimental Mode Shapes, Evan Jamison Gerbo Jun 2014

Structural Damage Detection Utilizing Experimental Mode Shapes, Evan Jamison Gerbo

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A method of locating structural damage is developed and tested to aid in the evaluation of structural health. This method will help minimize the cost of structural inspection and repair by informing engineers of where damage, due a seismic event, has occurred before the removal of finishes for visual inspection. This thesis begins to answer the question “can structural damage be detected solely through analysis of experimentally measured mode shapes?”

The work encompasses construction of a test structure, with three braces that can be repeatedly engaged or dis-engaged, thus allowing for testing of a variety of braced configurations. For this ...


Performance Of No Vibration/No Admixture Masonry Grout Containing High Replacement Of Portland Cement With Fly Ash And Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Eric Bateman Feb 2014

Performance Of No Vibration/No Admixture Masonry Grout Containing High Replacement Of Portland Cement With Fly Ash And Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Eric Bateman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

When hollow concrete masonry is used for construction in high seismic regions, structural designs typically require fully grouted walls. The grouting process is labor-intensive, time-consuming and has a high energy demand due to requirements of consolidation in each and subsequent grout lifts. Self-consolidating grout with admixtures has been successfully used without segregation in walls of up to 12.67 ft. in height. Investigation of self-consolidating grout mixes without admixtures has potential for sustainability improvement.

This thesis reports on the compression strength and consolidation observations of self-consolidating characteristics of no vibration/no admixture grout made by substituting various proportions of Portland ...


Approximating The Seismic Amplification Effects Experienced By Solar Towers Mounted On The Rooftops Of Low-Rise Industrial Buildings, Peter Luiz Balla Nov 2013

Approximating The Seismic Amplification Effects Experienced By Solar Towers Mounted On The Rooftops Of Low-Rise Industrial Buildings, Peter Luiz Balla

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This thesis investigates the acceleration amplification experienced by solar towers mounted on the rooftops of low-rise industrial buildings during a seismic event. Specifically, this thesis looks to assess the validity of using amplification factors adopted by the ASCE 7-05Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures to approximate seismic acceleration amplification for roof-mounted solar towers. To investigate the validity of the ASCE 7-05 amplification factors, this thesis conducts timehistory analyses of three theoretical solar towers mounted on the roof of a case study building. The time history analyses are conducted in the finite element computer modeling program SAP 2000 using ...


Seismic Performance Comparison Of A Fixed-Base Versus A Base-Isolated Office Building, Nicholas Reidar Marrs Jun 2013

Seismic Performance Comparison Of A Fixed-Base Versus A Base-Isolated Office Building, Nicholas Reidar Marrs

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The topic of this thesis is base isolation. The purpose of this thesis is to offer a relative understanding of the seismic performance enhancements that a typical 12-story steel office building can achieve through the implementation of base isolation technology. To reach this understanding, the structures of a fixed-base office building and a base-isolated office building of similar size and layout are designed, their seismic performance is compared, and a cost-benefit analysis is completed. The base isolation system that is utilized is composed of Triple Friction Pendulum (TFP) bearings.

The work of this thesis is divided into four phases. First ...


Survey Of Surface Fault Rupture And Structure Interation, Lucy Redmond Oct 2012

Survey Of Surface Fault Rupture And Structure Interation, Lucy Redmond

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This report aims to raise awareness of the hazards of surface fault rupture and to identify parameters that influence structural performance during earthquake fault rupture. In researching structures subject to surface rupture, both damaged and sound, guidelines and procedures to evaluate buildings in potential hazard areas are developed herein. Little to no guidance on how to design for surface fault offset exists in current codes and design guides. Thus it is important create tools for designers to appropriately analyze structures by developing guidance and requirements to aid designers in their strength assessment of a structure subject to this particular hazard ...


Experimental Determination Of The Stiffness And Strength Of Continuity Tie Connections In Large Wood Roof Dipahragms, And Impact On The Collective Chord Model, Caroline Nicole Yarber Aug 2012

Experimental Determination Of The Stiffness And Strength Of Continuity Tie Connections In Large Wood Roof Dipahragms, And Impact On The Collective Chord Model, Caroline Nicole Yarber

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The goal of this thesis is to determine whether continuity ties in large wood diaphragms are stiff enough to engage and provide diaphragm flexural stiffness in a collective chord model. Four series of continuity tie assemblies using Simpson Strong-Tie steel connectors were tested to determine the stiffness of each assembly. The results found from testing were applied to an example building and then analyzed using both the traditional chord method and the collective chord method.

The completed analysis on a typical size warehouse building showed that the collective chord model will act inadvertently on an existing building designed with a ...


Performance-Based Analysis Of A Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Building, Garrett Richard Hagen Jun 2012

Performance-Based Analysis Of A Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Building, Garrett Richard Hagen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

PERFORMANCE-BASED ANALYSIS OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE SHEAR WALL BUILDING

Garrett Richard Hagen

In this thesis, a special reinforced concrete shear wall building was designed per ASCE 7-05, and then the performance was investigated using the four analysis procedures outlined in ASCE 41-06. The proposed building was planned as a 6-story office building in San Francisco, CA. The structural system consisted of a two-way flat plate and reinforced concrete columns for gravity loads and slender structural walls for seismic loads. The mathematical building models utilized recommendations from ASCE 41-06 and first-principle mechanics. Moment-curvature analysis and fiber cross-section elements were used in ...


Quantifying The Life Cycle Benefits Of Performance-Based Design In Sustainable Design, David Isaac Carmona Mar 2012

Quantifying The Life Cycle Benefits Of Performance-Based Design In Sustainable Design, David Isaac Carmona

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

Quantifying the Life Cycle Benefits of Performance-Based Design in Sustainable Design

David Carmona

For this thesis, a method is developed and tested for use with performance based design to quantify the sustainable and financial benefits of designing buildings to a structural performance level higher than Life-Safety. This paper starts to answer the question, “which would be a better investment: build structures to a performance level of Immediate Occupancy (IO) with the likelihood of less damage and downtime after an earthquake or continue to build to the building code’s implied minimum performance level of Life-Safety (LS)?”

An ASCE 7-05 ...


Developing Dendrifrom Facades Using Flow Nets As A Design Aid, Jonas H. Houston Dec 2011

Developing Dendrifrom Facades Using Flow Nets As A Design Aid, Jonas H. Houston

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This thesis highlights a method of arriving at form that minimizes the need for high end technology and complex mathematical models, yet has structural principles of load flow at the highlighted methods core. Similar to how graphical statics assisted earlier architects and engineers to arrive at form by relating form and forces, this thesis suggests a method of form finding that relates the flow of stresses within solid masses to possible load-bearing façades. Looking to nature, where an abundance of efficient structural solutions can be found, this thesis focuses on a tree-like structural form called the dendriform. In doing so ...


Verification And Expansion Of Single-Degree-Of-Freedom Transformation Factors For Beams Using A Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom Non-Linear Numerical Analysis Method, Takayuki Yokoyama Nov 2011

Verification And Expansion Of Single-Degree-Of-Freedom Transformation Factors For Beams Using A Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom Non-Linear Numerical Analysis Method, Takayuki Yokoyama

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) transformation factors as tabulated in John Biggs’ textbook (Biggs 1964) are accepted as the equivalent factors for simplifying and analyzing a component's response to blast. The study validates the stiffness and mass transformation factors through multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) numerical methods. After validating the transformation factors, the MDOF numerical method is used to create new stiffness and mass transformation factors for loading cases not already included in Biggs’ textbook.

The validated factors, as well as the newly developed factors are used in SDOF analyses. The deflections from the SDOF responses accurately predict the MDOF responses as long as ...


In-Plane Cyclic Shear Performance Of Interlocking Compressed Earth Block Walls, David William Bland Jun 2011

In-Plane Cyclic Shear Performance Of Interlocking Compressed Earth Block Walls, David William Bland

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This thesis presents results from testing of interlocking compressed earth block (CEB) masonry shear walls. CEBs are low strength earth masonry units sometimes stabilized with cement or lime. The interlocking compressed earth blocks (ICEBs) used in this experiment are dry stacked interlocking hollow units, which can be reinforced and grouted after they are laid. Although significant research has been undertaken to optimize the material properties of CEBs, little has been done to investigate the performance of structural systems currently being built using this technology.

Test results are reported for three 1800 mm x 1800 mm wall specimens constructed with cement ...


Forced Vibration Testing And Analysis Of Pre- And Post- Retrofit Buildings, Erica Dawn Jacobsen Jun 2011

Forced Vibration Testing And Analysis Of Pre- And Post- Retrofit Buildings, Erica Dawn Jacobsen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

Forced Vibration Testing and Analysis of Pre- and Post- Retrofit Buildings

Erica Dawn Jacobsen

The primary goal of the thesis was to detect the retrofit through vibration testing of both buildings. The secondary goal focused on correctly identifying the behavior of the building through FVT, comparing that behavior to computational model predictions, and determining the necessary level of detail to include in the computational modeling. Forced vibration testing (FVT) of two stiff-wall/flexible-diaphragm buildings yielded natural frequencies and mode shapes for the two buildings. The buildings were nearly identical with the exception that one had been retrofitted. Both buildings ...


Asce 7-05 Design Rule For Relative Strength In A Tall Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame Dual System, Lisa J. Aukeman Mar 2011

Asce 7-05 Design Rule For Relative Strength In A Tall Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame Dual System, Lisa J. Aukeman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In mid- to high-rise structures, dual systems (DS) enable a structural designer to satisfy the stringent drift limitations of current codes without compromising ductility. Currently, ASCE 7-05 permits a variety of structural systems to be used in combination as a dual system yet the design requirements are limited to the following statement: Moment frames must be capable of resisting 25% of the seismic forces while the moment frames and braced frames or shear walls must be capable of resisting the entire seismic forces in proportion to their relative rigidities.

This thesis assesses the significance of the 25% design requirement for ...


Universal Engineering Programmer - An In-House Development Tool For Developing And Testing Implantable Medical Devices In St. Jude Medical, Khoa Tat Do Mar 2011

Universal Engineering Programmer - An In-House Development Tool For Developing And Testing Implantable Medical Devices In St. Jude Medical, Khoa Tat Do

Master's Theses and Project Reports

During development and testing of the functionality of the pacemaker and defibrillator device, engineers in the St. Jude Medical Cardiac Rhythm Management Division use an in-house development tool called Universal Engineering Programmer (UEP) to ensure the device functions as expected, before it can be used to test on an animal or a human during the implantation process. In addition, some applications of UEP are incorporated into the official releases of the device product. UEP has been developed and used by engineers across departments in the St. Jude Medical Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (CRMD). This thesis covers the flexible and reusable ...


Nonlinear Modeling Of A Sustainable Material, Jorien Gill Baza Dec 2010

Nonlinear Modeling Of A Sustainable Material, Jorien Gill Baza

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This study developed a nonlinear constitutive model for a sustainable orthotropic material. Existing methods for constitutive models of wood were improved upon to include the nonlinear stress-strain response not only in the two orthogonal axes but at any orientation to the strong axis of the material. This method also simplifies the nonlinear stress-strain relationships into bilinear stress-strain curves which can be valuable in hand calculations as well as finite-element analyses. The effectiveness of the proposed constitutive model is demonstrated by comparing bilinear stress-strain predictions to experimental data.


An Investigation Of The Influence Of Diaphragm Flexibility On Building Design Through A Comparison Of Forced Vibration Testing And Computational Analysis, Blake Alan Roskelley Nov 2010

An Investigation Of The Influence Of Diaphragm Flexibility On Building Design Through A Comparison Of Forced Vibration Testing And Computational Analysis, Blake Alan Roskelley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

An assessment of the validity of idealizing a concrete diaphragm as rigid was performed through the modal analysis of three existing buildings. Modal analysis was performed both by physical experimentation and computational analysis. Experimental determination of the mode shapes shows that two of the three buildings’ diaphragms exhibited flexible behavior. The experimental results were compared to computational analysis results and were shown to be similar, confirming that that the two building diaphragms are not rigid. As a standard, diaphragms with aspect ratios less than three are permitted to be idealized as rigid per ASCE 7-05. To determine the effect of ...


Identification Of Physical Changes To A Steel Frame, Daniel Eric Means Feb 2010

Identification Of Physical Changes To A Steel Frame, Daniel Eric Means

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The thesis utilized physical testing and computer modeling to determine the feasibility of identifying a change to the mass or stiffness of a steel frame. Physical testing was performed using an accelerometer, linear shaker, and arbitrary function generator. Two methods of laboratory testing were developed: ambient vibration testing (AVT) and forced vibration testing (FVT). AVT was able to preliminarily identify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the frame. FVT was able to precisely identify four distinct natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios. The baseline frame then underwent two physical changes: the addition of mass to its roof, and ...


Performance Based Analysis Of Steel Buildings, Matthew Joseph Williams Dec 2009

Performance Based Analysis Of Steel Buildings, Matthew Joseph Williams

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This project investigated the performance of two separate building types, designed using ASCE 7-05, using the analysis procedures from ASCE 41-06. The results from the ASCE 41-06 analyses were compared to the expected performance level of Life Safety to determine the adequacy of the ASCE 7-05 design. ASCE 7-05 is intended to result in designs that perform to a Life Safety performance level regardless of the building type. A design using the AISC specifications for a steel Special Moment Frame and the lateral loads from ASCE 7-05 resulted in a building that slightly exceeded an Immediate Occupancy performance level for ...


Design And Performance Of Load Bearing Shear Walls Made From Composite Rice Straw Blocks, Kevin Robert Camann Dec 2009

Design And Performance Of Load Bearing Shear Walls Made From Composite Rice Straw Blocks, Kevin Robert Camann

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Although rice straw and other grains have been used in building since pre-history, in the past two decades, there has been a move to utilize this rapidly renewable, locally available, agricultural byproduct as part of the sustainable construction movement. Up to this point, this has been done by simply stacking up the full straw bales. Stak Block, invented by Oryzatech, Inc., is a modular, interlocking block made of a composite of rice straw and binding agent that serves as an evolution in straw construction. This study investigates the feasibility of using these Stak Blocks as a structural system. The report ...


Analysis Of Stabilized Adobe In Rural East Africa, Grace Ying Yu Chen Oct 2009

Analysis Of Stabilized Adobe In Rural East Africa, Grace Ying Yu Chen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

ANALYSIS OF STABILIZED ADOBE IN RURAL EAST AFRICA

Grace Ying Yu Chen

This project seeks to assist people in rural East Africa by proposing sustainable building methods which implement affordable and durable adobe bricks for construction. Adobe, one of the oldest sustainable building materials in the world, is strong when dry but lacks structural integrity when exposed to moisture. Chemical additives such as cement and lime are added into the adobe mix to protect the brick against moisture decomposition. Once the chemicals are added and the mix is formed into a brick, a stabilized adobe brick is formed.

Cement ...


Optimization Of Two-Way Post-Tensioned Concrete Floor Systems, Gaelyn B. Krauser Oct 2009

Optimization Of Two-Way Post-Tensioned Concrete Floor Systems, Gaelyn B. Krauser

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This thesis investigates a parametric study of a flat plate floor system designed using post-tensioning. The load balanced by the post-tensioning, the slab depth, and the strength of concrete were varied to create the parametric study of a hotel/condominium grid layout. In order to perform the parametric study, research was conducted on the development of post-tensioning, methods of analysis for two-way slab design, and post-tensioning methods of analysis. Design was conducted by hand through a series of Excel spreadsheets and compared to results found using the computer analysis program, ADAPT-PT. The designs found in the parametric study were then ...


Fatigue Of Masonry Walls With Cfrp Applied Externally For Out-Of-Plane Loads, Joseph Louis Williams Aug 2009

Fatigue Of Masonry Walls With Cfrp Applied Externally For Out-Of-Plane Loads, Joseph Louis Williams

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This master’s thesis presents an investigation on the effects of fatigue on fiber- reinforced polymers (FRP) when applied to masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane loading. The project aims to provide further research and add to the general testing database of FRP enhanced masonry. An introduction to the problems and solutions associated with unreinforced masonry is discussed along with a literature review on previous testing done in the field of FRP enhanced masonry. The investigation on the effects of fatigue on FRP when applied to masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane loading is performed through experimental testing. A total of four ...


Solar Power For Deployment In Populated Areas, Nathan Andrew Hicks Jun 2009

Solar Power For Deployment In Populated Areas, Nathan Andrew Hicks

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The thesis presents background on solar thermal energy and addresses the structural challenges associated with the deployment of concentrating solar power fields in urban areas. Two potential structural systems and urban locales of deployment are proposed and investigated to determine whether they have the potential to be a cost-effective renewable energy solution for urban areas. The structural issues explored in the thesis include flutter, the wind loading of open frame structures, performance-based design, and the design of flexibly mounted equipment on a building.


Seismic Performance Of Unreinforced Masonry Walls Retrofitted With Post-Tensioning Tendons, Daniel Louis Lazzarini Jun 2009

Seismic Performance Of Unreinforced Masonry Walls Retrofitted With Post-Tensioning Tendons, Daniel Louis Lazzarini

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Unreinforced masonry (URM) structures have historically been regarded as structurally unsound in response to seismic events. The tendency for URM walls to collapse out-of-plane in a brittle manner is continually cause for concern. Retrofit of these walls is necessary in order to prevent severe damage and injury to occupants.

This paper is concerned with the retrofit of unreinforced masonry (URM) walls in response to out-of-plane loading. A retrofit design was developed and verified through structural testing. The selected retrofit technique incorporates vertical coring of URM walls to allow for the insertion of a single post-tensioning (PT) tendon. Tendons are spaced ...


Bamboo: An Alternative Building Material For Urban Ethiopia, Bewketu Z. Kassa Apr 2009

Bamboo: An Alternative Building Material For Urban Ethiopia, Bewketu Z. Kassa

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This project explores the potential of bamboo as an alternative building material for low cost housing units suitable for urban Ethiopia. The rational for the application of bamboo comes from its abundance throughout the country, and its proven physical properties that equate it to other building material like timber, steel and concrete. The proposed bamboo based design solution concentrates on simplification of construction methods, prefabrication of structural components and vertical densification of housing units, addressing the lack of skilled labor, cost of construction time and urban land respectively. An understanding of the design solution was established by constructing a full-scale ...


Predicting The Seismic Behavior Of The Dywidag Ductile Connector (Ddc) Precast Concrete System, Elizabeth Mary Kenyon Jul 2008

Predicting The Seismic Behavior Of The Dywidag Ductile Connector (Ddc) Precast Concrete System, Elizabeth Mary Kenyon

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Structural engineering is heavily dependent on the use of computers. When creating a building model using structural analysis software, it is required that the designer have an understanding of the system behavior and the modeling program capabilities.

Some engineers in the Southern California region are taking steps towards incorporating the Dywidag ductile connector (DDC) and super hybrid systems into building practice due to the advantages found in these systems’ construction methods and seismic performance.

As the DDC and super hybrid systems reach industry, the design engineer will need to model these systems using structural analysis programs. This report describes two ...