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Public Policy In International Investment And Trade Law: Community Expectations And Functional Decision-Making, Diane A. Desierto Nov 2013

Public Policy In International Investment And Trade Law: Community Expectations And Functional Decision-Making, Diane A. Desierto

Diane A Desierto

This article uses a contextual policy-oriented approach to assess how the standing debate on a State's regulatory freedom has been treated within international investment law (e.g. case-by-case interpretation of variant treaty design in each case), in contrast with how the issue of domestic regulatory autonomy in international trade law has evolved towards coordination (e.g. attempted harmonization of the same set of instruments). The article submits a different view from many primarily trade law/investment law scholars (and other systemic integrationists who idealize a seamless shift from trade law to investment law), who have postulated that this fundamental ...


Corruption, Constitutions And Crude In Latin America, Fredrick V. Perry, Scheherazade S. Rehman Oct 2013

Corruption, Constitutions And Crude In Latin America, Fredrick V. Perry, Scheherazade S. Rehman

Fredrick V. Perry

This paper examines the perception of corruption that exists throughout Latin America, and analyses the importance of the institutional environment in Latin American countries, which are both richly endowed with and dependent on oil and natural gas. First, we look at corruption generally in the region and then carry our analysis by looking at various countries’ GDP per capita versus several indices measuring different dimensions of countries’ economic development, political progress, and social performance. We also combine corruption indices and separate them by typology of corruption in order to investigate the particular facets of corruption that pose the greatest impediment ...


Efficient Breach In The Common European Sales Law (Cesl), Wenqing Liao Oct 2013

Efficient Breach In The Common European Sales Law (Cesl), Wenqing Liao

Wenqing Liao

In the classic economic theory, it is suggested that contract law should be structured in such a way that efficient breaches (i.e. those increasing social welfare) would be promoted. The default remedy of expectation damages was justified on this cognition. Nowadays, more and more suspects and critiques are raised against the so called simple efficient breach model. The aim of this paper is to re-sketch the theory of efficient breach and to compare the consequences resulting from economic analysis with the remedy rules of the Common European Sales Law (CESL). It is proposed that the doctrine of efficient breach ...


Efficient Breach In The Common European Sales Law (Cesl), Wenqing Liao Oct 2013

Efficient Breach In The Common European Sales Law (Cesl), Wenqing Liao

Wenqing Liao

In the classic economic theory, it is suggested that contract law should be structured in such a way that efficient breaches (i.e. those increasing social welfare) would be promoted. The default remedy of expectation damages was justified on this cognition. Nowadays, more and more suspects and critiques are raised against the so called simple efficient breach model. The aim of this paper is to re-sketch the theory of efficient breach and to compare the consequences resulting from economic analysis with the remedy rules of the Common European Sales Law (CESL). It is proposed that the doctrine of efficient breach ...


A Spectrum Of International Criminal Procedure: Shifting Patterns Of Power Distribution, Jessica S. Peake Sep 2013

A Spectrum Of International Criminal Procedure: Shifting Patterns Of Power Distribution, Jessica S. Peake

Jessica S Peake

International criminal procedure is characterized by a fundamental structural shift in the allocation of power between the actors in a criminal trial – the judges, Prosecution and defense - away from that traditionally ascribed under an adversarial system and towards the power distribution structure more common to the inquisitorial system. By looking at the Statutes and RPEs of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), it is possible to identify varying degrees of power shifts in each court: across each we see a convergence around ...


Islamic Flextime, Liaquat Ali Khan Aug 2013

Islamic Flextime, Liaquat Ali Khan

Ali Khan

Islamic flextime is derived from a divine decree that convenience is the organizing principle of cosmic construction. Rigid temporal frameworks restrict freedom and may even impede human happiness, social harmony, and economic efficiency. This essay explains the foundation of Islamic temporality. Islam teaches that human beings can use temporality but they have no control over time, just as they can benefit from sunlight but cannot conquer the sun. A flexible notion of temporality facilitates the performance of obligations, without repudiating the core concepts of punctuality and time commitments. Islamic flextime is an accommodation principle that respects individual needs and mitigates ...


Addressing Early Marriage: Culturally Competent Practices And Romanian Roma (“Gypsy”) Communities, Judith Hale Reed Aug 2013

Addressing Early Marriage: Culturally Competent Practices And Romanian Roma (“Gypsy”) Communities, Judith Hale Reed

Judith A Hale Reed

Early marriage affects many communities around the world. Examples of commonly practiced early marriage can be found today in the U.S., India, Syria, and many other places. Although most countries have instituted minimum age laws for marriage, so that legal marriage can only occur after an age set by law, early marriage is still practiced for tradition, control, security, and other reasons. This article explores the harms of early marriage and the international instruments meant to defend against these harms in Part II. Part III reviews theoretical perspectives from legal anthropology and presents a case study of early marriage ...


An Anachronism Too Discordant To Be Suffered: A Comparative Study Of Parliamentary And Presidential Approaches To Regulation Of The Death Penalty, Derek R. Verhagen Aug 2013

An Anachronism Too Discordant To Be Suffered: A Comparative Study Of Parliamentary And Presidential Approaches To Regulation Of The Death Penalty, Derek R. Verhagen

Derek R VerHagen

It is well-documented that the United States remains the only western democracy to retain the death penalty and finds itself ranked among the world's leading human rights violators in executions per year. However, prior to the Gregg v. Georgia decision in 1976, ending America's first and only moratorium on capital punishment, the U.S. was well in line with the rest of the civilized world in its approach to the death penalty. This Note argues that America's return to the death penalty is based primarily on the differences between classic parliamentary approaches to regulation and that of ...


Incorporation By Reference In Maritime Arbitration, Arjya B. Majumdar Aug 2013

Incorporation By Reference In Maritime Arbitration, Arjya B. Majumdar

Arjya B Majumdar

This paper deals with maritime arbitration in general and in particular, the applicability of arbitration clauses in charterparties incorporated by reference into bills of lading. Following a discussion on the origin of maritime arbitration we see how dispute resolution in the shipping industry had initially been associated with informal procedures involving little or no dependence upon courts and other systems of formal dispute resolution methods, thus bringing about a special nexus between the maritime industry and non-judicial methods of dispute resolution- such as arbitration.

One of the key requirements of an arbitration to take place is that the arbitration agreement ...


We The Peoples: The Global Origins Of Constitutional Preambles, Tom Ginsburg, Daniel Rockmore, Nick Foti Aug 2013

We The Peoples: The Global Origins Of Constitutional Preambles, Tom Ginsburg, Daniel Rockmore, Nick Foti

Tom Ginsburg

No abstract provided.


Valuing Our Discordant Constitutional Discourse: Autonomous-Text Constitutionalism And The Jewish Legal Tradition, Shlomo C. Pill Aug 2013

Valuing Our Discordant Constitutional Discourse: Autonomous-Text Constitutionalism And The Jewish Legal Tradition, Shlomo C. Pill

Shlomo C. Pill

This paper considers the viability of autonomous-text constitutionalism, a constitutional interpretive and adjudicative theory based on Hans Georg-Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics. As the paper explains, this theory is premised on the subjectivity of all interpretive activity; it admits the legitimacy of a wide spectrum of reasonable interpretations of the Constitution, each given their unique character by the dialectical merging of experiential horizons between the fixed text and individual interpreter. This theory embraces a plurality of constitutional meanings in theory, limited by the need for unity in national spheres of constitutional practice. Such practical certainty is achieved by our empowering judicial ...


Theory Of Constitutional Comparison, Sebastian Müller-Franken Prof. Dr Aug 2013

Theory Of Constitutional Comparison, Sebastian Müller-Franken Prof. Dr

sebastian müller-franken prof. dr

The article looks into constitutional comparison from a theoretical perspective. It shows the variety of different purposes this juridical discipline pursuits. So constitutional comparison for example takes advantage creating constitutional theory or gives an orientation for constititional politics. The article also shows how constitutional comparison can render benefits for the application of constitutional law without giving up national sovereignty.


Book Review: The Three And A Half Minute Transaction: What Sticky Boilerplate Reveals About Contract Law And Practice, Andrea J. Boyack Jul 2013

Book Review: The Three And A Half Minute Transaction: What Sticky Boilerplate Reveals About Contract Law And Practice, Andrea J. Boyack

Andrea J Boyack

This review situates Gulati & Scott’s findings with respect to sovereign debt instruments and the contracting process in the context of a legal profession on the brink of change. Gulati and Scott’s book addresses the inexplicable failure of lawyers to respond to a sovereign debt litigation outcome by clarifying a boilerplate provision after an adverse judicial interpretation. Their fascinating study of boilerplate in sophisticated transactional legal practice is timely and compelling both in terms of the specific story it tells, namely the persistence of the pari passu clause in sovereign debt instruments, as well as its broader implications: Structural ...


Majoritarian Judicial Review: The Case Of Taiwan, Chien-Chih Lin Jul 2013

Majoritarian Judicial Review: The Case Of Taiwan, Chien-Chih Lin

Chien-Chih Lin

Whether, and to what extent, the practice of judicial review in the United States is counter-majoritarian has been contentiously debated since its inception. Yet, whether judicial review in nascent democracies functions in the same way has not been lucidly articulated. Based on docket records, agenda setting, and case studies of the Constitutional Court in Taiwan, this paper suggests that judicial review in Taiwan is majoritarian, rather than counter-majoritarian. Specifically, the Constitutional Court is more majoritarian in the field of fundamental rights than it is in separation-of-powers cases. This finding is contradictory to conventional wisdom since high courts in new democracies ...


Re-Envisioning The Controlling Shareholder Regime: Why Controlling Shareholders And Minority Shareholders Embrace Each Other, Sang Yop Kang Jul 2013

Re-Envisioning The Controlling Shareholder Regime: Why Controlling Shareholders And Minority Shareholders Embrace Each Other, Sang Yop Kang

Sang Yop Kang

According to conventional corporate governance scholarship, controlling shareholder regimes exist in jurisdictions where minority shareholders are not well protected by controlling shareholders’ expropriation. However, Professor Ronald Gilson raises a critical point against the conventional view; if laws are inefficient and do not protect investors, as the conventional view explains, why do we observe any minority shareholders at all in such “bad-law” countries? One possible reason is that in response to controlling shareholders’ expropriation, minority shareholders discount severely shares that corporations issue. Then, a related question is: if it is true, why do some controlling shareholders in bad-law countries have many ...


Defamation Litigation Patterns Across The United States, England, And Australia, David Unwin Jul 2013

Defamation Litigation Patterns Across The United States, England, And Australia, David Unwin

David Unwin

A good reputation is perhaps an individual’s most valuable asset. Yet it is capable of being destroyed in an instant. Defamation law recognizes and protects this interest by imposing tort liability. However, the freedom of speech is another bedrock legal principle. Imposing strict liability on any false, defamatory remark would unduly chill free speech. Thus, each national legal system must balance these two broad principles and reach a legal outcome which effectively protects an individual’s reputation without unduly burdening the exercise of speech.

This paper will first examine three jurisdictions’ defamation law jurisprudence: the United States, England and ...


New Financing, Market Stabilization, And Debt-Cutting Techniques In Sovereign Debt Restructurings: The European Perspective, Matteo Mazzoni Jul 2013

New Financing, Market Stabilization, And Debt-Cutting Techniques In Sovereign Debt Restructurings: The European Perspective, Matteo Mazzoni

matteo mazzoni

As of today there are two major models of sovereign debt restructuring. The first model is offered by the experiences of the Paris Club and the London Club. The second model is based on the active intervention, leadership, and financial support of international institutions, such as the IMF.

The recent experiences of sovereign debt restructurings in the Eurozone follow the second model. However, the first model has also been a source of inspiration. In particular, recourse to the practice of seeking solutions through negotiations has been made in the area of debt-cutting required from the private sector’s bondholders.

Notwithstanding ...


Flemming Rose's Rejection Of The American Free Speech Canon And The Poverty Of Comparative Constitutional Theory, Robert Kahn Jul 2013

Flemming Rose's Rejection Of The American Free Speech Canon And The Poverty Of Comparative Constitutional Theory, Robert Kahn

Robert Kahn

In the fifteen page English language excerpt of his recent memoir The Tyranny of Silence, Danish publisher Flemming Rose gave an extended defense of his decision to run the cartoon images of the Prophet Mohammed. Current First Amendment doctrine almost certainly would treat this act as protected speech. But Rose barely mentions the First Amendment. Instead, he develops a highly personal theory of speech based on his experience in the Soviet Union and discussions with Salman Rushdie. Like many American legal academics Rose opposes bans on hate speech, but he does so for different reasons.

From a comparative law perspective ...


The Concept Of Objectivity In The Uk Supreme Court Through A Comparative Looking Glass, Vito Breda Jul 2013

The Concept Of Objectivity In The Uk Supreme Court Through A Comparative Looking Glass, Vito Breda

Vito Breda

This essay reports on the result of hermeneutical research entitled Objectivity in the UK Judicial Discourse. The concept of objectivity generates a plurality of analysis. For instance, in legal theory, MacCormick suggests the possibility of an objective interpretation of cases. Objectivity in the UK Judicial Discourse focuses on the interpretation of the concept by common law judges. In particular, the project sought to map out the cluster of interpretations (and arguments derived therefrom) on the concept of objectivity by the House of Lords and the UK Supreme Court. The result of the study shows that within UK law there is ...


A Paralyzed Environmental Law: Critical Comments On Compensation For Environmental Damage In Indonesia, Andri Gunawan Wibisana Jun 2013

A Paralyzed Environmental Law: Critical Comments On Compensation For Environmental Damage In Indonesia, Andri Gunawan Wibisana

Andri Gunawan Wibisana

This article criticizes compensation mechanisms for the victims of environmental disaster in Indonesia. In particular, it attempts to answer the questions of how compensation mechanism is addressed in Indonesian environmental law, how the victims of environmental disasters are compensated, and what lessons can be learned from the application of law in practice. This article begins with discussions about the current Indonesian compensation system for damage resulting from pollution, focusing on the provisions in environmental management acts. In order to explain how these provisions have been applied in practice, this article discusses two major environmental disasters in Indonesia, i.e. the ...


Macao’S Legal System Under Globalization And Regional Integration: Between Tradition And Evolution, Dan Wei Jun 2013

Macao’S Legal System Under Globalization And Regional Integration: Between Tradition And Evolution, Dan Wei

DAN WEI

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Patriotism: A Reasonable Theory Of Radical Democracy?, Vito Breda May 2013

Constitutional Patriotism: A Reasonable Theory Of Radical Democracy?, Vito Breda

Vito Breda

Since its first appearance just over a decade ago, Habermas's constitutional patriotism has inspired a rich and articulate series of theoretical analyses and has indirectly encouraged constitutional projects such as the Constitution for Europe. The popularity of constitutional patriotism among political and constitutional theorists has, however, also generated some confusion over the aims and basic structure of Habermas's endeavour. For instance, it is unclear whether constitutional patriotism ought to be considered a constitutional or political theory. This paper seeks to clarify some of the misunderstandings surrounding constitutional patriotism. It will contend that the theory is, at its core ...


Repsol, Ypf, And Argentina: A Hypothetical Look At The Pending Icsid Arbitration Over Ypf, Stephen Pelliccia May 2013

Repsol, Ypf, And Argentina: A Hypothetical Look At The Pending Icsid Arbitration Over Ypf, Stephen Pelliccia

Stephen Pelliccia

In this paper I will discuss the 2012 expropriation of the Repsol subsidiary, YPF S.A., by the Argentine government and the upcoming ICSID arbitration on the legality thereof. Taking in to account basic tenets of international arbitration law, bilateral investment treaties, and ICSID jurisprudence, I will put forward some of the principal arguments of both parties could make and discuss a likely decision by the ICSID Tribunal. In addition to the ICSID award I will also discuss the difficulties of enforcing ICSID and other arbitral awards against Argentina and will discuss Latin American attitudes towards ICSID in general. Keeping ...


The Right To Life Of The Unborn Child And The Case Artavia Murillo And Others V. Costa Rica, Emercio J. Aponten Núñez Phd May 2013

The Right To Life Of The Unborn Child And The Case Artavia Murillo And Others V. Costa Rica, Emercio J. Aponten Núñez Phd

Emercio J Aponten Núñez PHD

No abstract provided.


Why Is International Law Changing? Primary Factors In The Greater Complexity Of International Law, Marcelo Dias Varella Apr 2013

Why Is International Law Changing? Primary Factors In The Greater Complexity Of International Law, Marcelo Dias Varella

Marcelo D. Varella

This paper examines factors of change in post-national law, particularly the effects of globalization on the international legal order. The end of the cold enabled the strengthening of international law through new legal norms and the emergence of post-national law. Among the principal factors accelerating the internationalization of law has been the emergence of a multipolar political and economic order. In the political realm, the end of the bipolar system between the United States and the Soviet Union allowed the emergence of various actors and made possible the construction of power in the international sphere through legal rules. Economically, a ...


The Extraterritoriality Of Eu Data Privacy Law - Its Theoretical Justification And Its Practical Effect On U.S. Businesses, Dan Jerker B. Svantesson Apr 2013

The Extraterritoriality Of Eu Data Privacy Law - Its Theoretical Justification And Its Practical Effect On U.S. Businesses, Dan Jerker B. Svantesson

Dan Svantesson

Due to its extraterritorial effect, the European Union’s trailblazing data privacy law has long been a major concern for U.S. businesses. With the proposal for a new data privacy framework in the EU, with potential penalties of up to 2% of an offending enterprise’s annual worldwide turnover, such concerns are justified indeed; particularly as the EU at the same time seems to be expanding the extraterritorial reach of its data privacy law.

This article examines the extraterritoriality of current and proposed EU data privacy law and analyses whether those claims of extraterritoriality can be either justified or ...


Critical Tax Policy: A Pathway To Reform?, Nancy J. Knauer Apr 2013

Critical Tax Policy: A Pathway To Reform?, Nancy J. Knauer

Nancy J. Knauer

The Global Recession of 2008 and ensuing austerity measures have renewed the urgency surrounding the call for fundamental tax reform. Before embarking on fundamental tax reform, this Article proposes adding a critical lens to existing US tax policy to ensure that any proposals for change are informed, transparent, and responsive to the needs (and abilities) of individual taxpayers. This Article makes the case for a specific method of inquiry – Critical Tax Policy – that is built on the articulation of difference rather than false assumptions of sameness. Critical Tax Policy incorporates the insights of a growing international tax equity movement that ...


The Separation Of Powers, Constitutionalism And Governance In Africa: The Case Of Modern Cameroon, John Mukum Mbaku Mar 2013

The Separation Of Powers, Constitutionalism And Governance In Africa: The Case Of Modern Cameroon, John Mukum Mbaku

JOHN MUKUM MBAKU

The Separation of Powers, Constitutionalism and Governance in Africa: The Case of Modern Cameroon

John Mukum Mbaku, Esq.

Abstract

Countries incorporate the principle of the separation of powers in their constitutions in an effort to meet several goals, the most important of which is to minimize government-induced tyranny. Specifically, countries that make this principle part of their constitutional practice intend to limit public servants by national laws and institutions, enhance government accountability, minimize opportunistic behaviors by civil servants and politicians, provide for checks and balances, and generally improve government efficiency. Cameroon, like many other African countries that transitioned to democratic ...


Social Protection Afforded To Irregular Migrant Workers: Thoughts On International Norms, The Southern African Development Community, Botswana And South Africa, Bruno Ps Van Eck, Felicia Snyman Mar 2013

Social Protection Afforded To Irregular Migrant Workers: Thoughts On International Norms, The Southern African Development Community, Botswana And South Africa, Bruno Ps Van Eck, Felicia Snyman

Bruno PS Van Eck

The majority of migrant workers target those countries in southern Africa that have stronger economies. Irregular migrants are in a particularly vulnerable position, and this article discusses the protection that this category of persons may expect to experience in the southern African region. The authors recommend that the broad notion of “social protection”, rather than the narrower concept “social security” should be emphasized. International, continental and regional instruments providing protection to irregular migrants are traversed and the constitutional and legislative frameworks in relation to social protection in Botswana and South Africa are compared. The article concludes that there are significant ...


Still On The Repayment Of Indirect Taxes, Hugo B. Machado Mar 2013

Still On The Repayment Of Indirect Taxes, Hugo B. Machado

Hugo de Brito Machado Segundo

The repayment of indirect taxes raises questions in many parts of the world, mainly because of the so called “passing-on defense”. Brazilian Courts has given inadequate treatment to this subject, which, in fact, denies the judicial review of the tax relationship, violating the the idea of rule of law. European Court of Justice has different concerns when examining the matter, recognizing that the shift of the tax burden is very difficult to determine and measure. It happens in relation to all taxes, to a greater or lesser extent, and should be taken into consideration by the legislature in fixing the ...