Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Comparative and Foreign Law

Comparative and Foreign Law

Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 430

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Shareholder Exit Signs On Us And Eu Highways, Raluca Papadima Sep 2016

Shareholder Exit Signs On Us And Eu Highways, Raluca Papadima

Raluca Papadima

This article discusses legal exit rights (referred to in the United States as appraisal rights and in civil law Europe as withdrawal rights), in the United States, France and Romania. We selected these three countries because they are representative of strong, average and respectively weak capital markets, with varying levels of shareholder activism and litigation (high, normal and respectively low). Additionally, the selection of these countries enabled us to compare the structure of legal exit rights in the United States and in Europe and, within Europe, between two politically, economically and culturally sister countries (France and Romania) which should be ...


Revisiting The Notion Of Full Protection And Security Of Foreign Direct Investments In Post-Gadhafi Libya: Two Governments, Tribal Violence, Militias, And Plenty More, Nasser A. Alreshaid Apr 2016

Revisiting The Notion Of Full Protection And Security Of Foreign Direct Investments In Post-Gadhafi Libya: Two Governments, Tribal Violence, Militias, And Plenty More, Nasser A. Alreshaid

Nasser A Alreshaid

The escalating violence and deteriorating conditions in today’s Libya have questioned the very likelihood of the survival of foreign investments there. Deemed an oil-producing hub, many oil concessions have been granted to foreign investors in Libya. The challenge that follows is how to legally ensure the full protection and security of investors. This notion is tested in the post-Gadhafi Libya situation in the context of a two-government state, where militias with extremist ideologies in most instances, defy an internationally recognized government and take control over Libyan territories. Such territories contain oil terminals, which leads to a partial or complete ...


From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit Jan 2016

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Catholic Social Teaching, The Right To Immigrate And The Right To Regulate Borders: A Proposed Solution For Comprehensive Immigration Reform Based Upon Catholic Social Principles, Chad G. Marzen, William Woodyard Jan 2016

Catholic Social Teaching, The Right To Immigrate And The Right To Regulate Borders: A Proposed Solution For Comprehensive Immigration Reform Based Upon Catholic Social Principles, Chad G. Marzen, William Woodyard

Chad G. Marzen

In the past decade, policymakers from various perspectives have discussed and debated proposals to reform America’s immigration system. This article discusses not only the history of the Catholic legal and intellectual tradition’s contribution to social teaching on the issue of immigration, but emphasizes the development of two strands of Catholic thought: the right to immigrate, and the right to regulate borders. Applying the Catholic legal and intellectual tradition, this article provides a proposal for immigration reform that incorporates key tenets of Catholic social thought.


Legal Transplantation Or Legal Innovation? Equity-Crowdfunding Regulation In Taiwan After Title Iii Of The U.S. Jobs Act, Chang-Hsien Tsai Dec 2015

Legal Transplantation Or Legal Innovation? Equity-Crowdfunding Regulation In Taiwan After Title Iii Of The U.S. Jobs Act, Chang-Hsien Tsai

Chang-hsien (Robert) TSAI

Crowdfunding has caused a worldwide revolution in early-stage startup financing during recent years.  In the United States, the expansion of for-profit crowdfunding platforms to fund small businesses and startups prompted Congress to pass the game-changing law on equity crowdfunding, Title III of the JOBS Act in 2012 (“CROWDFUND Act”).  While its specific rules and regulations as adopted by the SEC takes effect this year, the substance of the JOBS Act as a whole is geared more towards the goal of capital formation, over the historically promoted goal of investor protection.  The use of equity crowdfunding has extended over to Taiwan ...


Internet Governance Is Our Shared Responsibility, Vinton Cerf, Patrick Ryan, Max Senges Dec 2015

Internet Governance Is Our Shared Responsibility, Vinton Cerf, Patrick Ryan, Max Senges

Patrick T. Ryan

This essay looks at the the different roles that institutions play in the Internet governance ecosystem. We propose a model for thinking of Internet governance within the context of the layered model of the Internet. We use the example of the negotiations in Dubai in 2102 at the World Conference on International Telecommunications to show why it is important for different institutions within the governance system to focus on their areas of expertise (e.g., the ITU, ICANN, and IGF). Several areas of conflict are reviewed, such as the desire to promote more broadband infrastructure (a topic that is in ...


Laying Down The "Brics": Enhancing The Portability Of Awards In International Commercial Arbitration, Benjamin C. Mccarty Dec 2015

Laying Down The "Brics": Enhancing The Portability Of Awards In International Commercial Arbitration, Benjamin C. Mccarty

Benjamin C McCarty

The drafters of the 1958 New York Convention intended Article V(2)(b) to be interpreted narrowly, and while most pro-arbitration national courts do maintain narrowly defined areas of public policy that are sufficient for refusal of the recognition and enforcement of a foreign arbitral award, this is not always the case. Developing states and jurisdictions that maintain corrupt or inefficient judicial systems have shown a greater willingness to invoke the public policy exception for a broader, amorphous variety of reasons. This phenomenon has created a sense of unpredictability among international investors, arbitrators, and business executives as to the amount ...


Gandhi’S Prophecy: Corporate Violence And A Mindful Law For Bhopal, Nehal A. Patel Dec 2015

Gandhi’S Prophecy: Corporate Violence And A Mindful Law For Bhopal, Nehal A. Patel

Nehal A. Patel

AbstractOver thirty years have passed since the Bhopal chemical disaster began,and in that time scholars of corporate social responsibility (CSR) havediscussed and debated several frameworks for improving corporate responseto social and environmental problems. However, CSR discourse rarelydelves into the fundamental architecture of legal thought that oftenbuttresses corporate dominance in the global economy. Moreover, CSRdiscourse does little to challenge the ontological and epistemologicalassumptions that form the foundation for modern economics and the role ofcorporations in the world.I explore methods of transforming CSR by employing the thought ofMohandas Gandhi. I pay particular attention to Gandhi’s critique ofindustrialization and principle ...


The Tortureres: Evaluating The Senate Select Intelligence Committee’S Torture Report And Assessing The Legal Liability Of “Company Y” In The Cia’S Post 9-11 Interrogation And Detention Program Under The Alien Tort Statute, David Satnarine Nov 2015

The Tortureres: Evaluating The Senate Select Intelligence Committee’S Torture Report And Assessing The Legal Liability Of “Company Y” In The Cia’S Post 9-11 Interrogation And Detention Program Under The Alien Tort Statute, David Satnarine

David Satnarine

The U.S. national security apparatus after September 11, 2001 engendered an emphasis of new forms of intelligence gathering. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, the United States and its agents sought to collect as much information as possible to prevent another attack on the homeland, and to bring to justice those responsible for the heinous acts of September 11, 2001. Through the use of private actors, corporate shells, and contractors, the United States employed a host of professional interrogators in its war on terror. Some of these private actors, through their corporate shells later become known as the architects ...


Framing The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine As A Means Of Legal And Moral Intervention With Universal Jurisdiction Legal Obligations Of The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine And Universal Civil Jurisdiction In The Syrian Civil War Crisis, David Satnarine Nov 2015

Framing The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine As A Means Of Legal And Moral Intervention With Universal Jurisdiction Legal Obligations Of The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine And Universal Civil Jurisdiction In The Syrian Civil War Crisis, David Satnarine

David Satnarine

No abstract provided.


The French Intelligence Act Of July 2015: The French Surveillance State?, Wanda Mastor Nov 2015

The French Intelligence Act Of July 2015: The French Surveillance State?, Wanda Mastor

wanda mastor

The Intelligence Act of 24 July 2015, judged mostly compatible with the Constitution by the Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel), has been dubbed the “French PATRIOT Act” by its critics. The aim of this paper is to dispel this comparison, along with the claim that France would authorize mass surveillance at the same time as the United States is set to prohibit it with the recent FREEDOM Act. The legislation, essential in principle, is nevertheless not exempt from criticism: opting for extremely broad and vague objectives, as well as “eliminating” the issue of international surveillance and the choice of prior authorization ...


Democracy And Torture, Patrick A. Maurer Oct 2015

Democracy And Torture, Patrick A. Maurer

Patrick A Maurer

September 11th spawned an era of political changes to fundamental rights. The focus of this discussion is to highlight Guantanamo Bay torture incidents. This analysis will explore the usages of torture from a legal standpoint in the United States.


Right To Cure Under The Unidroit Principles Article 7.1.4: A Historical Analysis, Gakuro Himeno Oct 2015

Right To Cure Under The Unidroit Principles Article 7.1.4: A Historical Analysis, Gakuro Himeno

Gakuro HIMENO

Riht to cure under Unidroit 7.1.4 has three sources: a) Nachtrag, b) mise en demeure and Nachfrist and c) right to cure under Uniform Commercial Code 2-508. When the UCC Committee, Section of Business law, the ABA reviewed what will become the Unidroit Principles, they found a counterpart to their own right to cure in it: Nachfrist. Then drafting a new provision upon cure was commissioned to Richard Hyland, a US professor. While this provision, rare case where Unidroit and PECL disagrees (8. 104), has long been under criticism especially by the European drafters, met with a DCFR ...


Rehabilitation Of Illicit Behaviours In The Post-Rtl Era: Disputes And Proposals, Zhenjie Zhou Oct 2015

Rehabilitation Of Illicit Behaviours In The Post-Rtl Era: Disputes And Proposals, Zhenjie Zhou

Zhenjie ZHOU

How to rehabilitate illicit behaviours that were subject to the re-education through labour system has been a topic of rigorous debate since the abolition of the system. Proposals brought forward so far can generally be categorised into a criminalisation approach and an administrative approach. This article asserts that the rehabilitation of these behaviours shall strictly observe principles of efficiency, transparency and fairness and proposes that the Legislature adopt the Law on Correction of Illicit Behaviour under pilot implementation to consign illicit behaviours that were subject to the re-education through labour system to a mixed decision-making procedure. This will constitute a ...


Transplanting Contractual Terms: The Influence Of The Common Law In The Civil Law Of Contracts, A View From The Periphery, Dario Laguado Oct 2015

Transplanting Contractual Terms: The Influence Of The Common Law In The Civil Law Of Contracts, A View From The Periphery, Dario Laguado

Dario Laguado

This paper suggests a model of contractual innovation that takes into account the bottom-up transplant of legal devices from the core to the periphery. This model properly weighs the tension and differences between places of production and places of reception and the process of misreading that goes along with the transplant. It serves to explain the innovation that has been produced as a result of the influence of common law contracts in Colombia and South America. Evidence shows that this model can be generally applied to the process of transplantation in many jurisdictions around the world. The main features of ...


Is Moderation The Highest Virtue? A Comparative Study Of A Middle Way Of Control Transaction Regimes, Yueh-Ping Yang, Pin-Hsien Lee Oct 2015

Is Moderation The Highest Virtue? A Comparative Study Of A Middle Way Of Control Transaction Regimes, Yueh-Ping Yang, Pin-Hsien Lee

Yueh-Ping Yang

Comparative studies of control transaction regimes mostly compare between the Market Rule as adopted in the U.S. and the General Offer Rule ad adopted in European Union, while paying less attention to the Partial Offer Rule, a middle way model adopted in many East Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, etc. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap by highlighting the Partial Offer Rule adopted in these countries, analyzing this rule’s theoretical foundation and observing its implementation in practice. Our theoretical analyses of the Partial Offer Rule are comprised of two parts. First ...


Future Strategies For Improving Consent In Electronic Contracting, Ran Bi Sep 2015

Future Strategies For Improving Consent In Electronic Contracting, Ran Bi

Ran Bi

China's economy has been running deep into an exciting phrase called “Internet +”. In North America, most businesses have online presence and conduct numerous transactions online. Unprecedentedly, electronic contracts have been governing more Individuals and corporations’ legal relationships in a growing proportion of businesses and everyday life.

E-contracts, usually with no physical architecture, are easy to “sign”—people just click one or two icons on a computer / smartphone screen after “reading” (scroll down) the contents. However, e-contracts are standard form contracts which are provided by vendors . Users are easy to become victims of exploitative terms, because their consent has been ...


Copyrightability Of Music Compilations And Playlists: Original And Creative Works Of Authorship?, Marc Fritzsche Sep 2015

Copyrightability Of Music Compilations And Playlists: Original And Creative Works Of Authorship?, Marc Fritzsche

Marc Fritzsche

With the digitalization of music and the increasing popularity of online streaming services, people can conveniently create their own playlists and music compilations at will and share them worldwide. Imagine a world in which any selection and arrangement of songs, whether made by you, a DJ, a radio station, or a record label, is protected under the regime of Copyright Law. The result would be a vast amount of copyright infringements when a playlist or compilation gets mimicked by others. Thus far, only the High Court in London, UK, was confronted with this problem, but the parties settled, leaving the ...


Future Strategies For Improving Consent In Electronic Contracting, Ran Bi Sep 2015

Future Strategies For Improving Consent In Electronic Contracting, Ran Bi

Ran Bi

China's economy has been running deep into an exciting phrase called “Internet +”. In North America, most businesses have online presence and conduct numerous transactions online. Unprecedentedly, electronic contracts have been governing more Individuals and corporations’ legal relationships in a growing proportion of businesses and everyday life.

E-contracts, usually with no physical architecture, are easy to “sign”—people just click one or two icons on a computer / smartphone screen after “reading” (scroll down) the contents. However, e-contracts are standard form contracts which are provided by vendors1. Users2 are easy to become victims of exploitative terms, because their consent has been ...


How Far Out Of Step Is The Supreme Court Of The United States?, Brian Christopher Jones Aug 2015

How Far Out Of Step Is The Supreme Court Of The United States?, Brian Christopher Jones

Brian Christopher Jones

This piece compares the United States Supreme Court (SCOTUS) and the UK Supreme Court (UKSC) regarding three major areas of interest: court communications, cameras in the courtroom, and judicial selection. Ultimately, it finds that, compared to their neighbour across the pond, the US Supreme Court is deeply out of step. This, coupled with other problems for SCOTUS, could ultimately hurt their legitimacy and constitutional review authority.


Infringement As Unfair Competition: A Blueprint For Global Governance?, Sean Pager, Eric Priest Aug 2015

Infringement As Unfair Competition: A Blueprint For Global Governance?, Sean Pager, Eric Priest

Sean Pager

INFRINGEMENT AS UNFAIR COMPETITION: A BLUEPRINT FOR GLOBAL GOVERNANCE?

Sean A. Pager Michigan State University College of Law

Eric Priest University of Oregon School of Law

ABSTRACT

This Article examines a new approach to address persistent regulatory failures in global supply chains. In a series of recent cases, unfair competition actions have been brought in U.S. court against foreign manufacturers who infringe software overseas under the theory that the cost savings from infringement confers an unfair advantage in U.S. markets. While this theory has been advanced in the intellectual property context, the same approach could work to target ...


International Intellectual Property, Access To Health Care, And Human Rights: South Africa V. United States, Winston Nagan Aug 2015

International Intellectual Property, Access To Health Care, And Human Rights: South Africa V. United States, Winston Nagan

Winston P Nagan

This Article examines the question of access to patented medicines in international law. It analyzes the extent to which international agreements may lawfully limit affordable versions of these medicines that may be available through parallel imports or compulsory licensing procedures. It considers the concept of intellectual property rights from a national and international perspective to determine how these rights must be sensitive to matters of national sovereignty when extraordinary, life-threatening diseases afflict societies in catastrophic ways. This Article suggests that viewing property (including intellectual property) as a human right requires that its scope be delimited and understood in the context ...


Chinese Tort Law Between Tradition And Transplants, Hao Jiang Esq. Aug 2015

Chinese Tort Law Between Tradition And Transplants, Hao Jiang Esq.

Hao Jiang Esq.

No abstract provided.


Unpacking The International Law On Cybersecurity Due Diligence: Lessons From The Public And Private Sectors, Scott J. Shackelford Aug 2015

Unpacking The International Law On Cybersecurity Due Diligence: Lessons From The Public And Private Sectors, Scott J. Shackelford

Scott Shackelford

Although there has been a relative abundance of work done on exploring the contours of the law of cyber war, far less attention has been paid to defining a law of cyber peace applicable below the armed attack threshold. Among the most important unanswered questions is what exactly nations’ due diligence obligations are to one another and to their respective private sectors. The International Court of Justice (“ICJ”) has not yet explicitly considered this topic, though it has ruled in the Corfu Channel case that one country’s territory should not be “used for acts that unlawfully harm other States ...


Dealing With Dangerous Women: Sexual Assault Under Cover Of National Security Laws In India, Surabhi Chopra Prof. Aug 2015

Dealing With Dangerous Women: Sexual Assault Under Cover Of National Security Laws In India, Surabhi Chopra Prof.

Surabhi Chopra Prof.

DEALING WITH DANGEROUS WOMEN: SEXUAL ASSAULT UNDER COVER OF NATIONAL SECURITY LAWS IN INDIA

This article examines violence against women suspected of being security threats in India’s internal conflict zones, one of the very few scholarly works to do so.

I focus on two cases in particular. In 2004, Thangjam Manorama was arrested by paramilitaries on suspicion of belonging to a violent separatist group, and found raped and murdered several hours later. I look at her family’s attempts to hold the armed forces accountable for her death. I also look at the ongoing criminal prosecution of Soni Sori ...


Transatlantic Perspective On Judicial Deference In Administrative Law, Maciej Bernatt Aug 2015

Transatlantic Perspective On Judicial Deference In Administrative Law, Maciej Bernatt

Maciej Bernatt

The U.S. concept of judicial deference in administrative law limits the scope of judicial review of administrative agencies’ actions in the light of agencies’ superior expertise and separation of powers arguments. It may serve as an interesting point of reference for the European discussion about adequate institutional balance between administration and courts. The paper analyzes whether there are grounds for the validity of the concept of judicial deference in Continental Europe and in what areas (law, facts or both). As a starting point it is observed that it remains generally accepted in Europe that it is a role of ...


Law And Finance: The Case Of Stock Market Development In China, Zhong Zhang Dr Aug 2015

Law And Finance: The Case Of Stock Market Development In China, Zhong Zhang Dr

Zhong Zhang Dr

Having grown to one of the largest in the world in just over two decades, the stock market of China is cited as a counterexample to the significance of law for financial market development. A thorough examination of the development of China’s stock market however finds that law is actually critical to sustaining market growth and law did play a role in the growth of the market. On the other hand, the trajectory of development in China is growth first followed by law, and the improvement of law is caused by market growth. The experience of China hence suggests ...


Adopting Subsequent Remuneration Right In Chinese Copyright Law, Xi Chen Aug 2015

Adopting Subsequent Remuneration Right In Chinese Copyright Law, Xi Chen

Xi Chen

One heavily and contentiously argued clause in Chinese Copyright Law amendments drafts focuses on the practicality of granting authors of audiovisual works the legal right to collect subsequent remunerations (SRR), when their works are reused in subsequent exploitations.

With the rapid increase of media channels for the Chinese movie industry, and other entertainment industries relying on a heavy usage of audiovisual work, authors demand that they should be entitled to the profit earned from derivative markets and other media channel beyond the first intended market. In order to balance the conflicting interest between the author and the producer, and to ...


Reviewing Arbitration Awards For Competition Law Violations: A Playbook For Courts Implementing The New York Convention, William Schubert Aug 2015

Reviewing Arbitration Awards For Competition Law Violations: A Playbook For Courts Implementing The New York Convention, William Schubert

William Schubert

This article discusses the risk that international arbitration awards violating national competition laws will be enforced without having received reasonable scrutiny either during arbitration or in the national courts.

The risk that competition law violations may be authorized under the guise of enforceable arbitration awards is real, and it is a major policy problem. It is quite easy, for example, to use the international arbitration framework to enforce agreements that authorize anticompetitive activity among competitors in jurisdictions unrelated to the arbitral award (i.e., without power to review it). The problem is that competition law violations in jurisdictions unrelated to ...


Developing An International Carbon Tax Regime, Steven Specht Aug 2015

Developing An International Carbon Tax Regime, Steven Specht

Steven Specht

As atmospheric CO2 remains in the range of 400 ppm, it is necessary to find new international coordination to deal with climate change. The best way forward is an international regime of harmonized domestic carbon taxes. By agreeing to a minimum amount of taxation on domestic, point-source producers, money can be set aside for adaptation costs and alternative means of energy production. Finally, such a plan will overcome the problem of non-participation of countries in agreements like the Kyoto Protocol. As this is a treaty dealing with economics and trade, countries can place taxes on imports of non-participatory countries under ...