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The Role Of Expectancies In Binge Eating Behavior, Jessica Larose Jan 2006

The Role Of Expectancies In Binge Eating Behavior, Jessica Larose

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The central aim of the present study was to examine the role of expectancies in binge eating behavior. Two distinct statistical techniques were used to accomplish this goal. First, regression analyses were conducted using variables previously identified in the literature, as well as eating expectancies as measured by the Eating Expectancy Inventory (EEI). For both females and males, regression equations including expectancies accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in binge eating behavior. Second, memory modeling techniques were used to model the probable organization of eating expectancies. Memory modeling of hypothetical expectancy networks has lead to successful interventions in ...


The Effects Of Secondary Task Demandon The Assessment Of Threat, Harriss Ganey Jan 2006

The Effects Of Secondary Task Demandon The Assessment Of Threat, Harriss Ganey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Threat perception is an important issue in today's world. As the line between hostile and non-hostile entities is blurred, it becomes more important for individuals to clearly distinguish between those who would present danger and those who would not. This series of experiments tested whether observers engaged in a dual-task paradigm perceived a greater amount of threat from target stimuli than they did when they were engaged in the threat task alone. The first experiment revealed that observers rated targets as more threatening when they were engaged in the additional task than when they only rated the targets themselves ...


Individual Preferences In The Use Of Automation, Jennifer Thropp Jan 2006

Individual Preferences In The Use Of Automation, Jennifer Thropp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As system automation increases and evolves, the intervention of the supervising operator becomes ever less frequent but ever more crucial. The adaptive automation approach is one in which control of tasks dynamically shifts between humans and machines, being an alternative to traditional static allocation in which task control is assigned during system design and subsequently remains unchanged during operations. It is proposed that adaptive allocation should adjust to the individual operators' characteristics in order to improve performance, avoid errors, and enhance safety. The roles of three individual difference variables relevant to adaptive automation are described: attentional control, desirability of control ...


Decreasing Alcohol Use Among High School Students By Challenging Alcohol Expectancies, Iris Cruz Jan 2006

Decreasing Alcohol Use Among High School Students By Challenging Alcohol Expectancies, Iris Cruz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Altering alcohol expectancies has reduced alcohol use among college students and may lead to successful prevention of alcohol use among high school students. We randomly assigned 379 12th-grade students to an expectancy challenge, traditional alcohol information, or control condition, and used Individual Differences Scaling to map expectancies into memory network format with Preference Mapping to model likely paths of association. After expectancy and traditional alcohol interventions, higher drinking male participants exhibited a greater likelihood to associate alcohol use with negative and sedating consequences and a decreased likelihood to associate alcohol with positive and arousing consequences. Drinking decreases paralleled the magnitude ...


Working Memory, Search, And Signal Detection: Implications For Interactive Voice Response System Menu Design, Patrick Commarford Jan 2006

Working Memory, Search, And Signal Detection: Implications For Interactive Voice Response System Menu Design, Patrick Commarford

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many researchers and speech user interface practitioners assert that interactive voice response (IVR) menus must be relatively short due to constraints of the human memory system. These individuals commonly cite Miller's (1956) paper to support their claims. The current paper argues that these authors commonly misuse the information provided in Miller's paper and that hypotheses drawn from modern theories of working memory (e.g., Baddeley and Hitch, 1974) would lead to the opposite conclusion – that reducing menu length by creating a greater number of menus and a deeper structure will actually be more demanding on users' working memories ...


Training Wayfinding: Natural Movement In Mixed Reality, Ruthann Savage Jan 2006

Training Wayfinding: Natural Movement In Mixed Reality, Ruthann Savage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Army needs a distributed training environment that can be accessed whenever and wherever required for training and mission rehearsal. This paper describes an exploratory experiment designed to investigate the effectiveness of a prototype of such a system in training a navigation task. A wearable computer, acoustic tracking system, and see-through head mounted display (HMD) were used to wirelessly track users' head position and orientation while presenting a graphic representation of their virtual surroundings, through which the user walked using natural movement. As previous studies have shown that virtual environments can be used to train navigation, the ability to add ...


The Impact Of Mental Transformation Training Across Levels Of Automation On Spatial Awareness In Human-Robot Interaction, Sherri Rehfeld Jan 2006

The Impact Of Mental Transformation Training Across Levels Of Automation On Spatial Awareness In Human-Robot Interaction, Sherri Rehfeld

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the problems affecting robot operators' spatial awareness involves their ability to infer a robot's location based on the views from on-board cameras and other electro-optic systems. To understand the vehicle's location, operators typically need to translate images from a vehicle's camera into some other coordinates, such as a location on a map. This translation requires operators to relate the view by mentally rotating it along a number of axes, a task that is both attention-demanding and workload-intensive, and one that is likely affected by individual differences in operator spatial abilities. Because building and maintaining spatial ...


Initial Testing Of The Continuous Employee Development Model: Outcome Expectations And Work-Related Implicit Theory, Christina Garofano Jan 2006

Initial Testing Of The Continuous Employee Development Model: Outcome Expectations And Work-Related Implicit Theory, Christina Garofano

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding and promoting lifelong learning in employees is important for employees' future marketability (Robinson & Rousseau, 1994) and for creating learning organizations (Senge, 1990). To further this understanding, components of a model of the motivation to engage in continuous employee development (Garofano & Salas, 2005) were tested. New scales were created for work-related implicit theory and outcome expectations and the validity of these scales and these variables in the model were investigated. Alternate models were also contrasted with the Garofano and Salas model (2005). The study used self-report surveys administered to staff and faculty recruited from training classes in higher learning institutions ...


Investigating The Mechanisms That Drive Implicit Coordination In Teams, Raegan Hoeft Jan 2006

Investigating The Mechanisms That Drive Implicit Coordination In Teams, Raegan Hoeft

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to empirically test the oft-noted hypothesis that shared mental models lead to implicit coordination. Specifically, this dissertation investigated the underlying mechanisms of implicit coordination and how different aspects of shared mental models affect the process. The research questions tested in this study were (a)how perceptions of sharedness affect the initiation of implicit coordination, (b) how actual levels of sharedness affect the process of implicit coordination, and (c) how quality of task mental models affects successful implicit coordination. Sixty same-gender, two-person teams engaged in a complex military reconnaissance planning task in which the team ...


The Construct Validity Of A Situational Judgment Test In A Maximum Performance Context, Kevin Stagl Jan 2006

The Construct Validity Of A Situational Judgment Test In A Maximum Performance Context, Kevin Stagl

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A Predictor Response Process model (see Ployhart, 2006) and research findings were leveraged to formulate research questions about, and generate construct validity evidence for, a new situational judgment test (SJT) designed to measure declarative and strategic knowledge. The first question asked if SJT response instructions (i.e., 'Should Do', 'Would Do') moderated the validity of an SJT in a maximum performance context. The second question asked what the upper-bound criterion-related validity coefficient is for SJTs in talent selection contexts in which typical performance is the criterion of interest. The third question asked whether the SJT used in the present study ...


Predictors Of Perceiving Racism In Ambiguous Situations, Teresa Marino Jan 2006

Predictors Of Perceiving Racism In Ambiguous Situations, Teresa Marino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The present study used a mixed-experimental analog design to examine 858 undergraduate students' reactions to a scenario depicting a store clerk being mildly rude to a customer. The ethnicity of the clerk and customer were manipulated. Results indicated that participants' beliefs regarding the general prevalence of racism and the degree to which they identify with their respective ethnic group significantly predicted the extent to which they perceived the clerk's behavior as being racially motivated. It also was found that participants' beliefs regarding the general prevalence of racism, levels of cynicism, and attributional style significantly predicted the extent to which ...


Predicting Alcohol And Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes Among Hispanic And African American Substance Abusers, Dawna-Cricket-Martita Meehan Jan 2006

Predicting Alcohol And Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes Among Hispanic And African American Substance Abusers, Dawna-Cricket-Martita Meehan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol and drug use and abuse are significant concerns in the United States, yet few studies have investigated how cultural factors, such as acculturative type and acculturative stress, impact substance abuse treatment outcomes. In this study, African American (n = 171) and Hispanic (n = 101) substance abusers' acculturative type and acculturative stress levels were compared to substance abuse treatment outcome. Although the results indicated that acculturative type did not predict substance abuse treatment outcome, a positive correlation between acculturative stress and alcohol and substance abuse problems emerged among the combined and Hispanic samples. In the combined and Hispanic groups, participants experiencing ...


Predicting Anxiety From Parent And Childhood Variables, Brian Fisak Jan 2006

Predicting Anxiety From Parent And Childhood Variables, Brian Fisak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The high prevalence rate, significant distress and impairment, and persistence of childhood anxiety disorders highlight the need for continued theoretical conceptualization and research into the developmental pathways associated these disorders. In response to this need, one goal this project was to examination and identify variables associated with the development and/or maintenance of child anxiety disorders. A second goal of this project was to examine the potential role of learning from parents as a risk factor in the development of child anxiety, with a particular emphasis on three learning mechanisms: modeling, information transfer, and reinforcement of anxious behaviors. The third ...


The Relationship Between Self-Reported Chronic Stress And Divided Attention Performance, Diane Petrac Jan 2006

The Relationship Between Self-Reported Chronic Stress And Divided Attention Performance, Diane Petrac

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While previous research has extensively examined the effect of acute stress on cognitive performance, relatively little research has explored the relationship between chronic stress and cognitive performance. The current study aimed to control for current state anxiety to better isolate more chronic stress, when examining the relationship with performance on divided attention tasks. Fifty-four university undergraduates, who self-reported a wide range of perceived chronic stress (10-item Perceived Stress Scale), completed the Trail-Making Test and a dual (auditory and visual) Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Hierarchical regressions were performed to explore cognitive predictors of chronic perceived stress. After covarying for state anxiety ...


Orienting Of Visual-Spatial Attention With Augmented Reality: Effects Of Spatial And Non-Spatial Multi-Modal Cues, Christian Jerome Jan 2006

Orienting Of Visual-Spatial Attention With Augmented Reality: Effects Of Spatial And Non-Spatial Multi-Modal Cues, Christian Jerome

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Advances in simulation technology have brought about many improvements to the way we train tasks, as well as how we perform tasks in the operational field. Augmented reality (AR) is an example of how to enhance the user's experience in the real world with computer generated information and graphics. Visual search tasks are known to be capacity demanding and therefore may be improved by training in an AR environment. During the experimental task, participants searched for enemies (while cued from visual, auditory, tactile, combinations of two, or all three modality cues) and tried to shoot them while avoiding shooting ...


Examining Employee Use Of Family-Friendly Benefits With The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Heather Seiser Jan 2006

Examining Employee Use Of Family-Friendly Benefits With The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Heather Seiser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors that may be related to employees' decisions to use the family-friendly benefits (e.g., maternity/paternity leave, flexible work schedule) that are offered to them by their employers. Research has shown that both employees and organizations benefit when employees use family-friendly benefits. However, research has also shown that many employees do not take advantage of such benefits. Studies examining this issue are limited, and much of the research that has been conducted is anecdotal and atheoretical. The present study overcame this problem by empirically examining the use of family-friendly ...


Hispanics' Attitudes Toward Seeking Counselingas A Function Of Psychosocial And Demographic Variables, Angela Rojas-Vilches Jan 2006

Hispanics' Attitudes Toward Seeking Counselingas A Function Of Psychosocial And Demographic Variables, Angela Rojas-Vilches

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using variables identified in the social science literature believed to influence attitudes toward seeking professional counseling, an attempt was made to develop a model for predicting Hispanics' willingness to obtain professional help. A second purpose of this study was to compare college students (n = 158) with their parents on their attitudes toward mental illness and toward seeking counseling. Among predictor variables, social stigma and the belief that mental illnesses are untreatable were the primary variables predicting attitudes toward seeking counseling. The more college students and their parents perceived there to be social stigma attached to those seeking therapy, and the ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Single-Session Expectancy Challenge Intervention To Reduce Alcohol Use Among Heavy Drinking College Students, Hoyee Lau Jan 2006

Development And Evaluation Of A Single-Session Expectancy Challenge Intervention To Reduce Alcohol Use Among Heavy Drinking College Students, Hoyee Lau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While overall rates of college student drinking have declined slightly since 1980, extreme forms of drinking are escalating. A comprehensive review of all aspects of alcohol use among college students completed by a panel of scientists and college presidents concluded that very few approaches for dealing with student drinking can be considered empirically validated, and they strongly encouraged additional efforts to develop and validate effective strategies. Expectancy challenge approaches designed to reduce risky drinking through changing key expectancies have been identified as one of the few validated strategies, but this approach has not been developed into a format that is ...


Immediate Versus Delayed Feedback In Simulation Based Training: Matching Feedback Delivery Timing To The Cognitive Demands Of Th, Amy Bolton Jan 2006

Immediate Versus Delayed Feedback In Simulation Based Training: Matching Feedback Delivery Timing To The Cognitive Demands Of Th, Amy Bolton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optimal delivery of instruction is both critical and challenging in dynamic, scenario-based training (SBT) computer simulations such as those used by the military. Tasks that human instructors must perform during these sorts of simulated training exercises can impose a heavy burden on them. Partially due to advances in the state-of-the-art in training technology and partially due to the military's desire to reduce the number of personnel required, it may be possible to support functions that overburdened instructors perform by automating much of the SBT process in a computer simulation. Unfortunately though, after more than 50 years of literature documenting ...


The Relation Between Optimism And Job Performance: An Applied Setting, Mary Davis Jan 2006

The Relation Between Optimism And Job Performance: An Applied Setting, Mary Davis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research on cognitive ability measures consistently concludes that they are predictive of employee performance. While accounting for only about 9% of the variance in performance, however, cognitive ability measures are not sufficient. Alternative measures, such as measures of personality constructs, must be included to fully predict employee performance. The research on personality measures suggests that they are marginally predictive of employee performance. Research also suggests that predicative accuracy of personality measures can be enhanced when the measure is specific to the situation (i.e., stress measure are more predictive of performance in high stress situations compared to moderate or low ...


A Comparison Of Ordinary Least Squares, Weighted Least Squares, And Other Procedures When Testing For The Equality Of Regression, Patrick J. Rosopa Jan 2006

A Comparison Of Ordinary Least Squares, Weighted Least Squares, And Other Procedures When Testing For The Equality Of Regression, Patrick J. Rosopa

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

When testing for the equality of regression slopes based on ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, extant research has shown that the standard F performs poorly when the critical assumption of homoscedasticity is violated, resulting in increased Type I error rates and reduced statistical power (Box, 1954; DeShon & Alexander, 1996; Wilcox, 1997). Overton (2001) recommended weighted least squares estimation, demonstrating that it outperformed OLS and performed comparably to various statistical approximations. However, Overton's method was limited to two groups. In this study, a generalization of Overton's method is described. Then, using a Monte Carlo simulation, its performance was compared to three ...


Classroom Observation Of Children With Adhd And Their Peers: A Meta-Analytic Review, Michael Kofler Jan 2006

Classroom Observation Of Children With Adhd And Their Peers: A Meta-Analytic Review, Michael Kofler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Meta-analysis of 23 between-group direct observation studies of children with ADHD and typically developing peers indicates significant deficiencies in children with ADHD's ability to pay attention in classroom settings. Comparison with 59 single case design studies of children with ADHD suggests generalizability of between-group comparisons. Weighted regression analysis determined that several methodological differences – sample characteristics, diagnostic procedures, and observational coding schema – have significant effects on observed levels of attentive behavior in the classroom. Best case estimation indicates that after accounting for these factors, children with ADHD are on-task approximately 65% of the time compared to 85% for their classroom ...