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2006

Plant Sciences

Phylogeny

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Patterns In Evolution In Characters That Define Iris Subgenera And Sections, Carol A. Wilson Jan 2006

Patterns In Evolution In Characters That Define Iris Subgenera And Sections, Carol A. Wilson

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Subgeneric groups have been circumscribed in Iris based on a small number of morphological characters. Recent DNA sequence data has indicated that several of the subgenera, sections, and series that have previously been delineated are paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The evolution of characters that have traditionally been used to distinguish sub generic and sectional groups within Iris was investigated by mapping these characters on a phylogenetic tree based on matK sequence data. Results indicate that rhizomes are pleisomorphic for the genus and that three bulb types have arisen independently. My analysis shows that sepal beards, sepal crests, and seed arils ...


Speciation In Duckweeds (Lemnaceae): Phylogenetic And Ecological Inferences, Daniel J. Crawford, Elias Landolt, Donald H. Les, Rebecca T. Kimball Jan 2006

Speciation In Duckweeds (Lemnaceae): Phylogenetic And Ecological Inferences, Daniel J. Crawford, Elias Landolt, Donald H. Les, Rebecca T. Kimball

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Species of duckweeds (Letnnaceae) that were resolved as sister taxa in a phylogeny based on combined molecular and non-molecular data were compared for morphological, physiological, and ecological attributes to infer factors important in the initial divergence leading to speciation. The ability to survive extreme conditions such as desiccation and cold temperatures is the most common difference identified between species. Two morphological characters facilitating survival in extreme environments are production of special resting buds called turions and increased seed production. The prevalent geographic pattern for species pairs consists of one restricted species occurring on the periphery of a more widespread taxon ...


Phylogenetic Analyses And Biogeography Of Trilliaceae, Susan B. Farmer Jan 2006

Phylogenetic Analyses And Biogeography Of Trilliaceae, Susan B. Farmer

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Trilliaceae are plants of North Temperate forests with a holarctic distribution and a high degree of endemism. Molecular phylogenetic analyses are presented in order to examine the tribal, generic, and species-level classification of the family. These molecular studies, and earlier morphological studies, support the placement of the genus Pseudotrillium as basal in the family and sister to the tribes Trillieae and Parideae, which are monophyletic sister groups. Trillidium (Trillium) govanianum provides an unresolved problem: morphologically it is included within Parideae, but molecular data place it within Trillium as sister to T. undulatum. Within tribe Trillieae, clades are noted that correspond ...


The Never-Ending Story: Multigene Approaches To The Phylogeny Of Amaryllidaceae, Alan W. Meerow, Deirdre A. Snuman Jan 2006

The Never-Ending Story: Multigene Approaches To The Phylogeny Of Amaryllidaceae, Alan W. Meerow, Deirdre A. Snuman

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

a whole, strongly supported the mostly African tribe Amaryllideae as sister to the rest of the family, and resolved geographically-based monophyletic groups, but failed to resolve the relationships among several basal lineages in the family (the African Haemantheae and Cyrtantheae, the Australasian Calostemmateae, and the American and Eurasian sister clades). We present analysis of plastid ndhF sequences that fully resolved the major clades of the family. The baccate-fruited Haemantheae and Calostemmateae are sister tribes, and the African endemic Cyrtantheae is sister to them both. This clade is sister to an American/Eurasian clade. We also present preliminary nuclear ribosomal ...


Phylogeny Of Iridaceae Subfamily Crocoideae Based On A Combined Multigene Plastid Dna Analysis, Peter Goldblatt, T. Jonathan Davies, John C. Manning, Michelle Van Der Bank, Vincent Savolainen Jan 2006

Phylogeny Of Iridaceae Subfamily Crocoideae Based On A Combined Multigene Plastid Dna Analysis, Peter Goldblatt, T. Jonathan Davies, John C. Manning, Michelle Van Der Bank, Vincent Savolainen

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

The phylogeny of Crocoideae, the largest of four subfamilies currently recognized in Tridaceae, has eluded resolution until sequences of two more plastid DNA regions were added here to a previously published matrix containing sequences from four DNA plastid regions. Sister to the core Nivenioideae, the woody Klattia, Nivenia, and Witsenia, Crocoideae are a climax group in lridaceae, comprising some 995 species, slightly more than half of the total in the family. Synapomorphies of Crocoideae include pollen exine perforate, pollen aperture operculate, ovule campylotropous (or hypotropous), root xylem vessels with simple perforations, cormous rootstock, inflorescence a spike, and plants deciduous. The ...


A Comparison And Combination Of Plastid Atpb And Rbcl Gene Sequences For Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships Within Orchidaceae, Kenneth M. Cameron Jan 2006

A Comparison And Combination Of Plastid Atpb And Rbcl Gene Sequences For Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships Within Orchidaceae, Kenneth M. Cameron

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Parsimony analyses of DNA sequences from the plastid genes atpB and rbcL were completed for 173 species of Orchidaceae (representing 150 different genera) and nine genera from outgroup families in Asparagales. The atpB tree topology is similar to the rbcL tree, although the atpB data contain less homoplasy and provide greater jackknife support than rbcL alone. In combination, the two-gene tree recovers five monophyletic clades corresponding to subfamilies within Orchidaceae, and fully resolves them with moderate to high jackknife support as follows: Epidendroideae are sister to Orchidoideae, followed by Cypripedioideae, then Vanilloideae, and with ...


Phlogeny And Biogeography Of The Prayer Plant Family, Linda M. Prince, W. John Kress Jan 2006

Phlogeny And Biogeography Of The Prayer Plant Family, Linda M. Prince, W. John Kress

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Marantaceae are the second largest family in the order Zingiberales, with approximately 31 genera and 535 species. Earlier studies based on morphological and molecular characters could not confidently determine the relationships among major lineages of the family, nor could they identify the basal branch of the family tree. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from all three genomic compartments (chloroplast: matK, ndhF, rbcL, rps16 intron, and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer; mitochondrion: cox1; nucleus: ITS region and the 5'-end of 26S) for a restricted set of taxa were conducted under parsimony criteria to ...


Fleshy Fruits In Liliflorous Monocots, Finn N. Rasmussen, Signe Frederikson, Bo Johansen, Lise Bolt Jørgenson, Gitte Peterson Jan 2006

Fleshy Fruits In Liliflorous Monocots, Finn N. Rasmussen, Signe Frederikson, Bo Johansen, Lise Bolt Jørgenson, Gitte Peterson

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Fleshy fruits occur in several monocot orders and families, and it is generally assumed that they have been derived from capsular fruits many times during the evolution of monocot lineages. Huber hypothesized in 1969 that most capsules in Asparagales are derived secondarily from berries and that this transformation was correlated with the evolution of phytomelan-coated seeds, a pivotal character in his circumscription of Asparagales as part of reclassifying Liliaceae s.l. Dahlgren and co-workers suggested several parallel derivations and "reversals" in this character, e.g., the transformation sequence trifollicular fruits → capsules → berries→ capsules→ berries. Mapping of fleshy fruits on a ...


A Phylogenetic Study Of Arecaceae Based On Seedling Morphological And Anatomical Data, Flor M. Henderson, Dennis W. Stevenson Jan 2006

A Phylogenetic Study Of Arecaceae Based On Seedling Morphological And Anatomical Data, Flor M. Henderson, Dennis W. Stevenson

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

A morphological and anatomical survey was carried out of seedlings of 62 taxa of palms representing all major groups. The data were analyzed using cladistic parsimony analysis. Seedling data were analyzed independently and combined with adult morphological data. Outgroup selection was made within the family using the calamoids and Nypa fruticans; outside the family, the monocot family Dasypogonaceae were used. The analysis with the calamoids and Nypa fruticans as outgroups resolved some of the major groups. The combined analysis, using both seedling and adult data and Dasypogonaceae as the outgroup, provided better resolution. Most of the major groups were monophyletic ...


Phylogeny Of Agavaceae Based On Ndhf, Rbcl, And Its Sequences, David J. Bogler, J. Chris Pires, Javier Francisco-Ortega Jan 2006

Phylogeny Of Agavaceae Based On Ndhf, Rbcl, And Its Sequences, David J. Bogler, J. Chris Pires, Javier Francisco-Ortega

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Great advances have been made in our understanding of the phylogeny and classification of Agavaceae in the last 20 years. In older systems Agavaceae were paraphyletic due to overemphasis of ovary position or habit. Discovery of a unique bimodal karyotype in Agave and Yucca eventually led to a reexamination of concepts and relationships in all the lilioid monocots, which continues to the present day. Developments in cytogenetics, microscopy, phylogenetic systematics, and most recently DNA technology have led to remarkable new insights. Large-scale rbcL sequence studies placed Agavaceae with the core Asparagales and identified closely related taxa. Analysis of cpDNA ...


Mitochondrial Data In Monocot Phylologenetics, Gitte Peterson, Ole Seberg, Jerrold I. Davis, Douglas H. Goldman, Dennis W. Stevenson, Lisa M. Campbell, Fabian A. Michaelangeli, Chelsea D. Specht, Mark W. Chase, Michael E. Fay, J. Chris Pires, John V. Freudenstein, Christopher R. Hardy, Mark P. Simmons Jan 2006

Mitochondrial Data In Monocot Phylologenetics, Gitte Peterson, Ole Seberg, Jerrold I. Davis, Douglas H. Goldman, Dennis W. Stevenson, Lisa M. Campbell, Fabian A. Michaelangeli, Chelsea D. Specht, Mark W. Chase, Michael E. Fay, J. Chris Pires, John V. Freudenstein, Christopher R. Hardy, Mark P. Simmons

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Mitochondrial sequences are an important source of data in animal phylogenetics, equivalent in importance to plastid sequences in plants. However, in recent years plant systematists have begun exploring the mitochondrial genome as a source of phylogenetically useful characters. The plant mitochondrial genome is renowned for its variability in size, structure, and gene organization, but this need not be of concern for the application of sequence data in phylogenetics. However, the incorporation of reverse transcribed mitochondrial genes ("processed paralogs") and the recurring transfer of genes from the mitochondrion to the nucleus are evolutionary events that must be taken into account. RNA ...


The Role Of Phylogenetic Constraints In The Evolution Of Pollination Mechanisms In Iridaceae Of Sub-Saharan Africa, Peter Bernhardt, Peter Goldblatt Jan 2006

The Role Of Phylogenetic Constraints In The Evolution Of Pollination Mechanisms In Iridaceae Of Sub-Saharan Africa, Peter Bernhardt, Peter Goldblatt

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Novel, specialized systems exploiting bibionid flies, oil-collecting bees, wasps, or crepuscular settling moths as pollen vectors are added to the range of recorded pollination mechanisms in sub-Saharan Africa Iridaceae, while knowledge of the pollination of previously understudied genera such as Aristea, Bahiana, Ferraria, Hesperantha, and Tritoniopsis is expanded. The pollination of 357 species of the sub-Saharan African Iridaceae now includes 17 discrete systems. Based on repetitive interlinked suites of floral attractants and rewards we now infer pollination mechanisms for an additional 883 species. Many pollination systems recur in genera containing > 10 species. The ancestral pollination in African Iridaceae, and also ...


Systematic Floral Anatomy Of Pontederiaceae, Michael G. Simpson, Darren H. Burton Jan 2006

Systematic Floral Anatomy Of Pontederiaceae, Michael G. Simpson, Darren H. Burton

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Twenty species of Pontederiaceae and six species of the outgroup families Haemodoraceae and Philydraceae were investigated with regard to floral anatomy, using standard histological methods and graphic reconstructions. Variation is described in several features, including functional carpel number, the distribution of floral aerenchyma, the presence of unusual floral epithelial cells, the presence, type, and distribution of tannin cells, crystal type and distribution, aspects of placentation, ovule number, number of ovule rows per carpel, and septal nectary presence. In order to better assess character homology, one of these features, placentation, was divided into three discrete characters: septal fusion, placenta position, and ...