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2006

Plant Sciences

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Lake Mead National Recreation Area Vegetation Monitoring And Management: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2006, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2006

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Vegetation Monitoring And Management: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2006, Margaret N. Rees

Vegetation Monitoring

Executive Summary

  • Two new Weed Sentry research assistants were hired.
  • Weed Sentry staff surveyed for exotic species on 89 miles of roads on NPS and BLM land and treated more than 21,000 exotic plants in incipient populations.
  • A grid-based rare plant monitoring method was tested this quarter.
  • A manuscript detailing vegetation succession on a water pipeline at Lake Mead NRA was submitted for review to the journal Crossosoma.
  • New integrative projects undertaken this quarter included establishing a competition study between a native grass and the exotic Sahara mustard, salvaging plants for research purposes from private sites with permission from ...


Switchgrass For Biomass Feedstock In The Usa, Matt Sanderson, Paul Adler, Akwasi Boateng, Michael Casler, Gautam Sarath Dec 2006

Switchgrass For Biomass Feedstock In The Usa, Matt Sanderson, Paul Adler, Akwasi Boateng, Michael Casler, Gautam Sarath

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Switchgrass has received much study for biomass feedstock production and conversion through research funded by the US-DOE and USDA during the past two decades. We have an improved understanding of the adaptation of existing cultivars and new cultivars with yield and adaptation improvements are now appearing. We also have a good understanding of the agronomics of switchgrass production, mainly from its use as a forage crop. There remain several constraints to switchgrass use in bioenergy cropping systems, including reliable establishment methods to obtain productive stands in the first year, targeted fertilization and nutrient management techniques to efficiently use nitrogen fertilizer ...


Recombinant Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) Hydroperoxide Lyase And Uses Thereof, David Hildebrand, Hirotada Fukushige Dec 2006

Recombinant Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) Hydroperoxide Lyase And Uses Thereof, David Hildebrand, Hirotada Fukushige

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Patents

Recombinant watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) hydroperoxide lyase protein, DNA sequences encoding the protein, vectors containing the DNA sequences and hosts containing the vectors are provided, together with methods for recombinantly producing watermelon hydroperoxide lyase, DNA sequences, vectors and hosts.


Untemplated Oligoadenylation Promotes Degradation Of Risc-Cleaved Transcripts, Fadia Ibrahim, Jennifer Rohr, Won-Joong Jeong, Jennifer Hesson, Heriberto D. Cerutti Dec 2006

Untemplated Oligoadenylation Promotes Degradation Of Risc-Cleaved Transcripts, Fadia Ibrahim, Jennifer Rohr, Won-Joong Jeong, Jennifer Hesson, Heriberto D. Cerutti

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

In the best-characterized mechanism of RNAmediated silencing, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), guide the endonucleolytic cleavage of complementary RNAs (1). In Drosophila melanogaster, these RISC-generated products are eventually degraded by exoribonucleases: Xrn1, a 5′-to-3′ exonuclease, and exosome, a 3′-to-5′ multisubunit exonuclease (2). Interestingly, in Arabidopsis thaliana and in mammals, an oligouridine or oligoadenine [oligo(U/A)] tail is added to the 5′ RNA fragments resulting from microRNA-directed cleavage (3). However, the biological role of this tail remains unclear.


New Extension Corn Production Web Site, Lori Abendroth, Roger W. Elmore Dec 2006

New Extension Corn Production Web Site, Lori Abendroth, Roger W. Elmore

Integrated Crop Management News

We've designed a new Web site for Iowa State University Extension corn production that has current and relevant management information for producing corn in Iowa. The Web site provides research-based recommendations and diagnostic tools for producers and agribusinesses. The largest section of the Web site is devoted to "Corn Management," which is broken into categories based on whether the topic addresses overarching production issues, such as cropping systems and rotations, or if the topic can be isolated to a certain time of the growing season (planting, early-season, mid-/late-season, harvest). For example, in the "Planting" category, users can find ...


A Response To Phenomenon In 2006: Multiple Ears Per Node, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth Dec 2006

A Response To Phenomenon In 2006: Multiple Ears Per Node, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth

Integrated Crop Management News

Corn hybrids from several companies expressed more than one ear at a single node from Iowa to Indiana in 2006. Multiple ears are not unexpected, but they typically occur at different nodes (as with prolific hybrids), not on the same node. This trait was expressed in different ways in Iowa. In the most extreme cases, up to eight ears occurred at a single node. Some have called these "bouquets." Ears on these plants were usually barren. In one case, a field with bouquet ears yielded 50 bu/acre.


How To Interpret Scn Soil Test Results, Gregory L. Tylka Dec 2006

How To Interpret Scn Soil Test Results, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean yield loss due to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) occurred throughout much of Iowa in 2006. Damage from this pest was particularly noticeable in areas of the state that were very dry. There seems to be increased interest in testing for and managing SCN in Iowa this fall, and there likely has been more fields sampled for SCN this fall than in recent years. Following are some commonly asked questions and answers that illustrate things to consider when interpreting SCN soil sample results. This information is excerpted from Iowa State University Extension publication IPM 61, Interpreting SCN Soil Sample ...


Crop Performance Test Bulletins Now Available, Keven Arrowsmith Dec 2006

Crop Performance Test Bulletins Now Available, Keven Arrowsmith

Integrated Crop Management News

Results of the 2006 Iowa Crop Performance Tests for alfalfa, barley, corn, oat, soybean, triticale, and winter wheat are now available. For those wanting to download a copy of the bulletins, visit the Iowa Crop Improvement Association (ICIA) Web site or the Iowa State University (ISU) Extension Distribution Center (EDC) online store. Published bulletins may be requested by contacting ICIA at (515) 294-6921 or EDC at (515) 294-5247.


Aphids In The Air: What Is The Risk For 2007?, Wayne Ohnesorg, Matthew E. O'Neal, Marlin E. Rice Dec 2006

Aphids In The Air: What Is The Risk For 2007?, Wayne Ohnesorg, Matthew E. O'Neal, Marlin E. Rice

Integrated Crop Management News

The 2006 growing season has come to a close and with it another year's worth of experience with the soybean aphid. For many, it was a quiet, "low aphid" year with few reports of economic outbreaks within Iowa. Reflecting these low populations in the field, we observed fewer aphids within our suction traps (Figure 1) compared to the 2005 growing season when the traps collected nearly 100 times more aphids (Figure 2). For the last two years, the Iowa suction trap network (Figure 3) has been part of a larger network of suction traps located in nine states throughout ...


Central Crops And Soils Research Station Highmore, South Dakota: Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 2006

Central Crops And Soils Research Station Highmore, South Dakota: Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2006 progress report for the Central Crops and Soils Research Station at Highmore, South Dakota State College. This document represents the research conducted at the Station during the 2006 crop season including: temperature and precipitation data, evaluation of native and naturalized grasses for reduced-input turf in the Northern Plains, 2006 NTEP tall fescue ancillary trial for drought tolerance, field evaluations of woody plant materials, alfalfa production, optimal management of drought -tolerant legumes and warm season annual grasses, winter wheat breeding, evaluation of sunflower germplasm for resistance to the red sunflower seed weevil, weed control, fertilizer influence on ...


West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station Dec 2006

West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2006 progress report of the West River Crops and Soils Research Projects, South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. This document includes reports on: weather and climate, wheat and grain variety trials, management and tillage, and weed and pest control.


Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4 Dec 2006

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4 Dec 2006

End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Thatch Control, Winter Painting, And Plant Growth Regulator Management On Golf Course Putting Greens, Steven Long Dec 2006

Thatch Control, Winter Painting, And Plant Growth Regulator Management On Golf Course Putting Greens, Steven Long

All Theses

No abstract provided.


Long-Term Evaluation Of Liquid Vs. Granular Nitrogen Fertilization On Creeping Bentgrass [Agrostis Stoloniferous L. Var. Palustris Huds.] And Hybrid Bermudagrass [Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. X C. Transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] Performance, Frederick Totten Dec 2006

Long-Term Evaluation Of Liquid Vs. Granular Nitrogen Fertilization On Creeping Bentgrass [Agrostis Stoloniferous L. Var. Palustris Huds.] And Hybrid Bermudagrass [Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. X C. Transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] Performance, Frederick Totten

All Dissertations

Limited turfgrass research comparing the efficiency of foliar to granular fertilizers exists. To expand upon previous research and to determine advantages and disadvantages between dry and liquid fertilizers applied to turf, research was conducted at Clemson University to compare the efficiency of three nitrogen (N) carriers (100% granular, 100% liquid, and 50% granular + 50% liquid) using N rates ranging from 98 to 390 kg ha-1 on growth and performance of creeping bentgrass and ultra-dwarf bermudagrass.

Studies were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate liquid and/or granular N fertilization on turfgrass quality, clipping yield, and root biomass of `L-93 ...


Southeast South Dakota Experiment Farm Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station Dec 2006

Southeast South Dakota Experiment Farm Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This document highlights 24 crop and livestock research and demonstration reports from projects conducted at Southeast Research Farm in 2006. It is published by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service at South Dakota State University in cooperation with the Southeast South Dakota Experiment Farm Corporation. Reports in this document include information on: temperatures and precipitation data, corn production and performance, soybean research and planting, soil testing, alfalfa yield test, fertilizer testing, herbicide research, crop rotation, sorghum, small grains, livestock research, and pest and weed control.


Mp757: Eastern Regional Potato Trials 2005: Summary Of Ne1014 Regional Project Field Testing Of New Potato Clones, Gregory Porter, Chad Hutchinson, Douglas Gergela, J. Marion White, Craig Yencho, Mark Clough, Mel Henninger, Sandra Menasha, Dale Moyer, Joe Sieczka, Don Halseth, Matt Kleinhenz, David Kelly, Barbara Christ, Michael Peck, Walter Arsenault, A. J. Malone, Phillippe Parent, Pierre Turcotte, Rikki Sterrett Dec 2006

Mp757: Eastern Regional Potato Trials 2005: Summary Of Ne1014 Regional Project Field Testing Of New Potato Clones, Gregory Porter, Chad Hutchinson, Douglas Gergela, J. Marion White, Craig Yencho, Mark Clough, Mel Henninger, Sandra Menasha, Dale Moyer, Joe Sieczka, Don Halseth, Matt Kleinhenz, David Kelly, Barbara Christ, Michael Peck, Walter Arsenault, A. J. Malone, Phillippe Parent, Pierre Turcotte, Rikki Sterrett

Miscellaneous Publications

The objectives of this regional potato trial are (1) to develop pest-resistant, early-maturing, long-dormant potato varieties that will process from cold storage; (2) to evaluate new and specialty variet­ies developed in the Northeast; (3) to determine climatic effects on performance to develop pre­dictive models for potato improvement; and (4) determine heritability/linkage relationships and improve the genetic base of tetraploid cultivated varieties. The results presented in this report reflect a portion of the activity directed toward objectives 1, 2 and 3.


Perennial Pastures For Western Australia, Geoff Allan Moore, Paul Sanford, Tim Wiley Dec 2006

Perennial Pastures For Western Australia, Geoff Allan Moore, Paul Sanford, Tim Wiley

Bulletins 4000 -

The aim of this project was to identify potential new perennial legumes and grasses to complement lucerne in phase farming and to identify the role and potential for perennial grasses in Western Australia.


Feeding And Managing Sheep In Dry Times, Ian Mcfarland, Mandy Curnow, Mike Hyder, Brian Ashton, Danny Roberts Dec 2006

Feeding And Managing Sheep In Dry Times, Ian Mcfarland, Mandy Curnow, Mike Hyder, Brian Ashton, Danny Roberts

Bulletins 4000 -

Feeding sheep is a significant cost to any sheep or mixed farm enterprise in southern Australia. The cost is usually managed by annually sourcing feed on-farm. However, this feed source can become scarce when we experience unusual dry spells within seasons (termed a 'dry season', such as a dry winter or spring), a late break to the season, a drought year, or even worse, successive drought years.

Climate change research suggests that southern Australia will experience higher annual temperatures and a decline in mean growing season rainfall (particularly winter and spring) over the coming decades. This will affect the productivity ...


Forage News [2006-12], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Dec 2006

Forage News [2006-12], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences

Forage News

  • Grazing Conference
  • FEED: Biggest Cost Item
  • Heart of America Grazing Conference
  • KFGC Presents Annual Awards
  • KFGC Installs New Officers
  • Fayette County Producer Becomes Forage Spokesperson
  • Kentucky Hay – 2006
  • Methods to Manage Soil Phosphorus Levels on Kentucky Poultry Farms
  • Meat Goat Performance and Carcass Parameters When Finished on Orchardgrass, Red Clover, or Alfalfa Pastures
  • The Case for Forage Legumes
  • Upcoming Events


Disaster Recovery—Managing Immature Crops For Grain Or Silage, Stephen K. Barnhart, Roger W. Elmore, Palle Pedersen, H. Mark Hanna Dec 2006

Disaster Recovery—Managing Immature Crops For Grain Or Silage, Stephen K. Barnhart, Roger W. Elmore, Palle Pedersen, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Tips on managing crops that may not mature before the first killing freeze of fall.


Intsormil’S Global Impact: A Revolution In West African Sorghum Production, Intsormil Dec 2006

Intsormil’S Global Impact: A Revolution In West African Sorghum Production, Intsormil

INTSORMIL Impacts and Bulletins

Sorghum and pearl millet are the staple grains for millions of people around the world, especially those residing in the semiarid margins of agricultural sustainability. For this reason, INTSORMIL has been working in the semiarid regions of Africa and Central America where it has been helping sorghum and millet farmers achieve the status of surplus grain production and the economic, social and health benefits thus provided. What impact has INTSORMIL had on the lives of these sorghum and millet farmers?

To determine the global impact of the USAID funded INTSORMIL program, Battelle, an independent agency, was chosen to conduct an ...


Bovine Immune Response To Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Mark A. Hoffman, Christian Menge, Thomas A. Casey, William Laegreid, Brad T. Bosworth, Evelyn A. Dean-Nystrom Dec 2006

Bovine Immune Response To Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Mark A. Hoffman, Christian Menge, Thomas A. Casey, William Laegreid, Brad T. Bosworth, Evelyn A. Dean-Nystrom

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Although cattle develop humoral immune responses to Shiga-toxigenic (Stx+) Escherichia coli O157:H7, infections often result in long-term shedding of these human pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare humoral and cellular immune responses to Stx+ and Stx- E. coli O157:H7. Three groups of calves were inoculated intrarumenally, twice in a 3-week interval, with different strains of E. coli: a Stx2- producing E. coli O157:H7 strain (Stx2+O157), a Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 strain (Stx-O157), or a nonpathogenic E. coli strain (control). Fecal shedding of Stx2+O157 was significantly higher than that ...


Insect-Mediated Seed-Set Evaluation Of 21 Soybean Lines Segregating For Male Sterility At 10 Different Loci, E. Ortiz-Perez, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer Dec 2006

Insect-Mediated Seed-Set Evaluation Of 21 Soybean Lines Segregating For Male Sterility At 10 Different Loci, E. Ortiz-Perez, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The first requirement to establish a successful hybrid soybean program is the availability of a stable male-sterile, female-fertile system. Male sterility has been an important tool in soybean breeding programs to improve traits such as yield, seed-protein and seed-oil content, and seed size. However, improvement of seed-set per se on male-sterile plants has not been an important breeding objective. The evaluation of the out-crossing potential of the available male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines is crucial to determine the future of hybrid soybean. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed-set among 21 soybean lines segregating for male sterility at 10 ...


Horizontal Gene Transfer To Bacteria Of An Arabidopsis Thaliana Abc Transporter That Confers Kanamycin Resistance In Transgenic Plants, Kellie Parks Burris Dec 2006

Horizontal Gene Transfer To Bacteria Of An Arabidopsis Thaliana Abc Transporter That Confers Kanamycin Resistance In Transgenic Plants, Kellie Parks Burris

Masters Theses

The use of antibiotic resistance markers is an important tool in the production and selection of transgenic plants. There have been increased concerns about the potential horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from transgenic plants to bacteria of medical and environmental importance. Until recently all antibiotic resistance genes used in transgenic studies have been bacterial in origin. An Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter, Atwbc19, was the first plant gene shown to confer kanamycin resistance when overexpressed in transgenic plants. The Atwbc19 gene was evaluated for its ability to transfer antibiotic resistance to Escherichia coli, which are found in the human gut and environment ...


Probing Precursor Interactions With The Chloroplast Import Apparatus, Sarah Jean Wright Dec 2006

Probing Precursor Interactions With The Chloroplast Import Apparatus, Sarah Jean Wright

Masters Theses

The majority of plastid proteins are nuclear-encoded and imported post-translationally. A cleavable N-terminal extension, the transit peptide, targets these preproteins to the plastid. Transit peptides show very little primary sequence homology, yet are able to direct the precursor protein to interact with the protein components of the translocation complexes located within the inner and outer membranes of the chloroplast. In this study, a semi-conserved motif of the transit peptide, (F/W)(P/G)h(R/K) has been targeted for deletion in order to probe its importance. Two corresponding regions were deleted in the transit peptide of the precursor to ...


Determining The Extent Of Frost Damage In Maize Seed Using The Tetrazolium Test, Mindy Devries, A. Susana Goggi Dec 2006

Determining The Extent Of Frost Damage In Maize Seed Using The Tetrazolium Test, Mindy Devries, A. Susana Goggi

Agronomy Publications

Frost damage in seed corn causes a significant decrease in seed quality. The tetrazolium (TZ) test has been used to identify types of physiological damage in several plant species, including frost damage in corn. Quantifying the amount of seed damaged by frost and the consequent loss of seed vigor are important for making management decisions. The current tetrazolium test procedures provide seed viability information but do not estimate seed vigor. In our project, the tetrazolium staining procedure was modified to allow separation of viable seeds into vigor categories. Vigor categories were defined based on Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA ...


Impact Of Trap Design, Windbreaks, And Weather On Captures Of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) In Pheromone-Baited Traps, Brendon James Reardon, Douglas V. Sumerford, Thomas W. Sappington Dec 2006

Impact Of Trap Design, Windbreaks, And Weather On Captures Of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) In Pheromone-Baited Traps, Brendon James Reardon, Douglas V. Sumerford, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Pheromone-baited traps are often used in ecological studies of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). However, differences in trap captures may be confounded by trap design, trap location relative to a windbreak, and changes in local weather. The objectives of this experiment were, first, to examine differences in O. nubilalis adult (moth) captures among the Intercept wing trap, the Intercept bucket/funnel UNI trap, and the Hartstack wire-mesh, 75-cm-diameter cone trap (large metal cone trap) as well as among three cone trap designs. Second, we examined the influence of the location of the large metal cone trap ...


Restoring Perennial Cover And Ecological Function To Corn Belt Landscapes: The Iowa Farmer's Perspective, Ryan C. Atwell, Lisa A. Schulte, Lynne M. Westphal Dec 2006

Restoring Perennial Cover And Ecological Function To Corn Belt Landscapes: The Iowa Farmer's Perspective, Ryan C. Atwell, Lisa A. Schulte, Lynne M. Westphal

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The tallgrass prairie ecosystem of the North American Corn Belt region has experienced major alteration of hydrologic systems, nearly complete loss of natural perennial vegetation, and concomitant decline in species due to agricultural intensification. In this working landscape, restoration to pre-European settlement conditions is doubtful. However, current research posits that restoring strategically placed patches of perennial cover across agricultural watersheds, such as stream buffers, wetlands and prairies, as well as instituting more diverse cropping rotations, could bolster current ecological function and enhance the conservation of species. These studies also suggest that such restoration might increase socio-economic resilience in the region ...


Established Predators Of Fiorinia Externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) On Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carriere) In Urban And Forest Sites, Christine Ann Lynch Dec 2006

Established Predators Of Fiorinia Externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) On Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carriere) In Urban And Forest Sites, Christine Ann Lynch

Masters Theses

A project was initiated in September 2004 to determine the indigenous predators of Fiorinia externa Ferris, the elongate hemlock scale (EHS), on eastern hemlock and their impact on the pest populations. Branch samples were taken monthly from four sites (two forest and two urban) in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina to assess predator damage from October 2004 to April 2006. Predators of this exotic pest were collected from beat sheet samples from September 2004 to May 2006. Laboratory tests were conducted from field-collected predators to assess food consumption, feeding behavior, and intraguild competition among predators of EHS. From field ...