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Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Odors By In-Vivo Sampling Of Beef Cattle Rumen Gas, By Solid-Phase Microextraction, And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeremiah Davis, Yin-Cheung Lo, Hongwei Xin Nov 2006

Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Odors By In-Vivo Sampling Of Beef Cattle Rumen Gas, By Solid-Phase Microextraction, And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeremiah Davis, Yin-Cheung Lo, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors in cattle rumen gas have been characterized by in-vivo headspace sampling by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry (GC–MS–O). A novel device enabling headspace SPME (HS-SPME) sampling through a cannula was designed, refined, and used to collect rumen gas samples from steers. A Carboxen–polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber (85 μm) was used for SPME sampling. Fifty VOCs from ten chemical groups were identified in the rumen headspace. The VOCs identified had a wide range of molecular weight (MW) (34 to 184), boiling point (−63.3 to 292 °C ...


Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Odorants Associated With Swine Barn Particulate Matter Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Yin-Cheung Lo, Steven J. Hoff Jan 2006

Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Odorants Associated With Swine Barn Particulate Matter Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Yin-Cheung Lo, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Swine operations can affect air quality by emissions of odor, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases, and particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter has been proposed to be an important pathway for carrying odor. However, little is known about the odor–VOCs–PM interactions. In this research, continuous PM sampling was conducted simultaneously with three collocated TEOM 1400a analyzers inside a 1000-head swine finish barn located in central Iowa. Each TEOM was fitted with total suspended particulate (TSP), PM-10, PM-2.5 and PM-1 preseparators. Used filters were stored in 40 mL vials and transported to the laboratory. VOCs adsorbed/absorbed ...


Quality Assured Measurements Of Animal Building Emissions: Gas Concentrations, Albert J. Heber, Jiqin Ni, Teng T. Lim, Pei-Chun Tao, Amy M. Millmier, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Beasley, Steven J. Hoff, Richard E. Nicolai, Larry D. Jacobson, Yuanhui Zhang Jan 2006

Quality Assured Measurements Of Animal Building Emissions: Gas Concentrations, Albert J. Heber, Jiqin Ni, Teng T. Lim, Pei-Chun Tao, Amy M. Millmier, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Beasley, Steven J. Hoff, Richard E. Nicolai, Larry D. Jacobson, Yuanhui Zhang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Comprehensive field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter <10 µm in diameter, and total suspended particulate from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States.

This paper focuses on the quasicontinuous gas concentration measurement at multiple locations among paired barns in seven states. Documented principles, used in air pollution monitoring at industrial sources, were applied in developing quality assurance (QA) project plans for these studies. Air was sampled from multiple locations with each gas analyzed with one high quality commercial gas analyzer that was located in an environmentally controlled on-farm instrument shelter. A nominal 4 L/min gas sampling ...


Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulphide Flux And Dry Deposition Velocity Estimates Using Vertical Gradient Method At A Commercial Beef Cattle Feedlot, Bok-Haeng Baek, Richard Todd, N. Andy Cole, Jacek A. Koziel Jan 2006

Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulphide Flux And Dry Deposition Velocity Estimates Using Vertical Gradient Method At A Commercial Beef Cattle Feedlot, Bok-Haeng Baek, Richard Todd, N. Andy Cole, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Ammonia and hydrogen sulphide flux and dry deposition velocity were estimated using micrometeorological vertical gradient flux method at a commercial cattle feedyard of approximately 50,000 head of beef cattle and average 14.4 m²/head (150 ft²/head) stocking density. Ammonia-N and H2S-S loss had general diurnal patterns with the highest fluxes in daytime and lowest fluxes in nighttime that correlated to temperature changes and active evaporation process during daytime. The highest average deposition velocities also occurred during daytime with unstable atmospheric conditions and the lowest during nighttime with very stable conditions. There are exponential relationship between ...


Quality-Assured Measurements Of Animal Building Emissions: Particulate Matter Concentrations, Albert J. Heber, Teng-Teeh Lim, Ji-Qin Ni, Pei-Chun Tao, Amy M. Millmier, Jacek A. Koziel, Steven J. Hoff, Larry D. Jacobson, Yuanhui Zhang, Gerald B. Baughman Jan 2006

Quality-Assured Measurements Of Animal Building Emissions: Particulate Matter Concentrations, Albert J. Heber, Teng-Teeh Lim, Ji-Qin Ni, Pei-Chun Tao, Amy M. Millmier, Jacek A. Koziel, Steven J. Hoff, Larry D. Jacobson, Yuanhui Zhang, Gerald B. Baughman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Federally funded, multistate field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of particulate matter (PM) <10 μm (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP), ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, and odor from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States. This paper describes the use of a continuous PM analyzer based on the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). In these studies, the TEOM was used to measure PM emissions at identical locations in paired barns. Measuring PM concentrations in swine and poultry barns, compared with measuring PM in ambient air, required more frequent maintenance of the TEOM. External screens were used to prevent rapid plugging of the insect screen in the PM10 preseparator inlet. Minute means of mass concentrations exhibited a sinusoidal pattern that followed the variation of relative humidity, indicating that mass concentration measurements were affected by water vapor condensation onto and evaporation of moisture from the TEOM filter. Filter loading increased the humidity effect, most likely because of increased water vapor adsorption capacity of added PM. In a single layer barn study, collocated TEOMs, equipped with TSP and PM10 inlets, corresponded well when placed near the inlets of exhaust fans in a layer barn. Initial data showed that average daily mean concentrations of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5concentrations at a layer barn were 1440 ± 182 μg/m3 (n = 2), 553 ± 79 μg/m3 (n = 4), and 33 ± 75 μg/m3 (n = 1), respectively. The daily mean TSP concentration (n =1) of a swine barn sprinkled with soybean oil was 67% lower than an untreated swine barn, which had a daily mean TSP concentration of 1143 ± 619 μg/m3. The daily mean ambient TSP concentration (n = 1) near the swine barns was 25 ± 8 μg/m3. Concentrations of PM inside the swine barns were correlated to pig activity.


Characterization Of Livestock Odors Using Steel Plates, Solid-Phase Microextraction, And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Edward A. Bulliner Iv, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Donald Wright Jan 2006

Characterization Of Livestock Odors Using Steel Plates, Solid-Phase Microextraction, And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Edward A. Bulliner Iv, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Donald Wright

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Livestock operations are associated with emissions of odor, gases, and particulate matter (PM). Livestock odor characterization is one of the most challenging analytical tasks. This is because odor-causing gases are often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this project was to develop a set of characteristic reference odors from a swine barn in Iowa and, in the process, identify compounds causing characteristic swine odor. Odor samples were collected using a novel sampling methodology consisting of clean steel plates exposed inside and around the swine barn for ≤1 week ...


A Preliminary Review Of Gas-To-Particle Conversion Monitoring And Modelling Efforts In The Usa, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Viney P. Aneja Jan 2006

A Preliminary Review Of Gas-To-Particle Conversion Monitoring And Modelling Efforts In The Usa, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Viney P. Aneja

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Ammonia and inorganic acid gases emitted from livestock and poultry operations, manure treatment, handling and application can affect air quality by the formation of secondary fine particles. The process of gas-to-particle conversion (GTPC) of relatively short-lived gaseous ammonia to more persistent fine particles can affect local and regional air quality far away from the agricultural sources. This study focused on understanding the phenomenon and related problems of the GTPC process between ammonia, acid gases and fine particles in the atmosphere. We discuss the knowledge of PM measurement technologies with their uncertainties and introduce the most recent aerosol models available developed ...