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Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Odors By In-Vivo Sampling Of Beef Cattle Rumen Gas, By Solid-Phase Microextraction, And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeremiah Davis, Yin-Cheung Lo, Hongwei Xin Nov 2006

Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Odors By In-Vivo Sampling Of Beef Cattle Rumen Gas, By Solid-Phase Microextraction, And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeremiah Davis, Yin-Cheung Lo, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors in cattle rumen gas have been characterized by in-vivo headspace sampling by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry (GC–MS–O). A novel device enabling headspace SPME (HS-SPME) sampling through a cannula was designed, refined, and used to collect rumen gas samples from steers. A Carboxen–polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber (85 μm) was used for SPME sampling. Fifty VOCs from ten chemical groups were identified in the rumen headspace. The VOCs identified had a wide range of molecular weight (MW) (34 to 184), boiling point (−63.3 to 292 °C ...


Rapid Aerosol Transmission Of Salmonella Among Turkeys In A Simulated Holding-Shed Environment, E. Harbaugh, Darrell W. Trampel, Irene V. Wesley, Steven J. Hoff, Ronald W. Griffith, H. Scott Hurd Oct 2006

Rapid Aerosol Transmission Of Salmonella Among Turkeys In A Simulated Holding-Shed Environment, E. Harbaugh, Darrell W. Trampel, Irene V. Wesley, Steven J. Hoff, Ronald W. Griffith, H. Scott Hurd

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Once turkeys arrive at Midwest processing plants, they are usually held in large open-sided sheds for 1 to 4 h, waiting to be unloaded. In hot, humid weather, large fans are used to cool the birds. The resultant air currents distribute a significant amount of dust to the turkeys. The dust created in this environment could be a factor in the number of Salmonella-contaminated turkeys entering slaughter plants. The objective of this study was to determine if rapid transmission of Salmonella in turkeys could occur from exposure toSalmonella-contaminated dust similar to what may be experienced in holding ...


Solid-Phase Microextraction As A Novel Air Sampling Technology For Improved, Gc—Olfactometry-Based Assessment Of Livestock Odors, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Donald W. Wright, Steven J. Hoff Aug 2006

Solid-Phase Microextraction As A Novel Air Sampling Technology For Improved, Gc—Olfactometry-Based Assessment Of Livestock Odors, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Donald W. Wright, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Air sampling and characterization of odorous livestock gases is one of the most challenging analytical tasks. This is because of low concentrations, physicochemical properties, and problems with sample recoveries for typical odorants. Livestock operations emit a very complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases. Many of these gases are odorous. Relatively little is known about the link between characteristic VOCs/gases and, specifically, about the impact of characteristic odorants downwind from sources. In this research, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is used for field air sampling of odors downwind from swine and beef cattle operations. Sampling time ranges from ...


Reducing Student Writing Time And Instructor Grading Time Of Laboratory Reports, David Hoffa, Steven A. Freeman Jul 2006

Reducing Student Writing Time And Instructor Grading Time Of Laboratory Reports, David Hoffa, Steven A. Freeman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A previous study by the authors demonstrated with 95% confidence that the synopsis laboratory report format, a brief, information-rich summary, provides students with an equally positive learning experience in comparison to the longer, introduction/results/ conclusion “traditional” laboratory report format. This study examined the additional benefits of the synopsis laboratory report format; reduced student writing time and instructor grading time. A convenience sample of 56 Iowa State University industrial technology students was randomized into one of two groups that were required to write either five synopses followed by four traditional reports or four synopses followed by five traditional reports. The ...


Optimization Of A Sampling System For Recovery And Detection Of Airborne Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Swine Influenza Virus, Joseph R. Hermann, Steven J. Hoff, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Anna C. Burkhardt, Richard B. Evans, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman Jul 2006

Optimization Of A Sampling System For Recovery And Detection Of Airborne Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Swine Influenza Virus, Joseph R. Hermann, Steven J. Hoff, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Anna C. Burkhardt, Richard B. Evans, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The objective of this research was to optimize sampling parameters for increased recovery and detection of airborne porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV). Collection media containing antifoams, activated carbons, protectants, and ethylene glycol were evaluated for direct effects on factors impacting the detection of PRRSV and SIV, including virus infectivity, viability of continuous cell lines used for the isolation of these viruses, and performance of reverse transcriptase PCR assays. The results showed that specific compounds influenced the likelihood of detecting PRRSV and SIV in collection medium. A subsequent study evaluated the effects of collection ...


Nitrogen Excretion And Ammonia Emissions From Pigs Fed Modified Diets, D. M. Panetta, Wendy J. Powers, Hongwei Xin, Brian J. Kerr, Kenneth J. Stalder Jul 2006

Nitrogen Excretion And Ammonia Emissions From Pigs Fed Modified Diets, D. M. Panetta, Wendy J. Powers, Hongwei Xin, Brian J. Kerr, Kenneth J. Stalder

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Two swine feeding trials were conducted (initial body weight = 47 ± 2 and 41 ± 3 kg for Trials 1 and 2, respectively) to evaluate reduced crude protein (CP) and yucca (Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies) extract–supplemented diets on NH3 emissions. In Trial 1, nine pigs were offered a corn–soybean meal diet (C, 174 g kg−1 CP), a Lys-supplemented diet (L, 170 g kg−1 CP), or a 145 g kg−1 CP diet supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp (LMTT). In Trial 2, nine pigs were fed diet L supplemented with 0, 62.5, or 125 ...


Does Sh&E Education In High Education Institutes Lead To A Change In Cognitive Patterns Among Graduates?, Nir Keren, Steven A. Freeman, Charles V. Schwab Jul 2006

Does Sh&E Education In High Education Institutes Lead To A Change In Cognitive Patterns Among Graduates?, Nir Keren, Steven A. Freeman, Charles V. Schwab

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Attending higher education institutions affects graduates in a variety of dimensions. Among these dimensions are gaining knowledge, acquiring skills, and developing academic and professional independence; however, the most important dimension in which a change should be introduced is the acquirement of appropriate patterns of thinking. Does safety education lead to a change in cognitive patterns among graduates?

This work presents initial results of a larger comparative study addressing the change in cognitive patterns among junior and senior students in the occupational safety program, students in non-safety programs, and safety professionals with at least 5 years experience in the industry. The ...


Tips For Communicating Agricultural Safety To Children, Charles V. Schwab, Laura L. Miller, Lynn M. Graham Jun 2006

Tips For Communicating Agricultural Safety To Children, Charles V. Schwab, Laura L. Miller, Lynn M. Graham

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Effectively communicating agricultural safety messages to children requires an understanding of this audience's unique characteristics, which are dependent upon their developmental stages. This article identifies important characteristics for the 4-7 and 8-12 age groups that were used in developing educational resources for children who participate in farm safety day camps and in-school programs. Each age group has specific characteristics that can inhibit communication when they are not considered in designing content and approach of educational materials. In addition, there are three comprehensive communication issues that affect the effectiveness of transferring safety messages to children.


Integrating Behavioral-Based Interviewing Into The Curricula, Thomas J. Brumm, Steven K. Mickelson, Patricia N. White Jun 2006

Integrating Behavioral-Based Interviewing Into The Curricula, Thomas J. Brumm, Steven K. Mickelson, Patricia N. White

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Behavioral-based interviewing (BBI) is based on the premise that past behavior is the best predictor of future performance. Many interviewers of students in the Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (ABE) Department at Iowa State University use BBI to gain detailed job-related examples from a candidate, and to assess past performance and competencies. One technique of preparing for BBI experiences is the STAR method - examples of competency demonstrations that include a situation or task, the specific action taken, and the result of the action. ABE students, starting their freshman year, develop a "library" of STARs that encompass the 14 competencies central to ...


Determination Of Amino Acid Composition Of Soybeans (Glycine Max) By Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Igor V. Kovalenko, Glen R. Rippke, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. May 2006

Determination Of Amino Acid Composition Of Soybeans (Glycine Max) By Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Igor V. Kovalenko, Glen R. Rippke, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Calibration equations for the estimation of amino acid composition in whole soybeans were developed using partial least squares (PLS), artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machines (SVM) regression methods for five models of near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The effects of amino acid/protein correlation, calibration method, and type of spectrometer on predictive ability of the equations were analyzed. Validation of prediction models resulted in r 2 values from 0.04 (tryptophan) to 0.91 (leucine and lysine). Most of the models were usable for research purposes and sample screening. Concentrations of cysteine and tryptophan had no useful correlation with spectral ...


Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Odorants Associated With Swine Barn Particulate Matter Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Yin-Cheung Lo, Steven J. Hoff Jan 2006

Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Odorants Associated With Swine Barn Particulate Matter Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Yin-Cheung Lo, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Swine operations can affect air quality by emissions of odor, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases, and particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter has been proposed to be an important pathway for carrying odor. However, little is known about the odor–VOCs–PM interactions. In this research, continuous PM sampling was conducted simultaneously with three collocated TEOM 1400a analyzers inside a 1000-head swine finish barn located in central Iowa. Each TEOM was fitted with total suspended particulate (TSP), PM-10, PM-2.5 and PM-1 preseparators. Used filters were stored in 40 mL vials and transported to the laboratory. VOCs adsorbed/absorbed ...


Quality Assured Measurements Of Animal Building Emissions: Gas Concentrations, Albert J. Heber, Jiqin Ni, Teng T. Lim, Pei-Chun Tao, Amy M. Millmier, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Beasley, Steven J. Hoff, Richard E. Nicolai, Larry D. Jacobson, Yuanhui Zhang Jan 2006

Quality Assured Measurements Of Animal Building Emissions: Gas Concentrations, Albert J. Heber, Jiqin Ni, Teng T. Lim, Pei-Chun Tao, Amy M. Millmier, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Beasley, Steven J. Hoff, Richard E. Nicolai, Larry D. Jacobson, Yuanhui Zhang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Comprehensive field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter <10 µm in diameter, and total suspended particulate from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States.

This paper focuses on the quasicontinuous gas concentration measurement at multiple locations among paired barns in seven states. Documented principles, used in air pollution monitoring at industrial sources, were applied in developing quality assurance (QA) project plans for these studies. Air was sampled from multiple locations with each gas analyzed with one high quality commercial gas analyzer that was located in an environmentally controlled on-farm instrument shelter. A nominal 4 L/min gas sampling ...


Quality-Assured Measurements Of Animal Building Emissions: Particulate Matter Concentrations, Albert J. Heber, Teng-Teeh Lim, Ji-Qin Ni, Pei-Chun Tao, Amy M. Millmier, Jacek A. Koziel, Steven J. Hoff, Larry D. Jacobson, Yuanhui Zhang, Gerald B. Baughman Jan 2006

Quality-Assured Measurements Of Animal Building Emissions: Particulate Matter Concentrations, Albert J. Heber, Teng-Teeh Lim, Ji-Qin Ni, Pei-Chun Tao, Amy M. Millmier, Jacek A. Koziel, Steven J. Hoff, Larry D. Jacobson, Yuanhui Zhang, Gerald B. Baughman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Federally funded, multistate field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of particulate matter (PM) <10 μm (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP), ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, and odor from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States. This paper describes the use of a continuous PM analyzer based on the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). In these studies, the TEOM was used to measure PM emissions at identical locations in paired barns. Measuring PM concentrations in swine and poultry barns, compared with measuring PM in ambient air, required more frequent maintenance of the TEOM. External screens were used to prevent rapid plugging of the insect screen in the PM10 preseparator inlet. Minute means of mass concentrations exhibited a sinusoidal pattern that followed the variation of relative humidity, indicating that mass concentration measurements were affected by water vapor condensation onto and evaporation of moisture from the TEOM filter. Filter loading increased the humidity effect, most likely because of increased water vapor adsorption capacity of added PM. In a single layer barn study, collocated TEOMs, equipped with TSP and PM10 inlets, corresponded well when placed near the inlets of exhaust fans in a layer barn. Initial data showed that average daily mean concentrations of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5concentrations at a layer barn were 1440 ± 182 μg/m3 (n = 2), 553 ± 79 μg/m3 (n = 4), and 33 ± 75 μg/m3 (n = 1), respectively. The daily mean TSP concentration (n =1) of a swine barn sprinkled with soybean oil was 67% lower than an untreated swine barn, which had a daily mean TSP concentration of 1143 ± 619 μg/m3. The daily mean ambient TSP concentration (n = 1) near the swine barns was 25 ± 8 μg/m3. Concentrations of PM inside the swine barns were correlated to pig activity.


Quantifying Corn Deterioration Due To Fungal Growth By Use Of Co2-Sensitive Gel, Sinora Chitrakar, Carl J. Bern, Dev Sagar Shrestha Jan 2006

Quantifying Corn Deterioration Due To Fungal Growth By Use Of Co2-Sensitive Gel, Sinora Chitrakar, Carl J. Bern, Dev Sagar Shrestha

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Carbon dioxide (CO2) generation is a useful measure of aerobic respiration of the microbes that decompose organic materials. Woods End Labs markets the Solvita. test kit to measure CO2 generated by samples of compost or soil. A procedure was developed to use the Solvita. kit to quantify the storage condition of shelled corn. The ISU-Solvita. Corn Testing Procedure uses shelled corn stored at 20.C. After a 24-h incubation period, a CO2-sensitive gel coated paddle is sealed in a jar containing 100 g of corn. After 4 h, the CO2 level in the jar is indicated by the color of ...


Novel Analysis Of Hyperspectral Reflectance Data For Detecting Onset Of Pollen Shed In Maize, Amy L. Kaleita, Brian L. Steward, Robert P. Ewing, Daniel A. Ashlock, Mark E. Westgate, Jerry L. Hatfield Jan 2006

Novel Analysis Of Hyperspectral Reflectance Data For Detecting Onset Of Pollen Shed In Maize, Amy L. Kaleita, Brian L. Steward, Robert P. Ewing, Daniel A. Ashlock, Mark E. Westgate, Jerry L. Hatfield

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Knowledge of pollen shed dynamics in and around seed production fields is critical for ensuring a high yield of genetically pure corn seed. Recently, changes in canopy reflectance using hyperspectral reflectance have been associated with tassel emergence, which is known to precede pollen shed in a predictable manner. Practical application of this remote sensing technology, however, requires a simple and reliable method to evaluate changes in spectral images associated with the onset of tassel emergence and pollen shed. In this study, several numerical methods were investigated for estimating percentage of plants with visible tassels (VT) and percentage of plants that ...


Navigational Context Recognition For An Autonomous Robot In A Simulated Tree Plantation, Lav R. Khot, Lie Tang, Simon Blackmore, Michael Nørremark Jan 2006

Navigational Context Recognition For An Autonomous Robot In A Simulated Tree Plantation, Lav R. Khot, Lie Tang, Simon Blackmore, Michael Nørremark

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A sensor fusion technique was developed for estimating the navigational posture of a skid-steered mobile robot in a simulated tree plantation nursery. Real-time kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and dynamic measurement unit (DMU) sensors were used to determine the position and orientation of the robot, while a laser range finder was used to locate the tree positions within a selected range. The RTK-GPS error was modeled by a second-order autoregressive model, and error states were incorporated into extended Kalman filter (EKF) design. Through EKF filtering, the mean and standard deviation of error in the easting direction decreased from 4.05 to 2 ...


Vegetative Treatment Systems For Management Of Open Lot Runoff: Review Of Literature, Richard K. Koelsch, Jeffery C. Lorimor, Kyle R. Mankin Jan 2006

Vegetative Treatment Systems For Management Of Open Lot Runoff: Review Of Literature, Richard K. Koelsch, Jeffery C. Lorimor, Kyle R. Mankin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Runoff from open lot livestock systems (beef and dairy) defined as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) must be controlled by systems designed and managed to prevent the release of manure-contaminated runoff for storms equal to or less than a 25-yr, 24-h design storm. This performance standard has been attained for open lot systems with some combination of clean water diversion, settling basins, runoff collection ponds, and irrigation systems (baseline system). An alternative approach is to rely on overland flow and infiltration into cropland with perennial forage or grasses for treatment of open lot runoff. Such vegetative systems have been researched ...


Assessing And Developing Program Outcomes Through Workplace Competencies, Thomas J. Brumm, Larry F. Hanneman, Steven K. Mickelson Jan 2006

Assessing And Developing Program Outcomes Through Workplace Competencies, Thomas J. Brumm, Larry F. Hanneman, Steven K. Mickelson

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The College of Engineering at Iowa State University (ISU) partnered with constituents and assessment professionals to identify and validate 14 observable and measurable competencies necessary and sufficient to measure program outcomes. Constituents identified the engineering and experiential workplaces as settings most likely to develop and demonstrate the competencies, and the traditional classroom as least likely. Engineering students in the experiential workplace are assessed on the competencies by their supervisors, providing feedback for curricular change. These results confirm that we must re-examine how we use the classroom to educate engineers and our belief that experiential education is critical to students' success.


Competency-Based Outcomes Assessment For Agricultural Engineering Programs, Thomas J. Brumm, Steven K. Mickelson, Brian L. Steward, Amy L. Kaleita Jan 2006

Competency-Based Outcomes Assessment For Agricultural Engineering Programs, Thomas J. Brumm, Steven K. Mickelson, Brian L. Steward, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The ABET 2000 criteria have provided the impetus for the Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department at Iowa State University to re-structure the assessment of its undergraduate agricultural engineering program. We linked ABET student outcomes to validated work-place competencies with key actions that are measurable in academic and experiential education environments. Two tools are being used to assess competencies: an on-line assessment system and electronic portfolios developed by each student as a requirement for graduation. This paper discusses the overall philosophy of our assessment program, how the assessment tools are being implemented, and the implications for change in the curriculum.


Air Quality And Emissions From Livestock And Poultry Production/Waste Management Systems, Kenneth D. Casey, José R. Bicudo, David R. Schmidt, Anshu Singh, Susan W. Gay, Richard S. Gates, Larry D. Jacobson, Steven J. Hoff Jan 2006

Air Quality And Emissions From Livestock And Poultry Production/Waste Management Systems, Kenneth D. Casey, José R. Bicudo, David R. Schmidt, Anshu Singh, Susan W. Gay, Richard S. Gates, Larry D. Jacobson, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The objective of this paper is to summarize the available literature on the concentrations and emissions of odor, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, non-methane volatile organic carbon, dust, and microbial and endotoxin aerosols from livestock and poultry buildings and manure management systems (storage and treatment units).

Animal production operations are a source of numerous airborne contaminants including gases, odor, dust, and microorganisms. Gases and odors are generated from livestock and poultry manure decomposition (1) shortly after it is produced, (2) during storage and treatment, and (3) during land application. Particulate matter and dust are primarily composed of feed and ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of An Electro-Pneumatic Sampling Method For Real-Time Soil Sensing, Saadettin Yildirim, Stuart J. Birrell, John W. Hummel Jan 2006

Laboratory Evaluation Of An Electro-Pneumatic Sampling Method For Real-Time Soil Sensing, Saadettin Yildirim, Stuart J. Birrell, John W. Hummel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

An automated electro-pneumatic soil sampling method based on pressurized air for real-time soil analysis was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. Pressurized air was applied for 36 ms across a 2.5 cm diameter cylinder to cut a sample from a soil column and convey the sample along a delivery pipe into a container. An electro-pneumatic regulator valve was used to regulate the air pressure at 550, 690, and 830 kPa (80, 100, and 120 psi) using an analog electrical signal. A two-position solenoid valve controlled by a stand-alone microprocessor was used to control pulse duration. Laboratory tests were conducted ...


Evaluation Of Nitrate And Potassium Ion-Selective Membranes For Soil Macronutrient Sensing, Hak-Jin Kim, John W. Hummel, Stuart J. Birrell Jan 2006

Evaluation Of Nitrate And Potassium Ion-Selective Membranes For Soil Macronutrient Sensing, Hak-Jin Kim, John W. Hummel, Stuart J. Birrell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

On-the-go, real-time soil nutrient analysis would be useful in site-specific management of soil fertility. The rapid response and low sample volume associated with ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs) make them good soil fertility sensor candidates. Ion-selective microelectrode technology requires an ion-selective membrane that responds selectively to one analyte in the presence of other ions in a solution. This article describes: (1) the evaluation of nitrate and potassium ion-selective membranes, and (2) the investigation of the interaction between the ion-selective membranes and soil extractants to identify membranes and extracting solutions that are compatible for use with a real-time ISFET sensor to measure ...


Combine Harvester Econometric Model With Forward Speed Optimization, Nathan E. Isaac, Graeme R. Quick, Stuart J. Birrell, William M. Edwards, Bruce A. Coers Jan 2006

Combine Harvester Econometric Model With Forward Speed Optimization, Nathan E. Isaac, Graeme R. Quick, Stuart J. Birrell, William M. Edwards, Bruce A. Coers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A combine harvester econometric simulation model was developed with the goal of matching the combine forward speed to the maximum harvested net income per acre. The model considers the machinery management costs of owning a combine and platform header for harvesting wheat. A statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) was used to evaluate the model using tri-level variables; the medium values constituted the model base case. Of the 27 input variables, the optimum speed was significantly influenced by the crop area, G/MOG ratio, grain unit price, field yield, field efficiency, grain moisture content, probability of a working day in the ...


An Investigation Of Three Physical Parameters Of Pto Entanglements, Steven A. Freeman, Charles V. Schwab, John L.P. Judge Jan 2006

An Investigation Of Three Physical Parameters Of Pto Entanglements, Steven A. Freeman, Charles V. Schwab, John L.P. Judge

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The PTO driveline is the most common means of transferring power from a tractor to towed machinery and stationary equipment. While equipment manufacturers install shielding to protect operators and bystanders from coming in contact with operating PTO components (particularly around the knuckle), entanglement is still a cause of some of the most catastrophic agricultural work-related injuries. This study investigated the influence of material type, material length, and angle of material introduction on entanglements with a spinning PTO shaft knuckle. These variables were tested using a laboratory PTO apparatus where 165 entanglements were recorded during the 720 trials conducted. The results ...


Gas-To-Particle Conversion Process Between Ammonia, Acid Gases, And Fine Particles In The Atmosphere, Jacek A. Koziel, Viney P. Aneja, Bok-Haeng Baek Jan 2006

Gas-To-Particle Conversion Process Between Ammonia, Acid Gases, And Fine Particles In The Atmosphere, Jacek A. Koziel, Viney P. Aneja, Bok-Haeng Baek

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Ammonia emissions are associated with many agricultural operations including animal and poultry operations, waste and wastewater treatment operations, and fertilizer and manure land applications. The fate of ammonia released to atmosphere is affected by interaction with other gases, aerosols, and fine particles. These interactions affect the gas-to-particle conversion. This process alters ammonia concentrations downwind from agricultural operations. However, experimental research and modeling of the gas-to-particle conversion processes in ammonia-rich environments is generally limited. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge related to gas-to-particle conversion of ammonia.

Ammonia and inorganic acid gases emitted from livestock and poultry operations and manure treatment, handling ...


Ammonia Emissions From Twelve U.S. Broiler Chicken Houses, Eileen F. Wheeler, Kenneth D. Casey, Richard S. Gates, Hongwei Xin, Jennifer L. Zajaczkowski, Patrick A. Topper, Yi Liang, Anthony J. Pescatore Jan 2006

Ammonia Emissions From Twelve U.S. Broiler Chicken Houses, Eileen F. Wheeler, Kenneth D. Casey, Richard S. Gates, Hongwei Xin, Jennifer L. Zajaczkowski, Patrick A. Topper, Yi Liang, Anthony J. Pescatore

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Twelve commercial broiler houses in the U.S. were each monitored for at least thirteen 48 h periods over the course of one year to obtain ammonia emission data. Paired repetition of houses on four farms represents current construction with variety in litter management (built-up or new litter each flock) and climate conditions (cold or mixed-humid). Ammonia concentration was determined using portable electrochemical sensors incorporating a fresh air purge cycle. Ventilation rate was determined via in-situ measurement of fan capacity, fan on-off times, and house static pressure difference. There were seasonal trends in exhaust ammonia concentration (highest in cold weather ...


Effects Of Measurement Intervals On Estimation Of Ammonia Emissions From Layer Houses, Yi Liang, Hongwei Xin, Hong Li, Richard S. Gates, Eileen F. Wheeler, Kenneth D. Casey Jan 2006

Effects Of Measurement Intervals On Estimation Of Ammonia Emissions From Layer Houses, Yi Liang, Hongwei Xin, Hong Li, Richard S. Gates, Eileen F. Wheeler, Kenneth D. Casey

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Continuous quantification of aerial emissions from animal feeding operations over an extended time period is labor and resource intensive. Strategically reducing measurement time to achieve comparable emission results is thus highly desirable. This article delineates the effects of measurement intervals on estimation of annual mean and maximum daily ammonia emission rate (ER) of high-rise (HR) and manure-belt (MB) layer houses. The full dataset consisted of 318 daily ER values of four HR houses from weekly 48 h continuous measurement and 112 daily ER values of two MB houses from bi-weekly 48 h continuous measurements over one-year period. Each full dataset ...


Effects Of Cage Stocking Density On Feeding Behaviors Of Group-Housed Laying Hens, Rachel Nichole Cook, Hongwei Xin, Dan Nettleton Jan 2006

Effects Of Cage Stocking Density On Feeding Behaviors Of Group-Housed Laying Hens, Rachel Nichole Cook, Hongwei Xin, Dan Nettleton

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Quantitative measurement of animal welfare continues to be a challenging task for both the animal agriculture industry and the scientific community. Characterization of animal feeding behavior provides a comparative elucidation of the animal’s behavioral deviation from its norms and thus carries implications for its welfare. This study examines the effects of cage stocking density (348, 387, 426, and 465 cm2; or 54, 60, 66, and 72 in.2 cage floor space per hen) on feeding behavior of W-36 White Leghorn laying hens kept in groups of six hens. The study employed a specialized instrumentation system and computational algorithm. The ...


Field Application Uniformity Of Impellicone And Pulse-Width-Modulated Anhydrous Ammonia Manifolds, H. Mark Hanna, Paul M. Boyd, Kyle J. Baumgartner, James L. Baker, Thomas S. Colvin Jan 2006

Field Application Uniformity Of Impellicone And Pulse-Width-Modulated Anhydrous Ammonia Manifolds, H. Mark Hanna, Paul M. Boyd, Kyle J. Baumgartner, James L. Baker, Thomas S. Colvin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

With the consistently increasing cost and widespread use of anhydrous ammonia (NH3), producers are looking for ways to reduce variability in applicator equipment. One way to improve uniformity in NH3 applicators is the use of a better distribution manifold. Impellicone and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) manifolds are newer design alternatives to a Vertical-Dam manifold. Uniformity measurements during field application were made comparing Vertical-Dam manifolds with several Impellicone manifold designs and also a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) valve design as these manifolds were refined for commercial production. Application rates ranged from 23.7 to 224 kg N/ha (21.2 to 200 lb N/acre ...


Characterization Of Livestock Odors Using Steel Plates, Solid-Phase Microextraction, And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Edward A. Bulliner Iv, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Donald Wright Jan 2006

Characterization Of Livestock Odors Using Steel Plates, Solid-Phase Microextraction, And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Edward A. Bulliner Iv, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Donald Wright

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Livestock operations are associated with emissions of odor, gases, and particulate matter (PM). Livestock odor characterization is one of the most challenging analytical tasks. This is because odor-causing gases are often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this project was to develop a set of characteristic reference odors from a swine barn in Iowa and, in the process, identify compounds causing characteristic swine odor. Odor samples were collected using a novel sampling methodology consisting of clean steel plates exposed inside and around the swine barn for ≤1 week ...