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The Horticultural Potential Of Wastewater-Grown Algae Fertilizers, J Austin Gimondo Jan 2018

The Horticultural Potential Of Wastewater-Grown Algae Fertilizers, J Austin Gimondo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis comprises five chapters and details the evaluation of wastewater-grown-algae-based materials as plant fertilizers in container-crop production. Chapter one provides context for the thesis followed by a detailed review of literature relevant to bio-based fertilization and the use of algae to treat wastewater. Chapters two through four are manuscripts intended for submission to HortScience. Chapter two details the production of three container-grown crops with pellets or pastes of wastewater-grown algae as a fertilizer source. Evaluation of extruded algae-and-bioplastic materials as fertilizers for three container-crops and for turfgrass are reported in chapters three and four, respectively. The final chapter synthesizes ...


The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish Jan 2018

The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Citizen science has been shown to be an effective tool for increasing data collection, as well as a great benefit to those who participate in the research project. The rising costs and limited funding for conducting large-scale research projects make citizen science projects valuable assets for researchers. Understanding the impact of citizen science projects on the volunteers must be done to better engage with and retain the volunteers. The Growing Together project, a partnership between the ISU Extension and Outreach Master Gardener program and the Human Sciences Extension, was created to increase food security in Iowa. The two major components ...


Improving And Testing Methods Of Securing Row Cover For Organic Cucurbit Production, Jennifer M. Widmer, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2018

Improving And Testing Methods Of Securing Row Cover For Organic Cucurbit Production, Jennifer M. Widmer, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Cucumber beetles feed on leaves of cucurbit crops (i.e. squash and cucumbers) and can transmit bacterial wilt disease, stunt plant growth, and reduce fruit marketability. Several pesticides are available to deter pests, but options are limited for organic growers. As an alternative, row covers can be used to physically block insects contact with the plants. Comparisons between different methods of utilizing row covers to test their effectiveness are limited. Experiments were designed to compare methods of perimeter sealing, material anchoring, and structural support. The success of perimeter sealing was judged by the number of insects found under row covers ...


Evaluating Row Cover Establishment Systems For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2018

Evaluating Row Cover Establishment Systems For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Use of row covers offer an alternative to pesticide application for management of insect feeding and disease transmission and can be beneficial for extending the growing season. Unfortunately, labor required to establish cover is significant (particularly for single rows) and larger pieces of multi-row cover are subject to fatigue from wind and sun. Development of a mechanized single-row cover system or a durable multi-row cover system advances potential for use of covers. Field tests of a commercial semi-mechanized cover implement were conducted. Successful wire insertion ranged from 74 to 100% and depended on careful adjustment of the implement. Success was ...


Organic No-Till And Strip-Till Systems For Broccoli And Pepper Production, Dana Lipinski Jokela Jan 2016

Organic No-Till And Strip-Till Systems For Broccoli And Pepper Production, Dana Lipinski Jokela

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Organic farmers rely extensively on tillage to incorporate plant residues, prepare seedbeds, and control weeds. However, tillage may have adverse effects on soil health, and conventional no-till production methods, which rely on herbicide for weed control, are not compatible with organic farming, so research was conducted on organic no-tillage (NT) and strip-tillage (ST), which rely on terminating a cover crop with a roller-crimper. Field research was carried out over two years (2013–14 and 2014–15) to compare two organic, cover crop-based reduced tillage systems (NT and ST) with conventional tillage (CT) in the production of organic bell pepper and ...


15th Annual Iowa Organic Conference Highlights Biodiversity And Its Benefits, Kathleen Delate Oct 2015

15th Annual Iowa Organic Conference Highlights Biodiversity And Its Benefits, Kathleen Delate

Integrated Crop Management News

The 15th Annual Iowa Organic Conference will be held Nov. 22-23 on the University of Iowa campus in Iowa City, as a joint effort between Iowa State University and the University of Iowa Office of Sustainability. Producers and experts from across the country will share tips for transitioning into organic production and methods to enhance organic operations.


Horticultural Potential Of Nyssa Biflora Walt. (Swamp Tupelo), Frank D. Balestri Jan 2015

Horticultural Potential Of Nyssa Biflora Walt. (Swamp Tupelo), Frank D. Balestri

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nyssa biflora Walt. (swamp tupelo) and Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. (black gum) are closely related species of trees native to North America. Although N. sylvatica is prevalent in the nursery trade, little is known about the horticultural potential of N. biflora. Because many authors referred to N. biflora as a variant of N. sylvatica, taxonomic confusion may have resulted in the overlooking of N. biflora for use as a horticultural plant. The overarching objectives of my research were to establish seed-propagation protocols for N. biflora and to characterize the responses of seedlings of N. biflora to water stress. We included N ...


Evaluation Of Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis Stolonifera L.) Responses To An Amino Acid Containing Co-Product, Isaac Mertz Jan 2015

Evaluation Of Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis Stolonifera L.) Responses To An Amino Acid Containing Co-Product, Isaac Mertz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tryptophan, an essential amino acid that acts as a building block in protein synthesis, is a biochemical precursor for serotonin, niacin, and auxin in most organisms. When soil moisture is limited, applying biosolids boosted with auxin from tryptophan may increase root production and endogenous hormone levels that can result in plant growth regulation. Tryptophan is produced industrially, which results in a significant amount of byproducts. Tryptophan byproduct (TRP-B) is considered a waste product, but its amino acid and nutrient content make it a possible growth promoter for turfgrasses. The objective of this research was to determine whether applications of TRP-B ...


Integration Of Summer And Fall Cover Crops In Vegetable Cropping Systems, Raymond Albert Kruse Jan 2015

Integration Of Summer And Fall Cover Crops In Vegetable Cropping Systems, Raymond Albert Kruse

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The demand for locally produced vegetables is growing in the Midwest, including Iowa. However, since vegetables are a small fraction of total cropland in the state, little research exists on approaches and techniques to increase the sustainability of vegetable production systems. Including cover crops in vegetable crop rotations can contribute to sustainability in vegetable cropping systems. This research investigated the integration of summer and fall cover crops in vegetable cropping systems to reduce weeds and nutrient leaching, improve soil chemical and biological properties, and enhance crop growth, yield, and produce quality. Cover crops studied in this research included buckwheat (Fagopyrum ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Hydroponic Systems, Nutrient Solution, And Air Temperature On Growth And Development Of Basil (Ocimum L.) Species, Kellie Jean Walters Jan 2015

Quantifying The Effects Of Hydroponic Systems, Nutrient Solution, And Air Temperature On Growth And Development Of Basil (Ocimum L.) Species, Kellie Jean Walters

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Basil (Ocimum sp.) is the most popular fresh culinary herb. An increased demand for locally grown food is causing greenhouse producers to expand production of hydroponically grown culinary herbs. Greenhouse basil producers often manipulate production parameters however, there is a lack of data characterizing the effect of parameters such as hydroponic production system, cultivar, daily light integral (DLI), nutrient solution concentration, and plant density on growth and development of hydroponically produced basil. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on basil production is not well modeled. Our objectives were to quantify productivity and characterize growth and development of basil cultivars grown in ...


Limited Irradiance, Artificial Fluorescent Irradiance, And Nitrate-N:Ammonium-N Impact On Biomass And Essential Oil Production Of Ocimum Basilicum L., Tara Marie Springer Jan 2015

Limited Irradiance, Artificial Fluorescent Irradiance, And Nitrate-N:Ammonium-N Impact On Biomass And Essential Oil Production Of Ocimum Basilicum L., Tara Marie Springer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, there is an increasing trend in consumer participation in herb gardening. One of the more popular herbs available, basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a culinary herb with a wide variety of uses and cultivars. With an increased need to support the growing demand for herbs, it is important to understand how various growing practices impact basil production. In particular, this research investigates several aspects of growing basil, including how limited irradiance, artificial fluorescent irradiance, and nitrate-N:ammonium-N fertilizer influences growth and essential oil production.

In our limited irradiance study, ‘Genovese’ basil plants were grown in a ...


Horticultural Evaluation Of Soy-Based Bioplastics For Container-Crop Production, Kenneth Gene Mccabe Jan 2015

Horticultural Evaluation Of Soy-Based Bioplastics For Container-Crop Production, Kenneth Gene Mccabe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Petroleum-based plastics and synthetic fertilizers are commonplace in container-crop production, and their use raises concerns about the sustainability of plants produced in containers. Bioplastic materials have been developed as replacements that are more sustainable, but their use has been limited to date. Using materials made from composites of soy-based [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] ingredients and commercially-available bioplastics, we fabricated containers and pelletized fertilizers to understand nutrient-release characteristics of soy-based bioplastic composites while producing plants in container-crop production. My first objective was to evaluate the growth and mineral nutritional status of a common greenhouse species [marigold (Tagetes patula L.)] grown in ...


Strip Tillage And Rowcovers As A Potential Alternative To Black Plastic Mulch In Cucurbit Production, Jennifer Louise Tillman Jan 2015

Strip Tillage And Rowcovers As A Potential Alternative To Black Plastic Mulch In Cucurbit Production, Jennifer Louise Tillman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of tillage and plastic mulch are common practices among cucurbit growers to provide warm, moist, weed-free soil around plants. However, there are environmental drawbacks to the use of plastic mulches, such as the material waste given that these products are used for a single season, and the reduced soil health and stability that can come from frequent and intensive tillage. As an alternative strategy, a biological mulch can be formed by rolling and killing a cover crop stand by using a roller crimper. Narrow, tilled strips can be formed within this mulch for the crop to grow in ...


Linking Soil And Water Quality With Crop Performance Across A Continuum Of Tillage And Management Strategies: Enhancing Sustainability Through Soil-Health-Promoting Practices, Kathleen Delate, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Matt Bakker, Ann M. Johanns Jan 2015

Linking Soil And Water Quality With Crop Performance Across A Continuum Of Tillage And Management Strategies: Enhancing Sustainability Through Soil-Health-Promoting Practices, Kathleen Delate, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Matt Bakker, Ann M. Johanns

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Comparisons across the three Iowa research sites, with histories ranging from three to 17 years, allowed the research team to examine of the effects of crop rotation history (short vs. longer) and system (organic vs. conventional) on weed management, crop productivity, soil quality and soil microbial communities.


Ntep Greens Height Bentgrass Study 2014, Dan Strey, Nick Christians, Ryan Adams Jan 2015

Ntep Greens Height Bentgrass Study 2014, Dan Strey, Nick Christians, Ryan Adams

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) conducts trials throughout the United States on turfgrass adaptation. This trial was initiated in September 2014 as part of the NTEP program. This is the first year data were collected. It contains 20 bentgrass cultivars.


Strip-Tillage And Row Cover Use In Organically And Conventionally Grown Summer Squash, Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Jean Batzer, Mark Gleason Jan 2015

Strip-Tillage And Row Cover Use In Organically And Conventionally Grown Summer Squash, Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Jean Batzer, Mark Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Sustainable production of summer squash involves multiple management practices. Some cover crops can be “rolled” when mature to produce a ground-covering mat. The cash crop is then planted in tilled strips made in the residue. This “strip-tillage” technique provides a weed-controlling, moistureretaining mat that is biodegradable, unlike plastic mulches. The reduction in tillage can improve soil health. Row covers provide a favorable microclimate and act as a physical barrier to pests when placed over young transplants. This can help plants grow more rapidly and reduce diseases spread by insects early in the season, such as yellow vine decline and bacterial ...


Fifth Year Performance Of Honeycrisp Grafted On 31 Dwarfing Rootstocks Of The Nc-140 2010 Regional Apple Rootstock Trial, Diana Cochran, Paul Domoto, Lynn Schroeder Jan 2015

Fifth Year Performance Of Honeycrisp Grafted On 31 Dwarfing Rootstocks Of The Nc-140 2010 Regional Apple Rootstock Trial, Diana Cochran, Paul Domoto, Lynn Schroeder

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Dwarfing rootstocks have the potential to increase profitability of tree-fruit growers by providing smaller trees suitable for highdensity plantings. Although the initial installation cost can be 10 to 30 times greater than lower-density plantings, the long-range returns can far exceed the traditional plantings. However, to be viable as a commercial rootstock, dwarfing rootstocks must be adapted to a range of agro-climatic conditions, moderately disease resistant, high yielding, and produce quality fruit.


Horticulture Enterprise Management (Hort/Ag Eds 465)–Year Review, Leah Riesselman, Gail Nonnecke Jan 2015

Horticulture Enterprise Management (Hort/Ag Eds 465)–Year Review, Leah Riesselman, Gail Nonnecke

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Originally introduced in the spring of 2011, the cross-listed Hort/Ag EdS 465 course was reintroduced Spring 2014 to the horticulture curriculum at Iowa State University. Modeled after the Ag 450 farm, the purpose of Hort/Ag EdS 465 is to provide students with the experience in managing a horticultural farm and to engage students in active learning of running a horticulture enterprise.


A Student-Managed Horticultural Enterprise Hort 465: The Beginnings, Mark Honeyman, Nick Howell, Malcom Robertson Jan 2015

A Student-Managed Horticultural Enterprise Hort 465: The Beginnings, Mark Honeyman, Nick Howell, Malcom Robertson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

In 2010, Wade Miller, chair of AgEdS department; Jeff Iles, chair of Horticulture department; and Mark Honeyman, coordinator of ISU Research Farms, including the Horticulture Research Station, began discussions that were the beginnings of a new course at ISU – Horticulture Enterprise Management, Hort/AgEdS 465X.


Strip-Tillage And Row Cover Use In Organically And Conventionally Grown Muskmelon, Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Jean Batzer, Mark Gleason Jan 2015

Strip-Tillage And Row Cover Use In Organically And Conventionally Grown Muskmelon, Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Jean Batzer, Mark Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Growing muskmelon in a more sustainable way involves multiple management practices. “Rolling” cover crops after they mature, and then tilling strips into which the crops are planted, can help manage weeds and moisture while improving soil health. This “strip-tillage” technique provides a biodegradable mat that does not need to be removed at the season’s end, as plastic mulch does. Row covers are placed over newly planted seedlings to provide a better microclimate and a physical barrier to pests. Extending the time of row cover removal by 10 days after the onset of female flowers has been shown to provide ...


Ntep Kentucky Bluegrass Study 2014, Nick Christians, Dan Strey, Ryan Adams Jan 2015

Ntep Kentucky Bluegrass Study 2014, Nick Christians, Dan Strey, Ryan Adams

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) conducts trials throughout the United States on turfgrass adaptation. This trial was established in September 2011 as a part of the NTEP program. It contains 82 Kentucky bluegrass cultivars.


Ntep Fairway Height Bentgrass Study 2014, Dan Strey, Nick Christians, Ryan Adams Jan 2015

Ntep Fairway Height Bentgrass Study 2014, Dan Strey, Nick Christians, Ryan Adams

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) conducts trials throughout the United States on turfgrass adaptation. This trial was initiated in September 2014 as a part of the NTEP program. This is the first year data were collected. It contains 17 bentgrass cultivars including both creeping and colonial bentgrasses.


2014 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia Haynes, Denny Schrock, Bryn Takle Jan 2015

2014 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia Haynes, Denny Schrock, Bryn Takle

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The 2014 Home Demonstration Gardens were divided into four quadrants, each with a different theme. Impatiens and Zinnia varieties were showcased in the first quadrant. The New Cultivar Garden displayed a variety of garden plants new to the public, and the Purple Garden was dominated with purple vegetables. The final quadrant was used to create a raspberry and blackberry plot at each farm as a feature of the 2015 garden.


Muscatine Island Research Farm Summary, Vince Lawson Jan 2015

Muscatine Island Research Farm Summary, Vince Lawson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Contains the Farm and Weather Summary for the Muscatine Island Research and Demonstration Farm.


Comparison Of Organic And Conventional Crops At The Neely-Kinyon Long-Term Agroecological Research Site, Kathleen Delate, Andres Glasener, Randy Beach Jan 2015

Comparison Of Organic And Conventional Crops At The Neely-Kinyon Long-Term Agroecological Research Site, Kathleen Delate, Andres Glasener, Randy Beach

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The Neely-Kinyon Long-term Agroecological Research (LTAR) site was established in 1998 to study the long-term effects of organic production in Iowa. Treatments at the LTAR site, replicated four times in a completely randomized design, include the following rotations: conventional Corn-Soybean (C-S), organic Corn-Soybean-Oats/Alfalfa (C-SO/A), organic Corn-Soybean-Oats/AlfalfaAlfalfa (C-S-O/A-A), and organic CornSoybean-Corn-Oats/Alfalfa (C-SB-C-O/A).


Evaluating Zidua Herbicide For Use In Potato Production, Vince Lawson Jan 2015

Evaluating Zidua Herbicide For Use In Potato Production, Vince Lawson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Zidua (pyroxasulfone) is a relatively new herbicide from BASF currently being used in corn, soybeans, and wheat. In the future, BASF would like to expand the Zidua label to include additional crops such as potatoes. In support of this goal, we conducted a field trial in 2014 to evaluate weed control effectiveness and potato crop tolerance to Zidua when used alone and in combination with other herbicides in a potato production system.


Fourth Year Performance Of Honeycrisp On 31 Dwarfing Rootstocks Of The Nc-140 2010 Regional Apple Rootstock Trial, Paul Domoto, Lynn Schroeder Jan 2015

Fourth Year Performance Of Honeycrisp On 31 Dwarfing Rootstocks Of The Nc-140 2010 Regional Apple Rootstock Trial, Paul Domoto, Lynn Schroeder

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

To evaluate the adaptability and performance of new and promising apple rootstocks in the dwarfing size-control category, the NC-140 regional rootstock trial was established in 2010 at 11 sites in the United States (CO, IA, IL, MA, MI, MN, NJ, NY, OH, UT, WI), two sites in Canada (BC, NS), and one site in Mexico (CH) with Honeycrisp serving as the test cultivar. The Iowa planting, located at the ISU Horticulture Research Station, includes 31 rootstocks with new selections from the Cornell-Geneva breeding program (G., CG.), Russia (B.), and Germany (PiAu, Supp.), with M.26 EMLA, M.9 Pajam2 and ...


Horticulture Research Station Orchard Assessment, Brandon Carpenter, Nick Howell Jan 2015

Horticulture Research Station Orchard Assessment, Brandon Carpenter, Nick Howell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Perennial horticulture crops take years to establish. Many fruit trees can take up to five years to produce a crop and generate yield data. Once established, orchards are long-lived proving useful even with changing research requirements. Orchards also serve as important resources for education, instruction, and demonstration. This is an assessment of the orchards located at the ISU Horticulture Station.


Quantifying Nitrogen Scavenging Benefits Of Cover Crops In The Mississippi River Basin, Ajay Nair, Vince Lawson Jan 2015

Quantifying Nitrogen Scavenging Benefits Of Cover Crops In The Mississippi River Basin, Ajay Nair, Vince Lawson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The sandy soils of Muscatine County, Iowa, are prone to erosion and leaching. In the fall, leftover fertilizer applied to the corn and soybean crop is highly susceptible to leaching. Cover crops have been widely acclaimed to mitigate such issues as they prevent erosion and scavenge residual nitrogen. Although these attributes are widely known, adoption of cover crops has been slow. Information on cover crop planting dates, performance, and advantages are available, but few data are available that is applicable to Iowa soils and growing conditions.


Evaluation Of Herbicide Programs For Liberty Link Sweet Corn Hybrids, Vince Lawson Jan 2015

Evaluation Of Herbicide Programs For Liberty Link Sweet Corn Hybrids, Vince Lawson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The recent introduction and availability of Liberty Link sweet corn hybrids provides growers with new options for postemergence weed control. The Liberty Link technology utilizes specially developed hybrids that are tolerant to Liberty 280 SL (glufosinate), a foliar applied, broad-spectrum herbicide with no residual control. The objective of this study was to evaluate and identify the best strategies for using Liberty 280 SL in a sweet corn weed management program.