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Abundance Of Introduced Species At Home Predicts Abundance Away In Herbaceous Communities, Jennifer Firn, Joslin L. Moore, Andrew S. Macdougall, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Janneke Hillerislambers, W. Stanley Harpole, Elsa E. Cleland, Cynthia S. Brown, Johannes M. H. Knops, Suzanne M. Prober, David A. Pyke, Kelly A. Farrell, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lydia R. O'Halloran, Peter B. Adler, Scott L. Collins, Carla M. D'Antonio, Michael J. Crawley, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Brett A. Melbourne, Yann Hautier, John W. Morgan, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Adam Kay, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Kendi F. Davies, Carly J. Stevens, Chengjin Chu, Karen D. Holl, Julia A. Klein, Philip A. Fay, Nicole Hagenah, Kevin P. Kirkman, Yvonne M. Buckley Mar 2011

Abundance Of Introduced Species At Home Predicts Abundance Away In Herbaceous Communities, Jennifer Firn, Joslin L. Moore, Andrew S. Macdougall, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Janneke Hillerislambers, W. Stanley Harpole, Elsa E. Cleland, Cynthia S. Brown, Johannes M. H. Knops, Suzanne M. Prober, David A. Pyke, Kelly A. Farrell, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lydia R. O'Halloran, Peter B. Adler, Scott L. Collins, Carla M. D'Antonio, Michael J. Crawley, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Brett A. Melbourne, Yann Hautier, John W. Morgan, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Adam Kay, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Kendi F. Davies, Carly J. Stevens, Chengjin Chu, Karen D. Holl, Julia A. Klein, Philip A. Fay, Nicole Hagenah, Kevin P. Kirkman, Yvonne M. Buckley

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites – grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community ...


Melilotus Officinalis (Yellow Sweetclover) Causes Large Changes In Community And Ecosystem Processes In Both The Presence And Absence Of A Cover Crop, Timothy L. Dickson, Brian J. Wilsey, Ryan R. Busby, Dick L. Gebhart Jan 2010

Melilotus Officinalis (Yellow Sweetclover) Causes Large Changes In Community And Ecosystem Processes In Both The Presence And Absence Of A Cover Crop, Timothy L. Dickson, Brian J. Wilsey, Ryan R. Busby, Dick L. Gebhart

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Non-native species are hypothesized to decrease native species establishment and cover crops are hypothesized to decrease non-native species abundance. Although many studies have compared invaded to non-invaded habitats, relatively few studies have experimentally added non-native species to directly examine their effects. In a greenhouse mesocosm experiment, we tested the effects of non-native forbs (Melilotus officinalis, Verbascum thapsus, and Lespedeza cuneata), a proposed C3 grass cover crop (Pascopyrum smithii), and a commonly seeded non-native C3 grass (Bromus inermis) on the establishment of target native C4 prairie grass species. All treatments contained the same seed density of target C4 species and were ...


Gene Expression In Developing Fibres Of Upland Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Was Massively Altered By Domestication, Ryan A. Rapp, Candace H. Haigler, Lex Flagel, Ran H. Hovav, Joshua A. Udall, Jonathan F. Wendel Jan 2010

Gene Expression In Developing Fibres Of Upland Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Was Massively Altered By Domestication, Ryan A. Rapp, Candace H. Haigler, Lex Flagel, Ran H. Hovav, Joshua A. Udall, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Understanding the evolutionary genetics of modern crop phenotypes has a dual relevance to evolutionary biology and crop improvement. Modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed following thousands of years of artificial selection from a wild form, G. hirsutum var. yucatanense, which bears a shorter, sparser, layer of single-celled, ovular trichomes (’fibre’). In order to gain an insight into the nature of the developmental genetic transformations that accompanied domestication and crop improvement, we studied the transcriptomes of cotton fibres from wild and domesticated accessions over a developmental time course. Fibre cells were harvested between 2 and 25 days post-anthesis and ...


Montane Meadow Change During Drought Varies With Background Hydrologic Regime And Plant Functional Group, Diane M. Debinski, Hadley Alexander Wickham, Kelly Kindscher, Jennet C. Caruthers, Matthew Germino Jan 2010

Montane Meadow Change During Drought Varies With Background Hydrologic Regime And Plant Functional Group, Diane M. Debinski, Hadley Alexander Wickham, Kelly Kindscher, Jennet C. Caruthers, Matthew Germino

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Climate change models for many ecosystems predict more extreme climatic events in the future, including exacerbated drought conditions. Here we assess the effects of drought by quantifying temporal variation in community composition of a complex montane meadow landscape characterized by a hydrological gradient. The meadows occur in two regions of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (Gallatin and Teton) and were classified into six categories (M1–M6, designating hydric to xeric) based upon Satellite pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite imagery. Both regions have similar plant communities, but patch sizes of meadows are much smaller in the Gallatin region. We ...


Recent Insights Into Mechanisms Of Genome Size Change In Plants, Corrinne E. Grover, Jonathan F. Wendel Jan 2010

Recent Insights Into Mechanisms Of Genome Size Change In Plants, Corrinne E. Grover, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Genome sizes vary considerably across all eukaryotes and even among closely related species. The genesis and evolutionary dynamics of that variation have generated considerable interest, as have the patterns of variation themselves. Here we review recent developments in our understanding of genome size evolution in plants, drawing attention to the higher order processes that can influence the mechanisms generating changing genome size.


Reproductive And Pollination Biology Of The Endemic Hawaiian Cotton, Gossypium Tomentosum (Malvaceae), John M. Pleasants, Jonathan F. Wendel Jan 2010

Reproductive And Pollination Biology Of The Endemic Hawaiian Cotton, Gossypium Tomentosum (Malvaceae), John M. Pleasants, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Gossypium tomentosum is a cotton species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. We studied several aspects of its reproductive biology, including potential pollinators, floral biology, and diurnal and seasonal flowering phenology. Flower visitors were observed in G. tomentosum populations on O‘ahu, Kaho‘olawe, and Maui. Primary visitors were introduced species, honeybees and carpenter bees, both of which were pollinating the flowers. No native bee species were seen visiting flowers. In examining floral biology we found that in some cases 10% of flowers had styles that were as short as the anthers or were recurved toward the anthers. In the greenhouse ...


A Draft Physical Map Of A D-Genome Cotton Species (Gossypium Raimondii), Lifeng Lin, Gary J. Pierce, John E. Bowers, James C. Estill, Rosana O. Compton, Lisa K. Rainville, Changsoo Kim, Cornelia Lemke, Junkang Rong, Haibao Tang, Xiyin Wang, Michele Braidotti, Amy H. Chen, Kristen Chicola, Kristi Collura, Ethan Epps, Wolfgang Golser, Corrinne E. Grover, Jennifer Ingles, Santhosh Karunakaran, Dave Kudrna, Jaime Olive, Nabila Tabassum, Eareana Um, Marina Wissotski, Yeisoo Yu, Andrea Zuccolo, Mehboob Ur Rahman, Daniel G. Peterson, Rod A. Wing, Jonathan F. Wendel, Andrew H. Paterson Jan 2010

A Draft Physical Map Of A D-Genome Cotton Species (Gossypium Raimondii), Lifeng Lin, Gary J. Pierce, John E. Bowers, James C. Estill, Rosana O. Compton, Lisa K. Rainville, Changsoo Kim, Cornelia Lemke, Junkang Rong, Haibao Tang, Xiyin Wang, Michele Braidotti, Amy H. Chen, Kristen Chicola, Kristi Collura, Ethan Epps, Wolfgang Golser, Corrinne E. Grover, Jennifer Ingles, Santhosh Karunakaran, Dave Kudrna, Jaime Olive, Nabila Tabassum, Eareana Um, Marina Wissotski, Yeisoo Yu, Andrea Zuccolo, Mehboob Ur Rahman, Daniel G. Peterson, Rod A. Wing, Jonathan F. Wendel, Andrew H. Paterson

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo ...


Parallel Expression Evolution Of Oxidative Stress-Related Genes In Fiber From Wild And Domesticated Diploid And Polyploid Cotton (Gossypium), Bhupendra Chaudhary, Ran Hovav, Lex Flagel, Ron Mittler, Jonathan F. Wendel Aug 2009

Parallel Expression Evolution Of Oxidative Stress-Related Genes In Fiber From Wild And Domesticated Diploid And Polyploid Cotton (Gossypium), Bhupendra Chaudhary, Ran Hovav, Lex Flagel, Ron Mittler, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers") of cotton (Gossypium), using a phylogenetic approach. We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication ...


Initiation And Early Development Of Fiber In Wild And Cultivated Cotton, Kara M. Butterworth, Dean C. Adams, Harry T. Horner, Jonathan F. Wendel Jun 2009

Initiation And Early Development Of Fiber In Wild And Cultivated Cotton, Kara M. Butterworth, Dean C. Adams, Harry T. Horner, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Cultivated cotton fiber has undergone transformation from short, coarse fibers found in progenitor wild species to economically important, long, fine fibers grown globally. Morphological transformation requires understanding of development of wild fiber and developmental differences between wild and cultivated fiber.We examined early development of fibers, including abundance and placement on seed surface, nucleus position, presence of vacuoles, and fiber size and shape. Four species were studied using microscopic, morphometric, and statistical methods: Gossypium raimondii (wild D genome), Gossypium herbaceum (cultivated A genome), Gossypium hirsutum (wild tetraploid), and Gossypium hirsutum (cultivated tetraploid). Early fiber development is highly asynchronous in G ...


Biodiversity, Productivity And The Temporal Stability Of Productivity: Patterns And Processes, Forest I. Isbell, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey May 2009

Biodiversity, Productivity And The Temporal Stability Of Productivity: Patterns And Processes, Forest I. Isbell, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Theory predicts that the temporal stability of productivity, measured as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation of community biomass, increases with species richness and evenness. We used experimental species mixtures of grassland plants to test this hypothesis and identified the mechanisms involved. Additionally, we tested whether biodiversity, productivity and temporal stability were similarly influenced by particular types of species interactions. We found that productivity was less variable among years in plots planted with more species. Temporal stability did not depend on whether the species were planted equally abundant (high evenness) or not (realistically low evenness). Greater richness ...


Genomic Expression Dominance In Allopolyploids, Ryan A. Rapp, Joshua A. Udall, Jonathan F. Wendel May 2009

Genomic Expression Dominance In Allopolyploids, Ryan A. Rapp, Joshua A. Udall, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Allopolyploid speciation requires rapid evolutionary reconciliation of two diverged genomes and gene regulatory networks. Here we describe global patterns of gene expression accompanying genomic merger and doubling in inter-specific crosses in the cotton genus (Gossypium L.). Employing a micro-array platform designed against 40,430 unigenes, we assayed gene expression in two sets of parental diploids and their colchicine-doubled allopolyploid derivatives. Up to half of all genes were differentially expressed among diploids, a striking level of expression evolution among congeners. In the allopolyploids, most genes were expressed at mid-parent levels, but this was achieved via a phenomenon of genome-wide expression dominance ...


Heterogeneity Of Phosphorus Distribution In A Patterned Landscape, The Florida Everglades, Paul R. Wetzel, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, Susan Newman, Carlos A. Coronado, Tiffany G. Troxler-Gann, Daniel L. Childers, William H. Orem, Fred H. Sklar Jan 2009

Heterogeneity Of Phosphorus Distribution In A Patterned Landscape, The Florida Everglades, Paul R. Wetzel, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, Susan Newman, Carlos A. Coronado, Tiffany G. Troxler-Gann, Daniel L. Childers, William H. Orem, Fred H. Sklar

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The biologically mediated transfer of nutrients from one part of a landscape to another may create nutrient gradients or subsidize the productivity at specific locations. If limited, this focused redistribution of the nutrient may create non-random landscape patterns that are unrelated to underlying environmental gradients. The Florida Everglades, USA, is a large freshwater wetland that is patterned with tree islands, elevated areas that support woody vegetation. A survey of 12 tree islands found total soil phosphorus levels 3–114 times greater on the island head than the surrounding marsh, indicating that the Florida Everglades is not a homogeneous oligotrophic system ...


Duplicate Gene Expression In Allopolyploid Gossypium Reveals Two Temporally Distinct Phases Of Expression Evolution, Lex E. Flagel, Joshua A. Udall, Dan Nettleton, Jonathan F. Wendel Apr 2008

Duplicate Gene Expression In Allopolyploid Gossypium Reveals Two Temporally Distinct Phases Of Expression Evolution, Lex E. Flagel, Joshua A. Udall, Dan Nettleton, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Polyploidy has played a prominent role in shaping the genomic architecture of the angiosperms. Through allopolyploidization, several modern Gossypium (cotton) species contain two divergent, although largely redundant genomes. Owing to this redundancy, these genomes can play host to an array of evolutionary processes that act on duplicate genes. We compared homoeolog (genes duplicated by polyploidy) contributions to the transcriptome of a natural allopolyploid and a synthetic interspecific F1 hybrid, both derived from a merger between diploid species from the Gossypium A-genome and D-genome groups. Relative levels of A- and D-genome contributions to the petal transcriptome were determined for 1,383 ...


The Evolution Of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development And A Novel Metabolism, Ran Hovav, Joshua A. Udall, Bhupendra Chaudhary, Einat Hovav, Lex Flagel, Guanjing Hu, Jonathan F. Wendel Feb 2008

The Evolution Of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development And A Novel Metabolism, Ran Hovav, Joshua A. Udall, Bhupendra Chaudhary, Einat Hovav, Lex Flagel, Guanjing Hu, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium (‘‘cotton fiber’’). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of G. longicalyx and the derived long, spinnable fibers of its closest relative, G. herbaceum, which facilitated cotton domestication. We conducted comparative gene expression profiling across a developmental time-course of fibers from G. longicalyx and G. herbaceum using microarrays with ;22 ...


Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes, Z. Jeffrey Chen, Brian Eric Scheffler, Elizabeth Dennis, Barbara A. Triplett, Tianzhen Zhang, Wangzhen Guo, Xiaoya Chen, David M. Stelly, Pablo D. Rabinowicz, Christopher D. Town, Tony Arioli, Curt Brubaker, Roy G. Cantrell, Jean-Marc Lacape, Mauricio Ulloa, Peng Chee, Candace Haigler, Richard G. Percy, Alan R. Gingle, Sukumar Saha, Thea Wilkins, Robert J. Wright, Allen Van Deynze, Yuxian Zhu, Shuxun Yu, Ibrokhim Abdurakhmonov, P. Ananda Kumar, Mehboob-Ur- Rahman, Yusuf Zafar, John Z. Yu, Russell J. Ohel, Jonathan F. Wendel, Andrew H. Paterson Dec 2007

Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes, Z. Jeffrey Chen, Brian Eric Scheffler, Elizabeth Dennis, Barbara A. Triplett, Tianzhen Zhang, Wangzhen Guo, Xiaoya Chen, David M. Stelly, Pablo D. Rabinowicz, Christopher D. Town, Tony Arioli, Curt Brubaker, Roy G. Cantrell, Jean-Marc Lacape, Mauricio Ulloa, Peng Chee, Candace Haigler, Richard G. Percy, Alan R. Gingle, Sukumar Saha, Thea Wilkins, Robert J. Wright, Allen Van Deynze, Yuxian Zhu, Shuxun Yu, Ibrokhim Abdurakhmonov, P. Ananda Kumar, Mehboob-Ur- Rahman, Yusuf Zafar, John Z. Yu, Russell J. Ohel, Jonathan F. Wendel, Andrew H. Paterson

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Despite rapidly decreasing costs and innovative technologies, sequencing of angiosperm genomes is not yet undertaken lightly. Generating larger amounts of sequence data more quickly does not address the difficulties of sequencing and assembling complex genomes de novo. The cotton (Gossypium spp.) genomes represent a challenging case. To this end, a coalition of cotton genome scientists has developed a strategy for sequencing the cotton genomes, which will vastly expand opportunities for cotton research and improvement worldwide.


Dominant Species Constrain Effects Of Species Diversity On Temporal Variability In Biomass Production Of Tallgrass Prairie, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey, Justin D. Derner Dec 2007

Dominant Species Constrain Effects Of Species Diversity On Temporal Variability In Biomass Production Of Tallgrass Prairie, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey, Justin D. Derner

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Species diversity is thought to stabilize functioning of plant communities. An alternative view is that stability depends more on dynamics of dominant species than on diversity. We compared inter-annual variability (inverse of stability) of aboveground biomass in paired restored and remnant tallgrass prairies at two locations in central Texas, USA. Data from these two locations were used to test the hypothesis that greater richness and evenness in remnant than restored prairies would reduce variability in aboveground biomass in response to natural variation in rainfall. Restored prairies were chosen to be similar to paired remnant prairies in characteristics other than species ...


Butterfly Responses To Prairie Restoration Through Fire And Grazing, Jennifer A. Vogel, Diane M. Debinski, Rolf R. Koford, James R. Miller Nov 2007

Butterfly Responses To Prairie Restoration Through Fire And Grazing, Jennifer A. Vogel, Diane M. Debinski, Rolf R. Koford, James R. Miller

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest ...


Spotted Cotton Oligonucleotide Microarrays For Gene Expression Analysis, Joshua A. Udall, Lex E. Flagel, Foo Cheung, Andrew W. Woodard, Ran Hovav, Ryan Adam Rapp, Jordan M. Swanson, Jinsuk J. Lee, Alan R. Gingle, Dan Nettleton, Christopher D. Town, Z. Jeffrey Chen, Jonathan F. Wendel Jan 2007

Spotted Cotton Oligonucleotide Microarrays For Gene Expression Analysis, Joshua A. Udall, Lex E. Flagel, Foo Cheung, Andrew W. Woodard, Ran Hovav, Ryan Adam Rapp, Jordan M. Swanson, Jinsuk J. Lee, Alan R. Gingle, Dan Nettleton, Christopher D. Town, Z. Jeffrey Chen, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Microarrays offer a powerful tool for diverse applications plant biology and crop improvement. Recently, two comprehensive assemblies of cotton ESTs were constructed based on three Gossypium species. Using these assemblies as templates, we describe the design and creation and of a publicly available oligonucleotide array for cotton, useful for all four of the cultivated species. Synthetic oligonucleotide probes were generated from exemplar sequences of a global assembly of 211,397 cotton ESTs derived from >50 different cDNA libraries representing many different tissue types and tissue treatments. A total of 22,787 oligonucleotide probes are included on the arrays, optimized to ...


Analysis Of Bulked And Redundant Accessions Of Brassica Germplasm Using Assignment Tests Of Microsatellite Markers, Von Mark V. Cruz, John D. Nason, Richard Luhman, Laura F. Marek, Randy C. Shoemaker, E. Charles Brummer, Candice A. C. Gardner Dec 2006

Analysis Of Bulked And Redundant Accessions Of Brassica Germplasm Using Assignment Tests Of Microsatellite Markers, Von Mark V. Cruz, John D. Nason, Richard Luhman, Laura F. Marek, Randy C. Shoemaker, E. Charles Brummer, Candice A. C. Gardner

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

This study was conducted to determine if Brassica germplasm bulks created and maintained by the USDA-ARS North Central Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were made with genetically indistinguishable component accessions and to examine newly identified putative duplicate accessions to determine if they can be bulked. Using ten microsatellite primer pairs, we genotyped two bulks of B. rapa L. ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt comprising four accessions and three bulks of B. rapa L. ssp. trilocularis (Roxb.) Hanelt comprising fourteen accessions, as well as four pairs of putatively duplicate accessions of B.␣napus L. Assignment tests on ten individual plants per accession were ...


Differential Lineage-Specific Amplification Of Transposable Elements Is Responsible For Genome Size Variation In Gossypium, Jennifer S. Hawkins, Hyeran Kim, John D. Nason, Rod A. Wing, Jonathan F. Wendel Oct 2006

Differential Lineage-Specific Amplification Of Transposable Elements Is Responsible For Genome Size Variation In Gossypium, Jennifer S. Hawkins, Hyeran Kim, John D. Nason, Rod A. Wing, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The DNA content of eukaryotic nuclei (C-value) varies ∼200,000-fold, but there is only a ∼20-fold variation in the number of protein-coding genes. Hence, most C-value variation is ascribed to the repetitive fraction, although little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of the specific components that lead to genome size variation. To understand the modes and mechanisms that underlie variation in genome composition, we generated sequence data from whole genome shotgun (WGS) libraries for three representative diploid (n = 13) members of Gossypium that vary in genome size from 880 to 2460 Mb (1C) and from a phylogenetic outgroup, Gossypioides kirkii ...


A Global Assembly Of Cotton Ests, Joshua A. Udall, Jordan M. Swanson, Karl Haller, Ryan A. Rapp, Michael Edward Sparks, Jamie Hatfield, Yeisoo Yu, Yingru Wu, Catriona Dowd, Aladdin B. Arpat, Brad A. Sickler, Thea A. Wilkins, Yin Ying Guo, Xiao Ya Chen, Jodi Scheffler, Earl Taliercio, Ricky Turley, Helen Mcfadden, Paxton Payton, Natalya Klueva, Randell Allen, Deshui Zhang, Candace Haigler, Curtis Wilkerson, Jinfeng Suo, Stefan R. Schulze, Margaret L. Pierce, Margaret Essenberg, Hyeran Kim, Danny J. Llewellyn, Elizabeth S. Dennis, Rod Wing, Andrew H. Paterson, Cari Soderlund, Jonathan F. Wendel Feb 2006

A Global Assembly Of Cotton Ests, Joshua A. Udall, Jordan M. Swanson, Karl Haller, Ryan A. Rapp, Michael Edward Sparks, Jamie Hatfield, Yeisoo Yu, Yingru Wu, Catriona Dowd, Aladdin B. Arpat, Brad A. Sickler, Thea A. Wilkins, Yin Ying Guo, Xiao Ya Chen, Jodi Scheffler, Earl Taliercio, Ricky Turley, Helen Mcfadden, Paxton Payton, Natalya Klueva, Randell Allen, Deshui Zhang, Candace Haigler, Curtis Wilkerson, Jinfeng Suo, Stefan R. Schulze, Margaret L. Pierce, Margaret Essenberg, Hyeran Kim, Danny J. Llewellyn, Elizabeth S. Dennis, Rod Wing, Andrew H. Paterson, Cari Soderlund, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Approximately 185,000 Gossypium EST sequences comprising >94,800,000 nucleotides were amassed from 30 cDNA libraries constructed from a variety of tissues and organs under a range of conditions, including drought stress and pathogen challenges. These libraries were derived from allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum; AT and DT genomes) as well as its two diploid progenitors,Gossypium arboreum (A genome) and Gossypium raimondii (D genome). ESTs were assembled using the Program for Assembling and Viewing ESTs (PAVE), resulting in 22,030 contigs and 29,077 singletons (51,107 unigenes). Further comparisons among the singletons and contigs led to ...


Maintaining Tree Islands In The Florida Everglades: Nutrient Redistribution Is The Key, Paul R. Wetzel, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, Susan Newman, Dale E. Gawlik, Tiffany Troxler Gann, Carlos A. Coronado-Molina, Daniel L. Childers, Fred H. Sklar Sep 2005

Maintaining Tree Islands In The Florida Everglades: Nutrient Redistribution Is The Key, Paul R. Wetzel, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, Susan Newman, Dale E. Gawlik, Tiffany Troxler Gann, Carlos A. Coronado-Molina, Daniel L. Childers, Fred H. Sklar

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The Florida Everglades is an oligotrophic wetland system with tree islands as one of its most prominent landscape features. Total soil phosphorus concentrations on tree islands can be 6 to 100 times greater than phosphorus levels in the surrounding marshes and sloughs, making tree islands nutrient hotspots. Several mechanisms are believed to redistribute phosphorus to tree islands: subsurface water flows generated by evapotranspiration of trees, higher deposition rates of dry fallout, deposition of guano by birds and other animals, groundwater upwelling, and bedrock mineralization by tree exudates. A conceptual model is proposed, in which the focused redistribution of limiting nutrients ...


Phylogeny Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium L., Malvaceae) Based On Sequences Of Three Low-Copy Nuclear Genes, Inés Álvarez, Richard Clark Cronn, Jonathan F. Wendel May 2005

Phylogeny Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium L., Malvaceae) Based On Sequences Of Three Low-Copy Nuclear Genes, Inés Álvarez, Richard Clark Cronn, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

American diploid cottons (Gossypium L., subgenus Houzingenia Fryxell) form a monophyletic group of 13 species distributed mainly in western Mexico, extending into Arizona, Baja California, and with one disjunct species each in the Galapagos Islands and Peru. Prior phylogenetic analyses based on an alcohol dehydrogenase gene (AdhA) and nuclear ribosomal DNA indicated the need for additional data from other molecular markers to resolve phylogenetic relationships within this subgenus. Toward this end, we sequenced three nuclear genes, the anonymous locus A1341, an alcohol dehydrogenase gene (AdhC), and a cellulose synthase gene (CesA1b). Independent and combined analyses resolved clades ...


Use Of Nuclear Genes For Phylogeny Reconstruction In Plants, Randall L. Small, Richard Clark Cronn, Jonathan F. Wendel Jan 2004

Use Of Nuclear Genes For Phylogeny Reconstruction In Plants, Randall L. Small, Richard Clark Cronn, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Molecular data have had a profound impact on the field of plant systematics, and the application of DNA-sequence data to phylogenetic problems is now routine. The majority of data used in plant molecular phylogenetic studies derives from chloroplast DNA and nuclear rDNA, while the use of low-copy nuclear genes has not been widely adopted. This is due, at least in part, to the greater difficulty of isolating and characterising low-copy nuclear genes relative to chloroplast and rDNA sequences that are readily amplified with universal primers. The higher level of sequence variation characteristic of low-copy nuclear genes, however, often compensates for ...


Cryptic Trysts, Genomic Mergers, And Plant Speciation, Richard Clark Cronn, Jonathan F. Wendel Jan 2004

Cryptic Trysts, Genomic Mergers, And Plant Speciation, Richard Clark Cronn, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

It has long been recognized that interspecific hybridization is common in plants, enhancing processes of diversification and speciation. With the widespread utilization of molecular tools, interspecific hybridization – as revealed through incongruence among two or more phylogenetic data sets – is now inferred to be even more prevalent than indicated by morphological and cytogenetic evidence. UsingGossypium as an example, we show how multiple molecular markers have implicated a high frequency of historical hybridization between lineages whose modern descendants are strongly isolated by geography and intrinsic genetic barriers. For example, transoceanic dispersal of propagules from Africa to the New World led to ...


Cryptic Repeated Genomic Recombination During Speciation In Gossypium Gossypioides, Richard Clark Cronn, Randall Lee Small, Tamara Haselkorn, Jonathan F. Wendel Nov 2003

Cryptic Repeated Genomic Recombination During Speciation In Gossypium Gossypioides, Richard Clark Cronn, Randall Lee Small, Tamara Haselkorn, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The Mexican cotton Gossypium gossypioides is a perplexing entity, with conflicting morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular evidence of its phylogenetic affinity to other American cottons. We reevaluated the evolutionary history of this enigmatic species using 16.4 kb of DNA sequence. Phylogenetic analyses show that chloroplast DNA (7.3 kb), nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS; 0.69 kb), and unique nuclear genes (8.4 kb) yield conflicting resolutions for G. gossypioides. Eight low-copy nuclear genes provide a nearly unanimous resolution of G. gossypioides as the basalmost American diploid cotton, whereas cpDNA sequences resolve G. gossypioides deeply nested within the American ...


Natural Ecosystems I. The Rocky Mountains, William A. Reiners, William L. Baker, Jill S. Baron, Diane M. Debinski, Scott A. Elias, Daniel B. Fagre, James S. Findley, Linda O. Mearns, David W. Roberts, Timothy R. Seastedt, Thomas J. Stohlgren, Thomas T. Veblen, Frederic H. Wagner Jan 2003

Natural Ecosystems I. The Rocky Mountains, William A. Reiners, William L. Baker, Jill S. Baron, Diane M. Debinski, Scott A. Elias, Daniel B. Fagre, James S. Findley, Linda O. Mearns, David W. Roberts, Timothy R. Seastedt, Thomas J. Stohlgren, Thomas T. Veblen, Frederic H. Wagner

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

This assessment of climate-change effects on Rocky Mountain terrestrial ecosystems is prepare from information generated by a workshop focused on terrestrial systems of the Rocky Mountains, and held in Boulder, CO, on 29-30 September 2000 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. It is a compilation of this workshop's discussion along with material from earlier workshops.


A Global Trend In Belowground Carbon Allocation: Comment, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, James W. Raich, J.D. Aber Jan 1998

A Global Trend In Belowground Carbon Allocation: Comment, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, James W. Raich, J.D. Aber

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Gower et al. (1996) have questioned the validity of using a global-scale relationship between litterfall and belowground carbon (C) allocation (Raich and Nadelhoffer 1989) at stand and regional scales. We encourage attempts to understand better the controls on C allocation to roots in forests, including efforts to evaluate the potentials and limitations of C budgets for this purpose. However, the tests of our C-balance model that were presented by Gower et al. use inappropriate comparisons and the conclusions they drew are unwar ranted. In addition, they misinterpret and misapply our C-budgeting models and their conceptual bases. Therefore, we clarify our ...