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Synthesizing Adversarial Examples For Neural Networks, Hasitha Rasineni Jan 2109

Synthesizing Adversarial Examples For Neural Networks, Hasitha Rasineni

Creative Components

As machine learning is being integrated into more and more systems, such as autonomous vehicles or medical devices, they are also becoming entry points for attacks. Many sate-of-the-art neural networks have been proved, to be vulnerable to adversarial examples. These failures of machine learning models demonstrate that even simple algorithms can behave very differently from what their designers intend to. In order to close this gap between what designers intend to and how algorithms behave, there is a huge need for preventing adversarial examples to improve the credibility of the model. This study focuses on synthesizing adversarial examples using two ...


Vacuum-Assisted Sorbent Extraction: An Analytical Methodology For The Determination Of Ultraviolet Filters In Environmental Samples, María Trujillo-Rodríguez, Jared L. Anderson, Sage J. B. Dunham, Victoria L. Noad, Daniel B. Cardin Feb 2020

Vacuum-Assisted Sorbent Extraction: An Analytical Methodology For The Determination Of Ultraviolet Filters In Environmental Samples, María Trujillo-Rodríguez, Jared L. Anderson, Sage J. B. Dunham, Victoria L. Noad, Daniel B. Cardin

Chemistry Publications

Vacuum-assisted sorbent extraction (VASE) has been applied for the first time in the determination of UV filters in water samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. VASE is a variant of headspace extraction which was developed in conjunction with the sorbent pen (SP) technology. This technique combines the advantages of both stir-bar assisted extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction. The SP traps allowed both reduced pressure in-vial extraction and direct thermal desorption via a unique gas chromatographic injection port. The main parameters that affect the performance of VASE, including both extraction and desorption conditions, were extensively optimized. Under optimum conditions, extraction ...


Profile Likelihood Confidence Intervals For Ecx, Philip M. Dixon, Katherine J. Goode, C. Lay Jan 2020

Profile Likelihood Confidence Intervals For Ecx, Philip M. Dixon, Katherine J. Goode, C. Lay

Statistics Technical Reports

Confidence intervals for effective concentrations (EC's) are commonly computed in dose response curve analyse. Profile intervals offer an alternative method for computing the confidence intervals in situations where delta method based confidence intervals produce intervals with values outside of a practical range. In this document, we describe the computation of profile intervals for EC's. We then introduce an R function, profile.ECx(), for computing these intervals from a dose response model fit by the drm() function in the drc package. Supplemental material includes three files of R code that define profile.ECx() and its helper functions and R ...


Determination Of The Free Energies Of Mixing Of Organic Solutions Through A Combined Molecular Dynamics And Bayesian Statistics Approach, Shi Li, Balaji Sesha Sarath Pokuri, Sean Ryno, Asare Nkansah, Camron De’Vine, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Chad Risko Jan 2020

Determination Of The Free Energies Of Mixing Of Organic Solutions Through A Combined Molecular Dynamics And Bayesian Statistics Approach, Shi Li, Balaji Sesha Sarath Pokuri, Sean Ryno, Asare Nkansah, Camron De’Vine, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Chad Risko

Mechanical Engineering Publications

As new generations of thin-film semiconductors are moving towards solution-based processing, the development of printing formulations will require information pertaining to the free energies of mixing of complex mixtures. From the standpoint of in silico materials design, this move necessitates the development of methods that can accurately and quickly evaluate these formulations in order to maximize processing speed and reproducibility. Here, we make use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in combination with the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model to explore the free energy of mixing surfaces for a series of halogenated solvents and high boiling point solvent additives used in the ...


Heart Valve Isogeometric Sequentially-Coupled Fsi Analysis With The Space–Time Topology Change Method, Takuya Terahara, Kenji Takizawa, Tayfun E. Tezduyar, Yuri Bazilevs, Ming-Chen Hsu Jan 2020

Heart Valve Isogeometric Sequentially-Coupled Fsi Analysis With The Space–Time Topology Change Method, Takuya Terahara, Kenji Takizawa, Tayfun E. Tezduyar, Yuri Bazilevs, Ming-Chen Hsu

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Heart valve fluid–structure interaction (FSI) analysis is one of the computationally challenging cases in cardiovascular fluid mechanics. The challenges include unsteady flow through a complex geometry, solid surfaces with large motion, and contact between the valve leaflets. We introduce here an isogeometric sequentially-coupled FSI (SCFSI) method that can address the challenges with an outcome of high-fidelity flow solutions. The SCFSI analysis enables dealing with the fluid and structure parts individually at different steps of the solutions sequence, and also enables using different methods or different mesh resolution levels at different steps. In the isogeometric SCFSI analysis here, the first ...


Cost Assessment Of Five Different Maize Grain Handling Techniques To Reduce Postharvest Losses From Insect Contamination, Bernard Darfour, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2020

Cost Assessment Of Five Different Maize Grain Handling Techniques To Reduce Postharvest Losses From Insect Contamination, Bernard Darfour, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Farmers in developing nations encounter high postharvest losses mainly attributable to the lack of modern techniques for threshing, cleaning, grading, and grain storage. Mechanized handling of grain in developing countries is rare, although the technology is effective against insects and pest infestations. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of five grain handling techniques that have the ability to reduce postharvest losses from insect infestation. The five methods were metal silo plus all accessories (m. silo + acc.), metal silo only (m. silo), woven polypropylene plus phosphine (w. PP. + Phos.), woven polypropylene only (w. PP.), and Purdue Improved Crop Storage bags ...


Assignment Maximization, Mustafa Oguz Afacan, Inácio Bó, Bertan Turhan Jan 2020

Assignment Maximization, Mustafa Oguz Afacan, Inácio Bó, Bertan Turhan

Economics Working Papers

We evaluate the goal of maximizing the number of individuals matched to acceptable outcomes. We show that it implies incentive, fairness, and implementation impossibilities. Despite that, we present two classes of mechanisms that maximize assignments. The first are Pareto efficient, and undominated, in terms of number of assignments, in equilibrium. The second are fair for unassigned students and assign weakly more students than stable mechanisms in equilibrium. We provide comparisons with well-known mechanisms through computer simulations. Those show that the difference in number of matched agents between the proposed mechanisms and others in the literature is large and significant.


The Rna Of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus - The Essential Virus In Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease - Is Translated Via A Panicum Mosaic Virus-Like Cap-Independent Translation Element, Elizabeth Carino, Kay Scheets, W. Allen Miller Jan 2020

The Rna Of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus - The Essential Virus In Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease - Is Translated Via A Panicum Mosaic Virus-Like Cap-Independent Translation Element, Elizabeth Carino, Kay Scheets, W. Allen Miller

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) combines with a potyvirus in maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND), an emerging disease worldwide that often causes catastrophic yield loss. To inform resistance strategies, we characterized the translation initiation mechanism of MCMV. We report that, like other tombusvirids, MCMV RNA contains a cap-independent translation element (CITE) in its 3’ untranslated region (UTR). The MCMV 3’ CITE (MTE) was mapped to nucleotides 4164-4333 in the genomic RNA. SHAPE probing revealed that the MTE is a variant of the panicum mosaic virus-like 3’ CITE (PTE). Like the PTE, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) indicated that eukaryotic translation ...


The Gossypium Longicalyx Genome As A Resource For Cotton Breeding And Evolution, Corrinne E. Grover, Mengqiao Pan, Daojun Yuan, Mark A. Arick Ii, Guanjing Hu, Logan Brase, David M. Stelly, Zefu Lu, Robert J. Schmitz, Daniel G. Peterson, Jonathan F. Wendel, Joshua A. Udall Jan 2020

The Gossypium Longicalyx Genome As A Resource For Cotton Breeding And Evolution, Corrinne E. Grover, Mengqiao Pan, Daojun Yuan, Mark A. Arick Ii, Guanjing Hu, Logan Brase, David M. Stelly, Zefu Lu, Robert J. Schmitz, Daniel G. Peterson, Jonathan F. Wendel, Joshua A. Udall

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Cotton is an important crop that has made significant gains in production over the last century. Emerging pests such as the reniform nematode have threatened cotton production. The rare African diploid species Gossypium longicalyx is a wild species that has been used as an important source of reniform nematode immunity. While mapping and breeding efforts have made some strides in transferring this immunity to the cultivated polyploid species, the complexities of interploidal transfer combined with substantial linkage drag have inhibited progress in this area. Moreover, this species shares its most recent common ancestor with the cultivated A-genome diploid cottons, thereby ...


Shapes Of Fe Nanocrystals Encapsulated At The Graphite Surface, Ann Lii-Rosales, Yong Han, Scott E. Julien, Olivier Pierre-Louis, Dapeng Jing, Kai-Tak Wan, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel Jan 2020

Shapes Of Fe Nanocrystals Encapsulated At The Graphite Surface, Ann Lii-Rosales, Yong Han, Scott E. Julien, Olivier Pierre-Louis, Dapeng Jing, Kai-Tak Wan, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

We describe and analyze in detail the shapes of Fe islands encapsulated under the top graphene layers in graphite. Shapes are interrogated using scanning tunneling microscopy. The main outputs of the shape analysis are the slope of the graphene membrane around the perimeter of the island, and the aspect ratio of the central metal cluster. Modeling primarily uses a continuum elasticity (CE) model. As input to the CE model, we use density functional theory to calculate the surface energy of Fe, and the adhesion energies between Fe and graphene or graphite. We use the shaft-loaded blister test (SLBT) model to ...


Privacy Concerns Regarding Wearable Iot Devices: How It Is Influenced By Gdpr?, Chinju Paul, Kevin P. Scheibe, Sree Nilakanta Jan 2020

Privacy Concerns Regarding Wearable Iot Devices: How It Is Influenced By Gdpr?, Chinju Paul, Kevin P. Scheibe, Sree Nilakanta

Supply Chain and Information Management Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

Internet of Things (IoT) devices have implications for health and fitness. Fitness wearables can promote healthy behavior and improve an individual’s overall health and quality of life. Even though fitness wearables have various benefits, privacy concerns regarding the data collected remain as a major barrier to adoption of fitness wearables. Intrinsic factors like disposition to value privacy and extrinsic factors like privacy policies and General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) can influence users’ privacy concerns. This research uses experimental design to understand how these factors influence privacy concerns. The results suggest that GDPR reduces the average privacy concerns of users ...


A Systematic Review And Qualitative Synthesis Resulting In A Typology Of Elementary Classroom Movement Integration Interventions, Spyridoula Vazou, Collin A. Webster, Gregory Stewart, Priscila Candal, Cate A. Egan, Adam Pennell, Laura B. Russ Jan 2020

A Systematic Review And Qualitative Synthesis Resulting In A Typology Of Elementary Classroom Movement Integration Interventions, Spyridoula Vazou, Collin A. Webster, Gregory Stewart, Priscila Candal, Cate A. Egan, Adam Pennell, Laura B. Russ

Kinesiology Publications

Background/Objective: Movement integration (MI) involves infusing physical activity into normal classroom time. A wide range of MI interventions have succeeded in increasing children’s participation in physical activity. However, no previous research has attempted to unpack the various MI intervention approaches. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically review, qualitatively analyze, and develop a typology of MI interventions conducted in primary/ elementary school settings.

Subjects/Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to identify published MI interventions. Irrelevant records were removed first by title, then by abstract, and finally by full texts of articles ...


Small Non-Coding Rna Cjnc110 Influences Motility, Autoagglutination, Ai-2 Localization, And Chicken Colonization In Campylobacter Jejuni, Amanda J. Kreuder, Brandon Ruddell, Kathy Mou, Alan Hassall, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer Jan 2020

Small Non-Coding Rna Cjnc110 Influences Motility, Autoagglutination, Ai-2 Localization, And Chicken Colonization In Campylobacter Jejuni, Amanda J. Kreuder, Brandon Ruddell, Kathy Mou, Alan Hassall, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Small non-coding RNAs are involved in many important physiological functions in pathogenic microorganisms. Previous studies have identified the presence of non-coding RNAs in the major zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, however, few have been functionally characterized to date. CjNC110 is a conserved ncRNA in C. jejuni, located downstream of the luxS gene which is responsible for the production of the quorum-sensing molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). In this study, we utilized strand specific high-throughput RNAseq to identify potential targets or interactive partners of CjNC110 in a sheep abortion clone of C. jejuni. This data was utilized to focus further phenotypic evaluation of the ...


Exchange Bias In La0.7sr0.3cro3/La0.7sr0.3mno3/La0.7sr0.3cro3 Heterostructures, Rubyann Olmos, Hector Iturriaga, Dawn S. Blazer, Sanaz Koohfar, Kinjal Gandha, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, Divine P. Kumah, Srinivasa R. Singamaneni Jan 2020

Exchange Bias In La0.7sr0.3cro3/La0.7sr0.3mno3/La0.7sr0.3cro3 Heterostructures, Rubyann Olmos, Hector Iturriaga, Dawn S. Blazer, Sanaz Koohfar, Kinjal Gandha, Ikenna C. Nlebedim, Divine P. Kumah, Srinivasa R. Singamaneni

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

In the recent past, heterostructures of magnetic oxide thin films have attracted a great deal of research excitement due to very interesting physical properties such as antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling, tunable exchange-bias, interfacial driven magnetic properties and high mobility electron gas across the interfaces. In this work, we report on the comprehensive magnetic properties observed from the heterostructures of (2 unit cells) La0.7Sr0.3CrO3/(8 unit cells) La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/(2 unit cells) La0.7Sr0.3CrO3, which are epitaxially deposited on SrTiO3 substrate by plasma-assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy. Using SQUID magnetometer, the magnetic properties are studied when the magnetic ...


Improving An Experimental Test Bed With Time-Varying Parameters For Developing High-Rate Structural Health Monitoring Methods, D. T. Foley, B. S. Joyce, J. Hong, Simon Laflamme, J. Dodson Jan 2020

Improving An Experimental Test Bed With Time-Varying Parameters For Developing High-Rate Structural Health Monitoring Methods, D. T. Foley, B. S. Joyce, J. Hong, Simon Laflamme, J. Dodson

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

With the development of complex structures with high-rate dynamics, such as space structures, weapons systems, or hypersonic vehicles, comes a need for real-time structural health monitoring (SHM) methods. Researchers are developing algorithms for high-rate SHM methods, however, limited data exists on which to test these algorithms. An experimental test bed to simulate high-rate systems with rapid parameter changes was previously presented by the authors. This paper expands on the previous work. The initial configuration consisted of a cantilevered steel beam with a cart-roller system on a linear actuator to create an adjustable boundary condition along the beam, as well as ...


Whole-Profile Soil Organic Matter Content, Composition, And Stability Under Cropping Systems That Differ In Belowground Inputs, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, Daniel C. Olk, Cynthia Cambardella, Jordan Kersey, Matthew Z. Liebman, Antonio Mallarino, Johan Six, Michael J. Castellano Jan 2020

Whole-Profile Soil Organic Matter Content, Composition, And Stability Under Cropping Systems That Differ In Belowground Inputs, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, Daniel C. Olk, Cynthia Cambardella, Jordan Kersey, Matthew Z. Liebman, Antonio Mallarino, Johan Six, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

Subsoils have been identified as a potential carbon sink because they typically have low soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and high SOC stability. One proposed strategy to increase SOC stocks is to enhance C inputs to the subsoil by increasing crop rotation diversity with deep-rooted perennial crops. Using three long-term field trials in Iowa (study durations of 60, 35, and 12 years), we examined the effects of contrasting cropping systems [maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) (= two-year system) vs. maize-soybean-oat (Avena sativa L.)/alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-alfalfa or maize-maize-oat/alfalfa-alfalfa (= four-year system)] on above- and below-ground ...


The Current Practices Of Changing Secure Software: An Empirical Study, Ameerah Muhsina Jamil, Lotfi Ben Othmane, Altaz Valani, Moataz Abdelkhalek, Ayhan Tek Jan 2020

The Current Practices Of Changing Secure Software: An Empirical Study, Ameerah Muhsina Jamil, Lotfi Ben Othmane, Altaz Valani, Moataz Abdelkhalek, Ayhan Tek

Electrical and Computer Engineering Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Developers change the code of their software to add new features, fix bugs, or enhance its structure. Such frequent changes impact occasionally the security of the software. This paper reports a qualitative study of the practices of changing secure-software in the industry. The study involves interviews with eleven developers and security experts working on banking software, software for control systems, and software consultation companies. Through these interviews, we identified that the main security aspects are: dependency vulnerabilities, authentication and authorization, and OWASP 10 vulnerabilities. The common techniques used to assess software after code change are: code review, code analysis, testing ...


Life-Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Different Pretreatment And Product Separation Technologies For Butanol Bioprocessing From Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2020

Life-Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Different Pretreatment And Product Separation Technologies For Butanol Bioprocessing From Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Environmental impact assessment is a crucial aspect of biofuels production to ensure that the process generates emissions within the designated limits. In typical cellulosic biofuel production process, the pretreatment and downstream processing stages were reported to require a high amount of chemicals and energy, thus generating high emissions. Cellulosic butanol production while using low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment was expected to have a low chemical, water, and energy footprint, especially when the process was combined with more efficient downstream processing technologies. In this study, the quantification of environmental impact potentials from cellulosic butanol production plants was conducted with modeled ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Different Pretreatment And Product Separation Technologies For Cellulosic Butanol Production From Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2020

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Different Pretreatment And Product Separation Technologies For Cellulosic Butanol Production From Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Among the driving factors for the high production cost of cellulosic butanol lies the pretreatment and product separation sections, which often demand high amounts of energy, chemicals, and water. In this study, techno-economic analysis of several pretreatments and product separation technologies were conducted and compared. Among the pretreatment technologies evaluated, low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment has shown notable potential with a pretreatment cost of $0.16/L butanol. Other pretreatment technologies evaluated were autohydrolysis, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and soaking in sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) with pretreatment costs of $1.98/L, $3.77/L, and $0.61/L ...


Soil Depth And Grassland Origin Cooperatively Shape Microbial Community Co‐Occurrence And Function, Racheal N. Upton, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey Jan 2020

Soil Depth And Grassland Origin Cooperatively Shape Microbial Community Co‐Occurrence And Function, Racheal N. Upton, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many soils are deep, yet soil below 20 cm remains largely unexplored. Exotic plants can have shallower roots than native species, so their impact on microorganisms is anticipated to change with depth. Using environmental DNA and extracellular enzymatic activities, we studied fungal and bacterial community composition, diversity, function, and co-occurrence networks between native and exotic grasslands at soil depths up to 1 m. We hypothesized (1) the composition and network structure of both fungal and bacterial communities will change with increasing depth, and diversity and enzymatic function will decrease; (2) microbial enzymatic function and network connectedness will be lower in ...


A Comparison Of Grass Carp Population Characteristics Upstream And Downstream Of Lock And Dam 19 Of The Upper Mississippi River, Christopher J. Sullivan, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Carlos A. Camacho Jan 2020

A Comparison Of Grass Carp Population Characteristics Upstream And Downstream Of Lock And Dam 19 Of The Upper Mississippi River, Christopher J. Sullivan, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Carlos A. Camacho

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella have been intentionally stocked for aquatic vegetation control across the Midwestern United States for several decades. During the 1970s, escapement of Grass Carp into the Missouri River facilitated their naturalization into much of the Mississippi River basin, including the Upper Mississippi River. Lock and Dam 19 (LD19) in Keokuk, Iowa, a high-head dam, represents a focal point for naturalized Grass Carp management where populations may differ between upstream and downstream pools due to limited upstream migration, but potential differences between populations have yet to be evaluated to the best of our knowledge. The objective of this ...


Balancing Disturbance And Conservation In Agroecosystems To Improve Biological Control, John F. Tooker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona Jan 2020

Balancing Disturbance And Conservation In Agroecosystems To Improve Biological Control, John F. Tooker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

Entomology Publications

Disturbances associated with agricultural intensification reduce our ability to achieve sustainable crop production. These disturbances stem from crop-management tactics and can leave crop fields more vulnerable to insect outbreaks, in part because natural-enemy communities often tend to be more susceptible to disturbance than herbivorous pests. Recent research has explored practices that conserve natural-enemy communities and reduce pest outbreaks, revealing that different components of agroecosystems can influence natural-enemy populations. In this review, we consider a range of disturbances that influence pest control provided by natural enemies and how conservation practices can mitigate or counteract disturbance. We use four case studies to ...


Evaluation Of An Elk Detection Probability Model In The Black Hills, South Dakota, Evan C. Phillips, Chadwick P. Lehman, Robert W. Klaver, Angela R. Jarding, Susan P. Rupp, Jonathan A. Jenks, Christopher N. Jacques Jan 2020

Evaluation Of An Elk Detection Probability Model In The Black Hills, South Dakota, Evan C. Phillips, Chadwick P. Lehman, Robert W. Klaver, Angela R. Jarding, Susan P. Rupp, Jonathan A. Jenks, Christopher N. Jacques

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Since 1993, elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) abundance in the Black Hills of South Dakota has been estimated using a detection probability model previously developed in Idaho, though it is likely biased because of a failure to account for visibility biases under local conditions. To correct for this bias, we evaluated the current detection probability across the Black Hills during January and February 2009–2011 using radio-collared elk. We used logistic regression to evaluate topographic features, habitat characteristics, and group characteristics relative to their influence on detection probability of elk. Elk detection probability increased with less vegetation cover (%), increased group size ...


Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Plant Detection Using Mobile Cameras, Koray Ozcan, Anuj Sharma, Steven P. Bradbury, Dana Schweitzer, Teresa Blader, Sue Blodgett Jan 2020

Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Plant Detection Using Mobile Cameras, Koray Ozcan, Anuj Sharma, Steven P. Bradbury, Dana Schweitzer, Teresa Blader, Sue Blodgett

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) are host plants of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). It is important to detect milkweed plant locations to assess the status and trends of monarch habitat in support of monarch conservation programs. In this paper, we describe autonomous detection of milkweed plants using cameras mounted to vehicles. For detection, we used both aggregated channel features (ACF) for running the detectors on embedded computing platforms with central processing unit and faster region‐based convolutional neural network (Faster R‐CNN) with a ResNet architecture‐based detector that is suitable for graphics processing unit optimized processing. The ACF‐based model produced ...


Estimates Of Common Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Utilization By Monarch Larvae (Danaus Plexippus) And The Significance Of Larval Movement, Kelsey E. Fisher, Richard L. Hellmich, Steven P. Bradbury Jan 2020

Estimates Of Common Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Utilization By Monarch Larvae (Danaus Plexippus) And The Significance Of Larval Movement, Kelsey E. Fisher, Richard L. Hellmich, Steven P. Bradbury

Entomology Publications

The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has noticeably declined over the past two decades. The decline is due, in part, to loss of breeding and forage habitat in the Southern and Midwestern USA. To support a resilient overwintering population of six hectares of occupied forest canopy, approximately 1.6–1.8 billion additional ramets of milkweed are needed in the summer breeding range. Milkweed establishment that facilitates natural behavior of monarchs is necessary for effective conservation restoration. This study explored the effect of milkweed ramet density on larval search behavior, milkweed utilization, and survival without predation ...


Nurbs-Based Microstructure Design For Organic Photovoltaics, Ramin Noruzi, Sambit Ghadai, Onur Rauf Bingol, Adarsh Krishnamurthy, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Jan 2020

Nurbs-Based Microstructure Design For Organic Photovoltaics, Ramin Noruzi, Sambit Ghadai, Onur Rauf Bingol, Adarsh Krishnamurthy, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The microstructure – spatial distribution of electron donor and acceptor domains – plays an important role in determining the photo current in thin film organic solar cells (OSCs). Optimizing the microstructure can lead to higher photo current generation, and is an active area of experimental research. There has been recent progress in framing OSC microstructure design as a computational design problem. However, most current approaches to microstructure optimization are based on volumetric distribution of material, which makes the design space very large. In contrast, we frame the microstructure design optimization problem in terms of designing the interface between the donor and acceptor ...


Sensor-As-A-Service: Convergence Of Sensor Analytic Point Solutions (Snaps) And Pay-A-Penny-Per-Use (Pappu) Paradigm As A Catalyst For Democratization Of Healthcare In Underserved Communities, Victoria Morgan, Lisseth Casso-Hartmann, David Bahamon-Pinzon, Kelli Mccourt, Robert G. Hjort, Sahar Bahramzadeh, Irene Velez-Torres, Eric Mclamore, Carmen Gomes, Evangelyn C. Alocilja, Nirajan Bhusal, Sunaina Shrestha, Nisha Pote, Ruben Kenny Briceno, Shoumen Palit Austin Datta, Diana C. Vanegas Jan 2020

Sensor-As-A-Service: Convergence Of Sensor Analytic Point Solutions (Snaps) And Pay-A-Penny-Per-Use (Pappu) Paradigm As A Catalyst For Democratization Of Healthcare In Underserved Communities, Victoria Morgan, Lisseth Casso-Hartmann, David Bahamon-Pinzon, Kelli Mccourt, Robert G. Hjort, Sahar Bahramzadeh, Irene Velez-Torres, Eric Mclamore, Carmen Gomes, Evangelyn C. Alocilja, Nirajan Bhusal, Sunaina Shrestha, Nisha Pote, Ruben Kenny Briceno, Shoumen Palit Austin Datta, Diana C. Vanegas

Mechanical Engineering Publications

In this manuscript, we discuss relevant socioeconomic factors for developing and implementing sensor analytic point solutions (SNAPS) as point-of-care tools to serve impoverished communities. The distinct economic, environmental, cultural, and ethical paradigms that affect economically disadvantaged users add complexity to the process of technology development and deployment beyond the science and engineering issues. We begin by contextualizing the environmental burden of disease in select low-income regions around the world, including environmental hazards at work, home, and the broader community environment, where SNAPS may be helpful in the prevention and mitigation of human exposure to harmful biological vectors and chemical agents ...


Achieving Consistency With Cutting Planes, Danial Davarnia, Atefeh Rajabalizadeh, John Hooker Jan 2020

Achieving Consistency With Cutting Planes, Danial Davarnia, Atefeh Rajabalizadeh, John Hooker

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Cutting planes accelerate branch-and-bound search primarily by cutting off fractional solutions of the linearprogramming (LP) relaxation, resulting in tighter bounds for pruning the search tree. Yet cutting planes canalso reduce backtracking by excluding inconsistent partial assignments that occur in the course of branching.A partial assignment is inconsistent with a constraint set when it cannot be extended to a full feasibleassignment. The constraint programming community has studied consistency extensively and used it as aneffective tool for the reduction of backtracking. We extend this approach to integer programming (IP) bydefining concepts of consistency that are useful in a branch-and-bound context. We ...


Spectrally Derived Values Of Community Leaf Dry Matter Content Link Shifts In Grassland Composition With Change In Biomass Production, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay Jan 2020

Spectrally Derived Values Of Community Leaf Dry Matter Content Link Shifts In Grassland Composition With Change In Biomass Production, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Leaf traits link environmental effects on plant species abundances to changes in ecosystem processes but are a challenge to measure regularly and over large areas. We used measurements of canopy reflectance from grassland communities to derive a regression model for one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content (LDMC). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to model community‐weighted (species abundance‐weighted) values of LDMC as a function of canopy reflectance in visible and near‐infrared (NIR) wavebands. The PLSR model then was applied to airborne measurements of canopy reflectance to determine how community LDMC interacts with inter‐annual ...


Corn Nitrogen Rate Recommendation Tools’ Performance Across Eight Us Midwest Corn Belt States, Curtis J. Ransom, Newell R. Kitchen, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabián G. Fernández, David W. Franzen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, John F. Shanahan Jan 2020

Corn Nitrogen Rate Recommendation Tools’ Performance Across Eight Us Midwest Corn Belt States, Curtis J. Ransom, Newell R. Kitchen, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabián G. Fernández, David W. Franzen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, John F. Shanahan

Agronomy Publications

Determining which corn (Zea mays L.) N fertilizer rate recommendation tools best predict crop N need would be valuable for maximizing profits and minimizing environmental consequences. Simultaneous comparisons of multiple tools across various environmental conditions have been limited. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the performance of publicly‐available N fertilizer recommendation tools across diverse soil and weather conditions for: (i) prescribing N rates for planting and split‐fertilizer applications, and (ii) economic and environmental effects. Corn N‐response trials using standardized methods were conducted at 49 sites, spanning eight US Midwest states and three growing seasons. Nitrogen ...