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Adolescents

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The Conceptualization Of The Positive Cognitive Triad And Associations With Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents., Caroline M. Pittard Aug 2019

The Conceptualization Of The Positive Cognitive Triad And Associations With Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents., Caroline M. Pittard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Depressive symptoms during adolescence have been found to be associated with negative outcomes such as decreased academic performance, absenteeism, substance abuse, and poor physical health. The positive cognitive triad has been considered to be a protective factor against adolescent depressive symptoms. The positive cognitive triad is made up of three subfactors of cognitions, specifically, positive cognitions about the self, the world, and the future. This dissertation examined the various conceptualizations of the positive cognitive triad and their relation to depressive symptoms. These conceptualizations included considering the positive cognitive triad as a single overall protective factor (additive model), as multiple possible ...


An Examination Of The Relationship Between Adolescent Depression, Anhedonia, And Behavioral Therapy, Alison A. Delizza Aug 2019

An Examination Of The Relationship Between Adolescent Depression, Anhedonia, And Behavioral Therapy, Alison A. Delizza

Dissertations

Adolescent depression is a significant public health problem, however the current characterization of depression as a categorical label is problematic for understanding individual phenomenology, interindividual variability, and best treatment practices (Lewinsohn, Solomon, Seeley, & Zeiss, 2000). Anhedonia has been posited as a process underlying depression that may contribute to poorer outcomes (Gabbay, 2015). The current project examines large samples of adolescents diagnosed with depression to identify common features at a symptom level and the relationship these features have with behavioral therapy outcomes. Four phases of analyses were completed to 1) examine symptomology of multiple depressed adolescent samples in order to identify core features of depression in adolescents; 2) extend a factor analysis to a new sample to determine if the same factors on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale emerge; 3) determine if a prior finding that anhedonia is predictive of poorer outcomes replicates in a new sample from a large scale clinical trial; and 4) explore whether behaviorally oriented treatments appear to specifically target and diminish anhedonia symptoms. Results suggest that anhedonic symptoms ...


Emotion Reactivity, Emotion Dysregulation, And Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among At-Risk Adolescents: A Multiple Mediation Analysis, Paula N. Floyd Jul 2019

Emotion Reactivity, Emotion Dysregulation, And Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among At-Risk Adolescents: A Multiple Mediation Analysis, Paula N. Floyd

Master's Theses

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is defined as deliberate self-inflicted damage to bodily tissue without the intent to die. NSSI has been identified as a major health concern, as it is related to both poor psychosocial outcomes and increased suicide risk. NSSI is especially important to understand among adolescents, as age of onset is typically during adolescence and prevalence rates are highest among this age group. One of the most well-established correlates of NSSI is emotion dysregulation. While many studies have examined emotion dysregulation and its subcomponents in relation to self-injury, there has been far less work devoted to factors that may ...


Is Parent-Initiated Triangulation Associated With Pathological Narcissism In Youth?, Lauren Lee-Rowland Jul 2019

Is Parent-Initiated Triangulation Associated With Pathological Narcissism In Youth?, Lauren Lee-Rowland

Dissertations

The current study examined the proposed link between parent-initiated triangulation (i.e., directly involving a child in parental conflict in such a way that he/she forms an alliance with one parent against the other parent) and pathological narcissism in a sample of 148 adolescents, ages 12-14. Moreover, the moderating influence that different parenting practices and styles (i.e., parental overindulgence, overvaluation, warmth, inconsistent discipline) have on the relation between parent-initiated triangulation and pathological narcissism was explored. Findings from the current study indicated that adolescent self-reported pathological narcissism was associated with higher levels of adolescent-reported triangulation and parental overvaluation and ...


Digital Childhood: How Mobile Devices Impact Child Development And Adolescent Behavior, Brenna Pinnock Jun 2019

Digital Childhood: How Mobile Devices Impact Child Development And Adolescent Behavior, Brenna Pinnock

Global Honors Theses

A new wave of smart and modern technology has integrated into lives and homes of families everywhere, thus the effects of early and continual exposure to this technology remain unknown. This is a global problem as many people around the world have access to this technology and interact with it in different ways. Whether it’s embracing it for future generations like Japan, or helping the newer generations with their overuse, almost addiction like tendencies with these devices like in South Korea. Around the world children are engaging with these devices at a young age and it’s found to ...


The Effect Of Substance Use On The Relationship Between Ptsd Symptom Clusters And Suicide In Adolescents, Lindsay S. Moore May 2019

The Effect Of Substance Use On The Relationship Between Ptsd Symptom Clusters And Suicide In Adolescents, Lindsay S. Moore

Clinical Psychology Dissertations

Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a multifaceted, debilitating disorder that if left untreated has been shown to lead to problematic internalizing and externalizing behaviors including suicidal ideation and substance use. Little is known about the course of PTSD in adolescents and less is known about the individual effects of PTSD symptom clusters. Furthermore, there is a dearth in the literature studying the predictive effects of PTSD, substance use and suicidality in adolescent samples. Participants were a clinical sample of adolescents referred from inpatient and outpatient clinics in the Pacific Northwest as part of a larger study. Ages of participants ...


Digital Music Making: Developing A Method For Using Technology In Music Psychotherapy, Sangeetha Kavety May 2019

Digital Music Making: Developing A Method For Using Technology In Music Psychotherapy, Sangeetha Kavety

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The use of technology, specifically digital songwriting and music making, in the context of psychotherapy is a subject that is not yet as well researched or practiced in the field of music therapy. The majority of the existing literature acknowledges the assistive function that technology such as tablets, smartphones, and computers can play in treatment of populations with cognitive and motor difficulties. However, there is little regarding the use of technology as the main means of creating music, and even less in the context of treatment of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in family settings. For this capstone project ...


Integrating Digital App Technologies Within Traditional Expressive Arts Therapy For Children And Adolescents, Sarah Storjohann May 2019

Integrating Digital App Technologies Within Traditional Expressive Arts Therapy For Children And Adolescents, Sarah Storjohann

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

In recent years, technology in the form of digital applications (apps) has emerged as a fundamental aspect of everyday life as well as a practical, convenient, and inexpensive tool for artistic self-expression, most notably amongst children and adolescents. Ninety-eight percent of U.S. households currently possess some form of mobile device (Rideout, 2017), with an estimated 95% of U.S. teenagers ages 13 to 17 owning a Smartphone (Anderson & Jiang, 2018). As digital natives, children and adolescents are more likely to identify with and connect to these arts-based methods. Clinician perspective concerning digital integration varies across a wide spectrum. Through a critical review of the existing literature, this research investigated the current state of digital app technology within the field of Expressive Arts Therapies, as well as potential benefits and drawbacks to the integration of this artistic media. Expressive Arts Therapy is predicated on the multimodal nature of artistic forms. Modality-specific apps within art, music, and dance therapy disciplines have garnered encouraging findings; however, no authentic multimodal digital app currently exists. This research explored the intermodal possibilities of both singular modality apps as well as those quantitatively examined in other mental-health related fields. Additionally ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Peer Engagement And Knowledge (Peak): A Community-Based Group Intervention For Youth In Hawai‘I, Jennifer T. T. Ho May 2019

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Peer Engagement And Knowledge (Peak): A Community-Based Group Intervention For Youth In Hawai‘I, Jennifer T. T. Ho

Doctoral Dissertations

This study is a program evaluation with a mixed methods design that evaluated the effectiveness of Peer Engagement and Knowledge (PEAK), a six-week community-based group intervention that incorporates mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) to address multiple health behaviors for multiracial youth in Hilo, Hawai‘i. A total of 51 youth, ages 12-23 years old, participated in this study which included pre-/posttest analyses of health risk factors such as substance use and depression and health promoting factors such as resilience, self-esteem, and mindfulness. Responses from two subsets of participants, who engaged in a focus group (n = 11) and composed gratitude letters (n ...


The Influences Of Education, Antisocial Behavior, And Involvement In The Criminal Justice System On Adult Legal Understanding, Lily Alpers, Mark Fondacaro May 2019

The Influences Of Education, Antisocial Behavior, And Involvement In The Criminal Justice System On Adult Legal Understanding, Lily Alpers, Mark Fondacaro

Student Theses

The current study examined the legal understanding and decision-making capacities of young adults compared to older adults. Furthermore, the current study examined these two age groups on the basis of a history of criminal justice involvement, antisocial behavior, and education level, in order to determine whether these variables also affect legal understanding and decision-making. One hundred and one subjects participated in this study, grouped by age into younger adults (18-34 years old) and older adults (35 years and older). The results of the current study found that participants with the lowest levels of education performed more poorly on the measure ...


The Effects Of Dance And Movement Therapy With Adolescents Who Have Experienced Trauma, A Literature Review, Katherine Anderson May 2019

The Effects Of Dance And Movement Therapy With Adolescents Who Have Experienced Trauma, A Literature Review, Katherine Anderson

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

With the growing number of trauma-informed practices in the mental health field, it is necessary to look at what best practices should be implemented in treating adolescents who have experienced trauma, specifically from a body-based intervention, such as dance and movement therapy. In this literature review, articles are discussed that encompass the following topics: dance and movement therapy and trauma, general dance interventions for the adolescent population, empowerment models as a way to cope with trauma symptoms, and cultural considerations of treating adolescent females of color. The gaps in current research must be acknowledged, specifically dance and movement therapy interventions ...


School-Based Mindfulness Intervention For Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Richard Krogmann May 2019

School-Based Mindfulness Intervention For Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Richard Krogmann

Educational Specialist

The symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have large impacts on the emotional (Samson et al., 2014; Strang et al., 2012) and behavioral (Mayes et al, 2012; Hill et al, 2014; Jahromi, Meek, & Ober-Reynolds, 2012) functioning of children and adolescents diagnosed with the disorder. The difficulties with emotional and behavioral functioning in students with ASD can drastically decrease their academic achievement compared to neuro-typical peers (Ashburner, Ziviani, & Rodger, 2010). Introducing students with ASD to mindfulness may help decrease the frequency of a challenging behavior in the classroom, increase mindfulness, and increase mood and positivity. How mindfulness interventions have benefited children ...


Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Enhanced Mentoring For Delinquency Prevention, Allison Smith May 2019

Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Enhanced Mentoring For Delinquency Prevention, Allison Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Youth with certain risk factors (e.g., from a minority group, low-income status, previous contact with the juvenile justice system) are particularly at risk for juvenile delinquency and associated problems (e.g., school failure, mental health problems). In addition, these problems are quite costly to youth, their families, and society as a whole. Mentoring programs have shown modest, but consistent, effects in the prevention and reduction of juvenile delinquency and associated problems. Previous research has identified promising enhancements (i.e., advocacy/teaching roles for mentors, rigorous match processes, comprehensive mentor training, ongoing mentor support) that may increase the effectiveness of ...


Television And Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study Of The Cultivation Of Powerlessness Among Millenial Adolescents, Fernando Rodriguez Jan 2019

Television And Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study Of The Cultivation Of Powerlessness Among Millenial Adolescents, Fernando Rodriguez

Doctoral Dissertations

Cultivation research has observed the long term subtle contribution of television mediated storytelling on the perceptions and beliefs of American viewers for fifty years. Early criticisms of cultivation argued the associations of viewing amount and fear of victimization were spurious and explained away by personality traits such as perceived control or authoritarianism. This project frames perceived control as a cognitive assessment of the personal ability to cope with life challenges. As a cognitive assessment, perceived control is assumed to be in constant revision. From a life-course approach, the symbolic cultural environment (which includes television) is seen as providing context and ...


Examining Mediation And Moderation Effects Of Academic Motivation On The Relationship Between Disciplinary Events And Academic Performance In Secondary School, Cynthia Shuttleton Jan 2019

Examining Mediation And Moderation Effects Of Academic Motivation On The Relationship Between Disciplinary Events And Academic Performance In Secondary School, Cynthia Shuttleton

Doctoral Dissertations

Academic motivation is a key factor in students’ academic and behavioral success in school. Previous research has demonstrated strong relationships between disciplinary events and academic performance, as well as between academic performance and academic motivation. However, there is limited understanding of the relationship between academic motivation and disciplinary events, or how academic motivation, academic performance, and disciplinary events are related. The purpose of this study was to examine student self-ratings of their academic motivation in grades 9-12 in a public high school, and to investigate the associations and interactive relationships between these three variables. Participants (N=78) completed the Academic ...


Mentorship Programs, Depression Symptomatology, And Quality Of Life, Tiesha L. Scott Jan 2019

Mentorship Programs, Depression Symptomatology, And Quality Of Life, Tiesha L. Scott

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Depression is a debilitating mental health disorder that has the potential to affect an individual's lifespan adversely; adolescents who reside in low-income urban environments are more at risk of developing the disorder. The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto study was to compare depression symptomatology and quality of life rates among emerging adults who enrolled and emerging adults who did not enroll in a mentorship program as an adolescent while in high school. Beck's cognitive model of depression was used as a theoretical foundation to determine how negative schemas are formed in adolescents who show symptoms of ...


Self-Injurious Behavior And Social Media Use By Adolescents, Victoria Lynn Fye Jan 2019

Self-Injurious Behavior And Social Media Use By Adolescents, Victoria Lynn Fye

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is a surprising dearth of research related to the phenomenon of self-injurious behavior/nonsuicidal self-injury (SIB/NSSI), such as cutting. Research conducted on SIB has revealed that this maladaptive behavior is more common among adolescents than other populations. The act of posting SIB on social media deserves research attention, as it seems to contradict what had previously been considered a very private behavior. The goal of this qualitative case study was to better understand why adolescents engage in SIB as well as investigate why they post these behaviors on social media. Merton's theory of social strain and anomie ...


The Impact Of Four-Day School Weeks And Fifth-Day Programs On Delinquency And Problem Behaviors In Adolescents, Emily Collins Jan 2019

The Impact Of Four-Day School Weeks And Fifth-Day Programs On Delinquency And Problem Behaviors In Adolescents, Emily Collins

Scripps Senior Theses

In recent years, tightening budgets have forced school districts to find new ways to save money. One way that has become increasingly popular is to shorten the traditional five-day school week to only four-days a week. This change is budget friendly and may act through efficiency wage theory as a recruitment tool for better teachers. Despite the increasing prevalence of districts running on four-day weeks, many of the effects of the shorter week on students are still unclear. Utilizing district-level panel data from the Colorado Department of Education, Study One took a difference-in-differences approach to determine the effect of the ...


Eyewitness Memory Recall In Adolescents With Callous-Unemotional Traits, Benjamin Dylan Thomas Jan 2019

Eyewitness Memory Recall In Adolescents With Callous-Unemotional Traits, Benjamin Dylan Thomas

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits have been portrayed as having higher intelligence and better memory (Cleckley, 2015). In terms of developmental pathways for psychopathy, the strongest predictor of children and adolescents developing psychopathic traits in adulthood is high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in childhood (Burke et al, 2007; Frick, 2009). Research has been mixed with regard to links between CU or psychopathic traits and memory performance in children and adults, with some studies finding that individuals with high levels of these traits demonstrated poorer memory performance (Bauer & Hesselbrock, 2001; Dolan & Fullam, 2005). This study examined the relation between CU traits and memory recall in adolescents, an important area of research as adolescents with higher levels of CU traits are more likely to be involved in criminal activity, and thus are likely to provide eyewitness testimony (Dolan & Fullam, 2010; Thornton et al, 2015). Fifty adolescents (ages 12 to ...


The Relationship Between Social Skills And Problem Behaviors In Adolescent Males With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Amanda Armstrong Randall Jan 2019

The Relationship Between Social Skills And Problem Behaviors In Adolescent Males With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Amanda Armstrong Randall

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Adolescent males with autism spectrum disorder commonly display an increased prevalence of problem behaviors and persistent deficits in social skills when compared to their typically developing peers. The present study deployed a single subject, multiple-baseline design to investigate the use of the social skills training program Super Skills: A Social Skills Group Program for Children with Asperger Syndrome, High-Functioning Autism and Related Challengesto promote enhanced social skills and minimize problem behaviors. Two groups of adolescent males with autism (N = 6) participated in weekly social skills training groups also containing typically developing peers (N = 3) once a week over an ...


Health Literacy And Family Factors In The Transition To Adult Care In Adolescents With Type I Diabetes, Ellen M. Manegold Jan 2019

Health Literacy And Family Factors In The Transition To Adult Care In Adolescents With Type I Diabetes, Ellen M. Manegold

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Successful management of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in adolescence involves multiple daily tasks, developmental changes, and the expectation of transition to an adult provider. Health literacy is one variable to consider in the context of transition, as studies have demonstrated the correlation of parental health literacy with health behaviors and outcomes, yet not studied adolescent health literacy in T1DM. Family factors (e.g., management responsibility, diabetes-specific family conflict, parental support) also are important to behavior and health outcomes in adolescents with T1DM. Study aims were to: 1) examine the association of adolescent health literacy to transition readiness and health outcome ...


The Impact Of Social Determinants Of Health On The Efficacy Of School-Based Interventions For Adolescents With Adhd, Cathrin D. Green Jan 2019

The Impact Of Social Determinants Of Health On The Efficacy Of School-Based Interventions For Adolescents With Adhd, Cathrin D. Green

Theses and Dissertations

Adolescents with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience impairment in academic functioning in the school and home environment. Because of this, many school- and clinic-based interventions have been developed to target these problems. Initially, clinic-based interventions were mainly used; however, these interventions were associated with many barriers to care, such as lack of transportation, financial resources, and time. Therefore, school-based interventions were developed to address these barriers. However, there has been minimal research evaluating the role of social determinants of health on the efficacy of school-based interventions. In a sample of 222 adolescents with ADHD randomly assigned to receive either ...


Meta-Analysis Of Behavior Problems In Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Children, Marta Maria Tobenas Jan 2019

Meta-Analysis Of Behavior Problems In Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Children, Marta Maria Tobenas

Theses and Dissertations

Recent data regarding social-emotional challenges indicate elevations in behavior problems (BPs) in deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children (Austen, 2010; Stevenson et al., 2010; van Eldik et al., 2004). Factors affecting this include family and social contexts, language development (LD), and cochlear implantation (CIs). The purpose of this dissertation was to analyze findings across studies for trends in BPs in DHH children. Specifically, a model of the effect of deafness, CI use, and LD on the emergence of BPs in DHH children as compared to hearing children was examined. Studies were collected through systematic searches of psychology databases supplemented ...


Empirical Support For Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (Mtfc): A Critical Review, Jennifer Marie Ladner-Graham Jan 2019

Empirical Support For Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (Mtfc): A Critical Review, Jennifer Marie Ladner-Graham

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), initially intended as a treatment for chronic juvenile offenders (adolescents having multiple contacts with the juvenile justice system), was designed as an alternative to placement within group facilities. MTFC allows the adolescent to remain in the community while receiving individual and family-based interventions. These interventions are dedicated to decreasing risk factors associated with offending (e.g., poor parental supervision, association with delinquent peers, poor academic performance) and increasing protective factors (e.g., effective parenting practices, healthy relationships with supportive peers, increased school involvement). MTFC has been utilized to meet the needs of a variety of ...


Living With Autism: The Experience Of Developmentally Healthy Adolescents And Youths Who Have A Sibling Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jessica Michel Jan 2019

Living With Autism: The Experience Of Developmentally Healthy Adolescents And Youths Who Have A Sibling Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jessica Michel

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Researchers have proposed that typically developing siblings of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or target siblings, are at increased risk of experiencing psychological distress particularly when compared to other clinical and community sibling groups. To date, evidence drawn from quantitative studies, utilising the target siblings’ mothers as the primary informants has been mixed. These studies have primarily focused on risk factors, while the role of protective factors in the experiences of target siblings remains unexplored in quantitative investigations. However, qualitative studies utilising target siblings as informants have emerged providing insights regarding the processes of coping and adaptation that ...


Bullying Of Linguistically Diverse Learners: Results From The Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Jenna Woodarek Dec 2018

Bullying Of Linguistically Diverse Learners: Results From The Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Jenna Woodarek

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bullying is a serious phenomenon yielding significant consequences for youth who are victimized, often targeted due to their perceived level of difference from their peers. This “otherness” can often be amplified in minoritized populations, especially those which have multiple, cooccurring vulnerabilities to be targets of bullying. After a period of bullying rates decreasing in the US, special interest group inquiries found bullying rates to be on the rise again and reportedly motivated by ethnicity or race, immigrant status, and proficiency in the English language. The present research study aims to expand upon the existing pertinent literature base specific to the ...


Development And Usability Testing Of Quit4health, A Smoking Cessation Smartphone App For Young Adults, Katarzyna Czerniak Dec 2018

Development And Usability Testing Of Quit4health, A Smoking Cessation Smartphone App For Young Adults, Katarzyna Czerniak

UT School of Public Health Dissertations (Open Access)

: Tobacco use is the leading cause of death in the United States. As of 2016, 23.5% of American 18-25 year olds reported having used cigarettes in the last month compared to 20.2% of adults and only 3.4% of adolescents. Due to the efficacy and widespread general use of mobile technology today, mobile-phone health, or mHealth apps, have become increasingly popular methods of delivering smoking cessation programs. However, there is a lack of evidence in regards to the quality and the effectiveness of using mHealth to deliver smoking cessation interventions to young adults. This study aims to fill ...


Preventing Sexual Victimization: An Assertiveness Training Program For Female Adolescents, Emily Morgan Dec 2018

Preventing Sexual Victimization: An Assertiveness Training Program For Female Adolescents, Emily Morgan

Dissertations

Unwanted sexual experiences occur too frequently in the United States and result in myriad deleterious consequences. The first instances of unwanted sexual experiences for females most frequently occur during adolescence (ages 12 to 17). Despite this, the majority of literature on sexual victimization and victimization prevention programs focus on college-aged females, thus leaving a need for research on prevention programs for adolescent females. The present study examined the effects of an assertiveness training program on the risk for sexual coercion among adolescent females. A behavioral skills training model (i.e. instruction, model, rehearsal, and feedback) was used to teach seven ...


Chronic Life Stress And Change In Stress Response Functioning In Urban Youth: The Role Of Social Support And Gender, Heather M. Marshall Nov 2018

Chronic Life Stress And Change In Stress Response Functioning In Urban Youth: The Role Of Social Support And Gender, Heather M. Marshall

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been established as a bio-marker of stress reactivity in acute stressor tasks. Much less research exists exploring whether sAA is bio-marker for chronic stress exposure, and therefore, allostatic load. Extant research is inconsistent with some evidence to support chronic stress exposure having an impact on sAA reactivity and diurnal levels of sAA, while other studies have failed to support this theory. Social support is regarded as a protective factor against stress, mental health, and physical health consequences. It has been suggested that gender may play a role in the utilization and benefits of social support networks ...


Examining Links Between Social Anxiety And Relational Aggression In Adolescence: The Influence Of Rumination And Anger, Shannon L. Brothers Aug 2018

Examining Links Between Social Anxiety And Relational Aggression In Adolescence: The Influence Of Rumination And Anger, Shannon L. Brothers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Social anxiety is linked to more covert forms of aggressive behavior, particularly reactive and relational aggression in early adolescent and young adult samples. Adolescents with social anxiety and those who engage in reactive relational aggression are also more likely to have difficulties regulating emotions (e.g., anger) and show maladaptive cognitive coping styles (e.g., rumination). The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between social anxiety and reactive relational aggression in adolescents (14-17 years), combining the form and function of aggression, and to examine trait anger and anger rumination as underlying factors that may explain the ...