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The Effect Of Peer Collaboration On Kinematic Problem Solving, Alyssa Deronda Aug 2019

The Effect Of Peer Collaboration On Kinematic Problem Solving, Alyssa Deronda

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Kinematic problems, a type of physics problem that involves object motion, pose a challenge for adults (Caramazza, McCloskey, & Green, 1981; Kozhevnikov, Motes, & Hegarty, 2007; McCloskey, 1983b; McCloskey, Washburn, & Felch, 1983). Adults often incorrectly predict the path of a moving object despite having prior experience with moving objects or formal physics education (Caramazza et al., 1981; Kaiser, Jonides, & Alexander, 1986). One way to improve kinematic problem solving may be through peer collaboration. Working together with a partner to solve a problem allows both people to help each other remember important parts of a complex problem and discuss different perspectives (Dimant & Bearison, 1991; Fawcett & Garton, 2005; Kozhevnikov & Thornton, 2006; Vygotsky, 1978). The current study investigated whether peer collaboration can improve kinematic problem solving by evaluating adults’ performance on near and far transfer tasks after completing kinematic practice problems. Of special interest was the use of spatially-oriented language. Participants were assigned to one of three practice conditions: Collaborative, Alone-Talk, or Alone-Quiet. Results showed that peer collaboration did not affect performance on practice problems or near and far transfer tasks. However, analysis of ...


Stem Heroes: A Narrative-Based Intervention To Increase Self-Efficacy And Interest In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics In Elementary School-Aged Children, Lauren M. Carino Aug 2019

Stem Heroes: A Narrative-Based Intervention To Increase Self-Efficacy And Interest In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics In Elementary School-Aged Children, Lauren M. Carino

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Over time, researchers have struggled to identify effective interventions to support girls’ self-efficacy and interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether a theoretically-grounded narrative-based intervention would be able to increase elementary school-aged girls’ self-efficacy in respect to future careers and interest in STEM subjects in school. The study sought to do this by using the stories of the “Heroes of STEM”, a series of four graphic novels developed by the principal researcher, as an intervention tool linking girls’ typically preferred subject (i.e., reading, language arts) to math and ...


The Use Of Celebrity And Non-Celebrity Examples To Reduce Stigma In University Students, Tyrus Mccartney Jul 2019

The Use Of Celebrity And Non-Celebrity Examples To Reduce Stigma In University Students, Tyrus Mccartney

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Although effective treatments have been developed for various mental illnesses, many individuals who need psychological help do not seek it because of stigma. Interventions have been developed to reduce stigma, with the hope of increasing access to mental healthcare. Vicarious contact with individuals who have mental illness can reduce both public and internal stigma. Furthermore, celebrity examples have been used to reduce stigma. The present study compared celebrity examples and non-celebrity examples across a stigma-reduction intervention, as well as a control group, to determine the most effective ways to present first-person narrative vignettes for reducing both public and internal stigma ...


Partnering With A Different Faith: Muslim American Women’S Experiences, Beyza Sinan Jun 2019

Partnering With A Different Faith: Muslim American Women’S Experiences, Beyza Sinan

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The events of September 11, 2001 critically impacted the identity of Muslim Americans in the United States and spurred attention to their experiences within the psychological literature. Prior literature has rarely explored these individuals’ within-group differences, defined Muslim American identity as bicultural, or explored experiences of being in a romantic relationship. This study was intended to address the gaps in the literature by focusing on the bicultural identity and the experience of interfaith relationships among Muslim American women. The following research questions guided this study: 1) How do Muslim American women experience their romantic relationship with a non-Muslim partner? 2 ...


Fluency & Over The Counter Drug Warning Labels, Jonathan M. Cecire May 2019

Fluency & Over The Counter Drug Warning Labels, Jonathan M. Cecire

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Fluency is defined as the ease with which something is processed (Jacoby & Dallas, 1981; Okuhara, 2017). Recent research has shown that the fluency of a drug’s name can have an effect on people’s perceptions and evaluation judgments (Dohle & Siegrist, 2013, Dohle & Montoya, 2017). Research has also shown that the fluency of information can have an effect on people’s memory and performance (Diemand-Yauman, Oppenheimer, & Vaughan, 2011). The purpose of this study was to see how manipulating the fluency of warning labels could affect people’s perceptions, adherence, memory, and behaviors. Results showed that labels with fluent formats improved purchasing preferences and memory; labels with fluent colors were also shown to improve purchasing preferences. However, neither the fluency of the format nor color affected participant’s judgments of adherence or perceived hazardousness. The results are of particular importance because a product’s label is the key source of safety information for the consumer (Goyal et al., 2012).


Parent Satisfaction With Family Professional Partnerships And Services For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Amanda R. Templeman May 2019

Parent Satisfaction With Family Professional Partnerships And Services For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Amanda R. Templeman

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

As an increasing number of children are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), research on the efficacy of interventions and treatments—the way these services affect the family, the child’s outcomes, and the family’s experience with their child’s services—are gaining importance. Children with ASD tend to be involved in multiple services to a higher degree than children with other disabilities, and parents of children with ASD have reported higher dissatisfaction with services than have parents of children with other developmental disabilities. To date, limited research has addressed the family’s perception of these services and how ...


An Investigation Of Existential And Positive Psychological Resources In College Students, Ian Lesueur May 2019

An Investigation Of Existential And Positive Psychological Resources In College Students, Ian Lesueur

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The number of college students reporting moderate to severe mental health symptoms has steadily increased since the 1990s to the point of a “mental health crisis” occurring on the majority of American college campuses (Joyce, 2016, p. 17). Students face a number of stressors including academic pressure, developmental challenges, and the existential issues of meaning in life and identity formation. Unfortunately, many college students struggle to respond to psychological stress in healthy and adaptive ways. This study measured the relationships between positive psychological resources, existential thought, coping strategies, and mental health symptoms among a national sample of 251 undergraduate students ...


The Revelation Effect In Autobiographical Memory, Vincent A. Medina May 2019

The Revelation Effect In Autobiographical Memory, Vincent A. Medina

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The revelation effect is a memory illusion in recognition memory where items are more likely to be considered old if they are immediately preceded by a cognitive task (for a review, see Abfalg, Bernstein, & Hockley, 2017). Recent research has shown that the revelation effect appears in past and future episodic judgments so long as the tasks are autobiographical in nature (Westerman, Miller, & Lloyd, 2017). Aging is a factor that has not yet been studied in the revelation effect literature in terms of autobiographical memory. It has implications because of aging’s significant impact on mental time travel. During this experiment ...


Imagining A Memory Palace: Method Of Loci And The Effect Of Object And Spatial Imagery Skill, Louis Varilias May 2019

Imagining A Memory Palace: Method Of Loci And The Effect Of Object And Spatial Imagery Skill, Louis Varilias

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The method of loci is an ancient mnemonic technique. It involves imagining information to be remembered in a visual form, mentally placing those items into an imagined environment, and then mentally traveling within this environment to recall the information. Numerous studies have found that this method is robust and powerful, especially when compared to other mnemonic techniques like verbal rehearsal. Neuroimaging studies have found that using the method of loci recruits regions of the brain that involve spatial processing and episodic memory. However, little research has been done to examine the effects of individual imagery skill when using the method ...


The Effects Of Counterfactual Priming On Belief In Fake News, Sean Bogart May 2019

The Effects Of Counterfactual Priming On Belief In Fake News, Sean Bogart

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Fake news overwhelmed social media platforms, like Twitter and Facebook, during the 2016 U.S. presidential election. This new, digital brand of fake news that can be spread much more rapidly than older forms, is coupled with a lack of academic research into its effects, the reasons that certain individuals trust its veracity, and methods of decreasing overall belief in fake news. Confirmation bias is one of several reasons why individuals fall victim to fake news; although there are a few strategies that can be used to combat the negative effects of confirmation bias; counterfactual reasoning is one that has ...


Circumventing Spatio-Numeric Biases Through Non-Numeric Assessments Of Perceived Causal Strength, Daniel William Czarnowski Dec 2018

Circumventing Spatio-Numeric Biases Through Non-Numeric Assessments Of Perceived Causal Strength, Daniel William Czarnowski

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Knowledge of cause and effect allows individuals to meaningfully interpret the events they perceive in the world, and the understanding of causality is thought to be grounded in the understanding of forces (Wolf, Ritter, & Holmes, 2014). Previous research has linked handedness with both the ability to exert force (e.g., Linkenauger et al., 2005) and causal learning (e.g., Goedert & Czarnowski, 2017). Historically, number lines have been used to assess causality, but because handedness has a strong spatial element, SNARC effects may influence judgments (Fias, 1996). The current experiment replicates previous work by Goedert and Czarnowski (2017) but changes the ...


Social Transmission Of Ethanol Preference In A Sign-Tracking Paradigm, Pat Severino Nov 2018

Social Transmission Of Ethanol Preference In A Sign-Tracking Paradigm, Pat Severino

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The Observer/ Demonstrator Effect suggests that rats can socially obtain preferences for novel foods/drugs by interacting with experienced conspecifics. Sign-tracking is a paradigm which uses a conditioning procedure to evoke compulsive-like behaviors directed towards a tangible conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a motivating unconditioned stimulus (US). The present study investigated the possibility that increased alcohol use results from the combination of socially transmitted cues and the kind of conditioning effect seen in sign-tracking procedures. Therefore, it was hypothesized that social exposure to an alcohol-experienced conspecific would summate with the conditioning experience and increase the sign-tracking of a bottle CS ...


Black Americans’ Social Action Engagement In Their Racial Community: Examining The Roles Of Sociopolitical Control, Critical Reflection, And Racial Centrality, Debeka Bennett Aug 2018

Black Americans’ Social Action Engagement In Their Racial Community: Examining The Roles Of Sociopolitical Control, Critical Reflection, And Racial Centrality, Debeka Bennett

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Black Americans have been engaged in sociopolitical action since their involuntary enslavement in the United States beginning in the 16th century. Blacks have made significant strides in attempting to eradicate and bring awareness to social inequities experienced due to their race. However, not all individuals of African descent engage in sociopolitical behaviors for Black communities. Prior literature has attempted to assess factors that influence Blacks to engage in sociopolitical action but did not examine all the variables assessed in this study in one cohesive model. Therefore, this study aimed to examine Black Americans’ sociopolitical control and their engagement in social ...


The Truthiness Effect: The Influence Of Nonprobative Photos On Truth Judgments, Laura N. Mangus Aug 2018

The Truthiness Effect: The Influence Of Nonprobative Photos On Truth Judgments, Laura N. Mangus

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Truthiness is used to describe a person’s instinctive and rapid judgment about the truth of a claim, with no regard to logic or fact. Recent research has shown that a photo can influence a person to believe a claim is true, even if the photo used is non-probative. This effect is hypothesized to occur because photographs make claims easier to process while also enabling one to retrieve related thoughts and images to mind, which can then be mistaken for familiarity and truth (Newman, Garry, Bernstein, Kantner, & Lindsay, 2012). Cognitive load and response time manipulation were factors that had not ...


The People We Like: Do Introversion-Extroversion And Commitment Affect Evaluation Of Potential Partners?, Naquan Ross Aug 2018

The People We Like: Do Introversion-Extroversion And Commitment Affect Evaluation Of Potential Partners?, Naquan Ross

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The present study assessed whether similarity of a hypothetical partner on Introversion-Extroversion, along with partner preference for long-term or short-term relationships, might vary according to participants’ own Introversion-Extroversion. MANOVA results suggest three important points. First, ratings by extrovert participants showed higher levels of romantic interest for extroverted, rather than introverted, hypothetical partners; introvert participants’ ratings did not differ between introvert and extrovert partners on this dimension. Second, the similarity of the participant and the hypothetical partner on Introversion-Extroversion appeared to influence interpersonal interest, romantic interest, and commitment potential. Last, the partner’s commitment level may drive participants’ non-platonic interest and ...


Dispositional Mindfulness And Positive Psychological Processes In Older Adults: Executive Functioning, Positive Reappraisal And Meaning In Life., Kristen Wesbecher Aug 2018

Dispositional Mindfulness And Positive Psychological Processes In Older Adults: Executive Functioning, Positive Reappraisal And Meaning In Life., Kristen Wesbecher

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Although dispositional mindfulness has been associated with positive outcomes in the broader mental health literature, less is known about dispositional mindfulness in older adults as it relates to factors important in successful aging, such as meaning in life. This study investigated the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and meaning in life, while taking into consideration older adults’ available cognitive resources and use positive reappraisal. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and meaning in life was mediated by executive function and positive reappraisal. Additionally, this study examined the moderation effect of perceived level ...


Cooperative And Competitive Priming Impacts Participatory Environmental Action, Daniel Curtin Jul 2018

Cooperative And Competitive Priming Impacts Participatory Environmental Action, Daniel Curtin

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Environmental issues are becoming increasingly prominent in today’s psychological research. Some researchers identify cooperation as a possible underlying facilitator of proenvironmental values, or proenvironmentalism. However, previous studies had not directly addressed how manipulating cooperation and competition could influence environmentalism. This study addressed this gap in previous literature by cooperatively, competitively, or neutrally priming participants and comparing their respective environmental attitudes, environmental actions, and environmental identities. 155 participants were recruited from introductory psychology classes at Seton Hall University. Participants were randomly placed into one of three conditions and primed by writing a short passage regarding a significant personal experience acting ...


Rural Military Couples Transitioning Post Deployment: A Phenomenological Study, Jeffrey Goulding Jul 2018

Rural Military Couples Transitioning Post Deployment: A Phenomenological Study, Jeffrey Goulding

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

There is no shortage of research and commentary on the difficulties and stressors that result from military combat deployment. The mental, emotional and physical consequences for the deployed soldier are well documented. The struggles faced by their family that stays behind also have a healthy base of research detailing their experience. Less attention has been paid to the impact that these deployments have on their community and even less on the community’s impact on the soldier and their family. While rural towns contribute a large number of military personnel nationwide, the deployment experience of the rural couple is not ...


The Relationship Between Executive Function, Hope, And Depression In Older Adults, Brittney Fallucca Jul 2018

The Relationship Between Executive Function, Hope, And Depression In Older Adults, Brittney Fallucca

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, by 2030, the population of individuals 65 years of age or older is expected to be close to 70 million people, or 20% of the country’s population. This creates a substantial demand as well as opportunity for prevention on medical and health care providers, because individuals in this population are at an increased risk of significant changes in cognitive and mental health. Decline in executive functioning skills is one of the most prevalent changes to affect older adults. Furthermore, depression is strongly associated with impairment in executive functioning ...


The Relationship Between The Strong Black Woman Archetype And Attitudes Towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help In Intimate Partner Violence Relationships Among African American Women, Monica S. Young Jun 2018

The Relationship Between The Strong Black Woman Archetype And Attitudes Towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help In Intimate Partner Violence Relationships Among African American Women, Monica S. Young

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a serious issue that can affect not only women’s lives, but also their health (Wong & Mellor, 2014). Research has shown that the psychological effects of IPV can significantly influence women’s attitudes towards help-seeking, but, for Black women, the effects of racial discrimination can further complicate this. Research has also highlighted the underutilization of professional mental health services as an area of great concern in the African American communities. It is believed that some of the reluctance on the part of African American women to seek services for themselves is deeply rooted in the ...


Police Officer Perspectives On Public Views Of Police, Current Events Involving Police, And The Impact On Police-Community Relationships, Donjae Catanzariti Jun 2018

Police Officer Perspectives On Public Views Of Police, Current Events Involving Police, And The Impact On Police-Community Relationships, Donjae Catanzariti

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The media has presented current tensions between police officers and the communities they serve, particularly the Black community. These tensions have led to calls for reforms in law enforcement and the criminal justice system. However, there has been little focus on the police perspective. Thus, this study sought to address the gaps in the literature by shedding light on the perspective of police officers through the following research question: a) How do police officers perceive the public’s view of them? b) How do police officers’ think the public’s view of them impacts the relationship between police officers and ...


The Immediate And Long-Lasting Cognitive Consequences Of Adolescent Chronic Sleep Restriction, Kerry Howard May 2018

The Immediate And Long-Lasting Cognitive Consequences Of Adolescent Chronic Sleep Restriction, Kerry Howard

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Adolescence is a critical developmental period. An important change that occurs in adolescence is the neurological maturation for adult-type cognitive abilities. Research has linked adequate sleep quantity to successful learning and memory capabilities. However, due to a shift in sleep timing drive in adolescence, in combination with early awakening for school, the adolescent population is experiencing chronic sleep restriction (CSR). What repercussions to long-term memory capabilities could CSR in adolescence have immediately and are the consequences long-lasting? The present study modeled human adolescent CSR in rats through four hours of sleep deprivation for five days, followed by two days of ...


The Role Of Attachment In Experiences Of Affiliate Stigma Among Parents Of Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual Individuals, Christina Mastropaolo May 2018

The Role Of Attachment In Experiences Of Affiliate Stigma Among Parents Of Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual Individuals, Christina Mastropaolo

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parents of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals’ attachment styles and their experiences of LGB affiliate stigma associated with having an LGB child. It was hypothesized that higher levels of anxious and/or avoidant attachment, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998), would predict higher levels of LGB affiliate stigma, as measured by the LGB Affiliate Stigma Measure (LGB-ASM; Robinson & Brewster, 2016). A sample of 87 self-identified parents of LGB individuals completed the ECR and LGB-ASM. Utilizing multiple regression, results of statistical analyses provided partial support for the hypotheses of this study. Multiple regression analyses supported the primary hypothesis: overall, higher ...


The Effect Of Smartphones On Anxiety: An Attachment Issue Or Fear Of Missing Out?, Kelly Mannion Apr 2018

The Effect Of Smartphones On Anxiety: An Attachment Issue Or Fear Of Missing Out?, Kelly Mannion

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Previous research shows that college students tend to experience increased anxiety when they are separated from their smartphone. This anxiety has been suggested to be due to attachment, where college students have formed an attachment to their smartphone. Another explanation for this anxiety is the fear of missing out (FoMO), where college students experience worry when they cannot check in with their friends. No existing study to my knowledge has simultaneously examined the separate impact of attachment to phones and FoMO on anxiety levels, particularly during a stressful situation. The current study examines the separate and combined impacts of FoMO ...


Assessing The Effects Of Dual Tasking On Spatiotemporal Parameters Of Gait In Older Adults: Exploring Age And Task Demands, Mohammed Issa Alsaeed Feb 2018

Assessing The Effects Of Dual Tasking On Spatiotemporal Parameters Of Gait In Older Adults: Exploring Age And Task Demands, Mohammed Issa Alsaeed

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The percentage of the senior citizens is expected to be 20% of the US population by 2030. Falls are considered a global problem due to the increased rate of falls and the costs associated with treating impairments resulting from falls. To date, the effects of performing different types of dual tasks among different age groups of the elderly has received less attention. Therefore, this study sought to assess the impact on spatiotemporal parameters of gait when differing age groups of older adults performer dual tasks that require differing motor and cognitive demands.

Three standard measurements were used in this study ...


More Than Just Talking: The Role Of Self-Disclosure In The Fast Friends Procedure, Chloe Shearer Dec 2017

More Than Just Talking: The Role Of Self-Disclosure In The Fast Friends Procedure, Chloe Shearer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The Fast Friends (FF) procedure was developed to generate feelings of closeness in the laboratory through escalating, mutual self-disclosure by partners (Aron, Melinant, Aron, Vallone, & Bator, 1997). Research indicates that, in addition to generating feelings of closeness, self-disclosure can also benefit mood. This study examined not only the total, but also the relative amount of self-disclosure between dyad partners in the FF vs. control condition. It was found that while participants in FF engaged in more self-disclosure overall, disclosure within FF dyads was not equitable. Contrary to prediction, the FF procedure did not generate more positive feelings than the control ...


The Coach-Athlete Relationship As A Predictor Of Self-Regulation, Academic Self-Efficacy, And Aggression Among Student-Athletes With Exposure To Community Violence, Keoshia Worthy Sep 2017

The Coach-Athlete Relationship As A Predictor Of Self-Regulation, Academic Self-Efficacy, And Aggression Among Student-Athletes With Exposure To Community Violence, Keoshia Worthy

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Although several studies have investigated the effects of the coach-athlete (C-A)relationship, minimal attention has been given to the effects of the relationship on the behavior of college athletes outside of sport. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the coach–athlete relationship and its connection to the student–athlete’s behavior outside of sport and academic self-efficacy for athletes with exposure to community violence. This information can contribute to the discussion on the attachment relationship between coach and athlete, as well as add an in-depth understanding of the value of the relationship beyond its effects in sport ...


Understanding The Predictors Of Posttraumatic Growth Among Those With A History Of A Reproductive Trauma, Moshe Winograd Aug 2017

Understanding The Predictors Of Posttraumatic Growth Among Those With A History Of A Reproductive Trauma, Moshe Winograd

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Pregnancy loss, from early miscarriage through full-term stillbirth, is a problem that affects a significant percentage of child bearing women. Such a loss can lead to varied negative psychological outcomes such as depression, anxiety, PTSD, and other adjustment disorders. Posttraumatic growth, the ability to make meaning through the processing of a trauma, is a concept that, while well researched among other trauma populations, has barely been considered in relation to pregnancy loss. This study examined posttraumatic growth among 103 women who had experienced a pregnancy loss. Using a hierarchical regression it examined the role that perinatal grief, family processes, hope ...


Cognitive Demand And The Outcome Density Effect, Ciara Louise Willett Jul 2017

Cognitive Demand And The Outcome Density Effect, Ciara Louise Willett

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Judgments regarding the strength of a cause to produce an outcome do not always follow predictions of normative causal reasoning models (Kao & Wasserman, 1993). In the case of the outcome density effect, individuals’ ratings of the strength of a putative cause tend to be greater when the number of observed outcomes is high than when it is low (e.g. Jenkins & Ward, 1965). In the current experiment, I investigated the outcome density effect as a possible heuristic. Participants made causal judgments based on information about the prevalence of headaches in a sample of individuals who did or did not receive ...


Age-Related Changes In Visual Spatial Performance, Samantha Farrell May 2017

Age-Related Changes In Visual Spatial Performance, Samantha Farrell

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Visual spatial skills allow individuals to understand the relationship between objects, people, and the environment for their everyday activities. Visual spatial abilities incorporate visual, motor, and cognitive components, each of which changes across the lifespan. The current study examined the effects of age-related changes and practice type on visual spatial performance. Participants between 40 and 79 years of age were asked to complete the Block Design Task (BDT) by using nine blocks to recreate various designs. Both accuracy and latency were measured to examine these changes. Task difficulty and practice type were varied and cognitive abilities were measured via MMSE ...