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Associations Between Multidimensional Spirituality And Mental Health: Positive Psychological Traits As Mediators, Trever Dangel Dec 2019

Associations Between Multidimensional Spirituality And Mental Health: Positive Psychological Traits As Mediators, Trever Dangel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research in the areas of religion and spirituality and positive psychology have experienced considerable growth within the past two decades. Such growth has led to a plethora of research identifying important constructs in both areas and key relationships among them. The current literature is, however, limited by unclear distinctions between the constructs of religion and spirituality, and a general lack of research into their associations with positive psychological traits and mental health status. As such, the present study aimed to investigate a new model of spirituality, the RiTE model, which is a three-part model designed to capture the multifaceted nature ...


Childhood Abuse, Religiosity, And Opioid Use: Findings From The National Epidemiologic Survey On Alcohol And Related Conditions Data, James E. Lewis Dec 2019

Childhood Abuse, Religiosity, And Opioid Use: Findings From The National Epidemiologic Survey On Alcohol And Related Conditions Data, James E. Lewis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Religiosity is adopting a belief system surrounding concepts of purpose, meaning, and value through an institution that has already defined these concepts prior to the individual member attending and that member’s degree of participation. Religiosity does have protective factors against negative health outcomes. This protective influence was evaluated in this study. Data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were examined to learn about the relationship between protective effects of religious participation on substance abuse, and whether this association weakened for individuals who have experienced higher levels of childhood abuse. A binary logistic ...


A Tactful Conceptualization Of Joint Attention: Joint Haptic Attention And Language Development, Lauren P. Driggers-Jones Aug 2019

A Tactful Conceptualization Of Joint Attention: Joint Haptic Attention And Language Development, Lauren P. Driggers-Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research investigating associations between joint attention and language development have thus far only investigated joint attention by way of visual perceptions while neglecting the potential effects of joint attention engaged through other sensory modalities. In the present study, I aimed to investigate the joint attention-language development relationship by investigating the possible links between joint haptic attention and language development, while also exploring the likely contributions of joint visual attention through a mediation analysis. Using video recordings from an archival dataset, measures of joint haptic attention and joint visual attention were derived from behavioral tasks, and measures of vocabulary development were ...


Resilience Among Survivors Of Adverse Childhood Experiences In Appalachia, Bridget Jeter Aug 2019

Resilience Among Survivors Of Adverse Childhood Experiences In Appalachia, Bridget Jeter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The empirical investigation of adverse childhood events (ACEs) and their relationship with health and well-being outcomes in later life is increasing. Less is known about factors that may promote resilience for those who have survived such challenges, such as how resilience may be facilitated for those with ACEs residing in a marginalized region such as South Central Appalachia. Multidimensional spirituality, social support, stigma related to ACEs, and Appalachian acculturation may serve as both valid cultural factors and potential indicators of resilience. Cross-sectional, simultaneous multiple regression analysis was performed on data collected from 272 adult patients of a South Central Appalachian ...


An Integrated Model Of Eating Disorder Risk And Protective Factors: Implications For Research And Treatment, Leslie Alison Davis-Waddle Aug 2019

An Integrated Model Of Eating Disorder Risk And Protective Factors: Implications For Research And Treatment, Leslie Alison Davis-Waddle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors are significant public health concerns, especially among college-age women. Despite extensive research, the complex nature of disordered eating and its etiology has prevented a satisfactory predictive model from being developed and validated and has therefore hindered the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies. This study aimed to integrate four of the most common etiological theories into a model to predict disordered eating behaviors. Bivariate correlations and moderation analyses were conducted to determine the strength of relationships between variables and to determine whether a protective factor (i.e., self-compassion) moderates the effects of risk ...


Exploring The Moderating Effect Of Maternal Scaffolding On The Temperament - Language Development Relationship, Chelsea L. Robertson Aug 2019

Exploring The Moderating Effect Of Maternal Scaffolding On The Temperament - Language Development Relationship, Chelsea L. Robertson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many studies have examined the relationship between a child’s temperament and its effect on his or her early language development. However, few studies have investigated the detrimental effects a child’s negative affectivity may have on their language development and potential ways these effects may be limited through parental behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate if physical or verbal maternal scaffolding behaviors moderated the effect negative affect has on language development. Although it was expected that maternal encouragement of physical activity would play a moderating role in the relationship between temperament and language development, no such relationship was ...


Relationship Between Joint Attention And Language In Multiparous And Uniparous Households, Hannah C. Manis May 2019

Relationship Between Joint Attention And Language In Multiparous And Uniparous Households, Hannah C. Manis

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The present study was designed to examine differences in the effect of the number of children in the household (also known as “parity”) on the relationship between initiating joint attention (IJA) and language development. We reasoned that infants who are only children (i.e., in uniparous homes), relative to infants who have one or more siblings (i.e., in multiparous homes), would have more opportunity to engage in IJA, and would, therefore, acquire a larger number of object labels. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) there would be a positive correlation between the number of IJA bids and language overall ...


Mindfulness And Religiosity/Spirituality As Protecting Factors For Internalizing Symptoms Associated With Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Moderated Moderation Model, Kayla Heineken, Diana Morelen May 2019

Mindfulness And Religiosity/Spirituality As Protecting Factors For Internalizing Symptoms Associated With Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Moderated Moderation Model, Kayla Heineken, Diana Morelen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic events during a person’s early life that can influence their later mental health, physical health, and wellbeing. Internalizing symptoms such as anxiety and depression are common mental health outcomes associated with these events. Two factors, religiosity/spirituality (R/S) and mindfulness, are possible protecting factors to help lessen the effect of traumatic experiences on later mental health. This study examined whether R/S and mindfulness are protective factors in the relationship between ACEs and future internalizing symptoms. Further, this study examined whether the impact of R/S was influenced by an individual’s ...


Trauma-Informed Care: Implementation Efforts In Northeast Tennessee, Kaelyn E. Bishop, Andrea D. Clements, Valerie Hoots May 2019

Trauma-Informed Care: Implementation Efforts In Northeast Tennessee, Kaelyn E. Bishop, Andrea D. Clements, Valerie Hoots

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Trauma has been found to be highly prevalent and associated with many negative health and social outcomes (i.e., heart disease, higher suicide risk, high-risk behaviors) in the general population. Despite these associations, trauma detection is relatively rare in service-providing organizations. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a proposed solution that encourages trauma detection, understanding the symptoms associated with trauma, and treating trauma while actively avoiding re-traumatization to the service user. Although research about TIC efficacy has been fairly limited, there are some promising potential benefits of the practice to the client, provider, and the population as a whole. For this study ...


Self-Rated Health, Healthcare Satisfaction, Healthcare Adherence, And Medical Mistrust: The Moderating Role Of Rurality, Stephanie Alu May 2019

Self-Rated Health, Healthcare Satisfaction, Healthcare Adherence, And Medical Mistrust: The Moderating Role Of Rurality, Stephanie Alu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The current study is part of a broader study called the Women’s Reproductive Health Survey (WRHS) which aimed to examine various aspects of women’s life experiences. This study examined the moderating effect of rurality on several factors of healthcare in a sample of women between the ages of 18 and 50. Self-rated health (SRH) was hypothesized to predict healthcare satisfaction, healthcare adherence, and medical mistrust. Furthermore, rurality was hypothesized to weaken the relationships between SRH and healthcare satisfaction and adherence; it was further hypothesized to exacerbate the relationship between SRH and medical mistrust. A survey containing a single-item ...


Religious Attendance, Surrender To God, And Suicide Risk: Mediating Pathways Of Feeling Forgiven By God And Psychopathology, Kelley Pugh May 2019

Religious Attendance, Surrender To God, And Suicide Risk: Mediating Pathways Of Feeling Forgiven By God And Psychopathology, Kelley Pugh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Suicide is a national public health concern, and college students may be at increased risk. Symptoms of psychopathology (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression) may contribute to risk, whereas religiosity (i.e., religious attendance, surrendering to God, and feeling forgiven by God) may reduce risk. Students from a rural southeastern university (N=249) completed self-report measures. Serial mediation analyses indicate that attendance and surrender to God are inversely- predictive of suicide risk, both directly and through the indirect pathways of feeling forgiven by God (1st order mediator) and psychopathology (2nd order mediators). In all models, specific indirect effects occurred through ...


Adverse Childhood Experiences, Homeless Chronicity, And Age At Onset Of Homelessness, Joseph T. Tucciarone Jr. May 2019

Adverse Childhood Experiences, Homeless Chronicity, And Age At Onset Of Homelessness, Joseph T. Tucciarone Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Childhood adversity is associated with numerous negative outcomes across multiple domains, including mental and physical health, interrelationships, and social functioning. Notably, research suggests that childhood adversity has a dose-response relationship with these outcomes; that is, greater numbers of adverse experiences in childhood are associated with worse outcomes. These outcomes overlap with many risk factors of homelessness. This study sought to address two questions: 1) Does a dose-response relationship exist between childhood adversity and chronic homelessness? 2) Does childhood adversity negatively predict the age at which homelessness first occurs? Adults experiencing homeless who are accessing homeless services in the Tri-Cities area ...


Introducing A New Prevention Of True Self And Cognitive Dissonance Intervention To Improve Help-Seeking For Female College Students With A Risk Of An Eating Disorder, Margaret A. Hance May 2019

Introducing A New Prevention Of True Self And Cognitive Dissonance Intervention To Improve Help-Seeking For Female College Students With A Risk Of An Eating Disorder, Margaret A. Hance

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, eating disorders affect approximately 20 million women annually (National Institutes of Health, 2011). With such a high prevalence, ensuring help-seeking in individuals with eating disorders is critical. A previously-supported eating disorder prevention approach includes cognitive dissonance intervention (CDI). CDI’s purpose is to change a person’s behavior to reflect their attitude or cognition. While true self intervention has not been with previously been applied to eating disorders, it has been efficacious in improving psychological risk factors associated with eating disorder risk. The current study combined true self and CDI to test a more holistic prevention ...


Pocket Ace: Neglect Of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors In The Aces Study Questionnaire, Robyn Dolson May 2019

Pocket Ace: Neglect Of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors In The Aces Study Questionnaire, Robyn Dolson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 1998, a seminal study on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and subsequent health risks catapulted ACEs and the study questionnaire into the zeitgeist. However, its childhood sexual abuse (CSA) item is problematic as it requires the perpetrator have been 5-years or older than the victim. To assess whether some survivors’ CSA is not identified by the current item, whether their exclusion prevents access to services requiring a four-threshold ACE score, and how their health outcomes compared to other CSA groups and controls, an international sample of 974 women completed an online survey assessing their current health and CSA history using ...


An Investigation Into The Structure Of Self-Control, Parker A. Dreves May 2019

An Investigation Into The Structure Of Self-Control, Parker A. Dreves

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Self-control has been measured using a variety of methods including self-report measures, cognitive inhibition tasks, delay discounting and delay of gratification tasks, and persistence and willpower tasks. Although these are all theoretically linked to processes involved in self-control, recent evidence has shown that these diverse measurement techniques relate only minimally to one another. Assuming that self-control is a reflective construct, this would indicate that many of these tasks are poor indicators of self-control. The present research challenges the common assumption that self-control is a reflective construct and instead proposes that self-control is a formative construct. Conceptualizing self-control as a formative ...


Gaming Behaviors In Day-To-Day Life: Exploring A Problematic Gaming Behavior Scale, Christin Collie Dec 2018

Gaming Behaviors In Day-To-Day Life: Exploring A Problematic Gaming Behavior Scale, Christin Collie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Growing concern for the problematic use of video games has prompted new research in a now growing field of literature. Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is a proposed behavioral addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). To examine the proposed criteria for IGD, a self-report problematic gaming behavior scale (PGBS) was developed for adults residing in the United States. One hundred eighty-nine participants completed an online questionnaire comprised of demographic items, general gaming information, the PGBS, and the Internet Gaming Disorder-20 Test (IGD-20 Test). Statistical analyses conducted at the conclusion of the study were consistent ...


Public Perceptions On Domestic Sex Trafficking And Domestic Sex Trafficking Victims: A Quantitative Analysis, Faith Browder Dec 2018

Public Perceptions On Domestic Sex Trafficking And Domestic Sex Trafficking Victims: A Quantitative Analysis, Faith Browder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sex trafficking is a grossly misconstrued and increasing issue within the United States. The purpose of this study was to extend current knowledge regarding the public’s education on domestic sex trafficking and perceptions of domestic sex trafficking victims. The public’s awareness of domestic sex trafficking and perceptions of domestic sex trafficking victims were examined through the utilization of a 31 closed-ended question survey. The survey included questions about domestic sex trafficking and prostitution myths, domestic sex trafficking victim characteristics, domestic sex trafficking legislation, law enforcement’s involvement in domestic sex trafficking cases, and demographics. The sample consisted of ...


Self-Compassion And Physical Health-Related Quality Of Life In Cancer: Mediating Effects Of Control Beliefs And Treatment Adherence, Morgan Treaster Dec 2018

Self-Compassion And Physical Health-Related Quality Of Life In Cancer: Mediating Effects Of Control Beliefs And Treatment Adherence, Morgan Treaster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Among the 14 million persons living in the United States with current or remitted cancer, poor physical health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a significant concern. However, self-compassion (i.e., common humanity, mindfulness, self-kindness) may be a protective factor, either directly or indirectly, by allowing for a sense of empowerment and control over illness, and in turn, facilitating engagement in treatment and positive perceptions of health. Serial mediation analyses among persons living with current (n = 67) or remitted (n = 168) cancer lend support for a positive, direct association between self-compassion and physical HRQL, as well as indirect effects via internal ...


Perceptions Of Confidentiality And Stigma Associated With Use Of Counseling Services, Jesi Hall Dec 2018

Perceptions Of Confidentiality And Stigma Associated With Use Of Counseling Services, Jesi Hall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Counseling services are offered in most universities, but are often underutilized. Past researchers found that students listed time, cost, stigma, and confidentiality concerns as their top reasons for avoiding seeking help (e.g., Clement et al., 2015; Dearing, Maddux, and Tangney, 2005). The purpose of this study was to identify whether concerns about confidentiality affect stigma related to use of mental health services. Students answered questions about perceived stigma and the reasons they have avoided seeking counseling in the past. Those who had previously used services reported fewer confidentiality concerns. In a stepwise multiple regression, concerns about confidentiality were found ...


Interprofessional Relationships In Rural Offender Re-Entry And Management: Mental Health Treatment Providers And Community Supervision Professionals, Michael Lasher Aug 2018

Interprofessional Relationships In Rural Offender Re-Entry And Management: Mental Health Treatment Providers And Community Supervision Professionals, Michael Lasher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The current prevailing approach to managing offenders in the community involves community supervision professionals such as probation and parole officers partnering with other community professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, and other mental health providers to address offenders’ needs. Each type of professional draws from a unique field with goals, values, and theoretical orientations, which do not necessarily overlap. These relationships are rarely studied, and previous examinations are limited. The current study aims to address this deficit in the empirical literature. Drawing on data obtained from qualitative interviews, four aims were examined. First, using thematic analysis, interview data are analyzed ...


Warning Confidence And Perceptions Of Lava Flow Hazard Diversion Strategies At Kīlauea And Mauna Loa Volcanoes, Hawai‘I, Ashleigh Reeves Aug 2018

Warning Confidence And Perceptions Of Lava Flow Hazard Diversion Strategies At Kīlauea And Mauna Loa Volcanoes, Hawai‘I, Ashleigh Reeves

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The 2014-15 lava flow crisis at Kīlauea volcano, Hawai‘i and post-September 2015 elevated unrest at adjacent Mauna Loa volcano provided opportunities to assess households’ psychological and behavioral responses to different levels of volcanic activity. Weused the Protective Action Decision Model to examine stakeholder perceptions and confidence in warnings, in addition toattitudes toward lava flow mitigation strategies, such as diversion by berms and bombing, and people’s acceptance of additional risk to personal property in exchange for protecting important elements of their community, such as schools, major roads, electrical substation, and shopping centers. Respondents’ confidence in events important in decision-making ...


Proximal Minority Stress, Drinking Motives, And Alcohol Use In Appalachian Sexual Minority Women, Sarah Job Aug 2018

Proximal Minority Stress, Drinking Motives, And Alcohol Use In Appalachian Sexual Minority Women, Sarah Job

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sexual minorities face identity-specific stressors (minority stress). Minority stress often predicts worse health outcomes and behaviors, like increased substance use. The current study examined the relationship between proximal minority stress and hazardous alcohol use. Possible mediators were considered. The current study involved a secondary data analysis of data from 48 sexual minority women who completed an online survey. Measures included the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Connectedness to the LGBT Community Scale, the AUDIT-5, the Drinking Motives scale, and an item that measured frequency of drinking. Data, analyzed via R, included t-tests, correlations, regression, and mediational analyses. Results showed that ...


Do Healthcare Students Endorsing Stigma Of Mental Illness Screen For Suicidal Ideation? An Evaluation Of Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors, Dannel K. Petgrave Aug 2018

Do Healthcare Students Endorsing Stigma Of Mental Illness Screen For Suicidal Ideation? An Evaluation Of Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors, Dannel K. Petgrave

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The stigma of mental illness endorsed by healthcare professionals has been linked to adverse outcomes. This issue underscores the need for early anti-stigma interventions in the context of professional training. The present study measured stigma change and suicide screening behaviors among medical, nursing, and pharmacy students enrolled in an interprofessional Communication Skills for Healthcare Professionals course. The Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS; Evans-Lacko et al., 2010), Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC; Modgill, Patten, Knaak, Kassam, & Szeto, 2014), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Form C (M-C SDS Form C; Reynolds, 1982) was administered at baseline (T1), a mid-semester assessment (T2), and post-intervention (T3) to 176 students. Post-intervention changes ...


Examining The Associative Learning And Accumbal Dopaminergic Mechanisms Of Caffeine Reinforcement, Curtis Bradley Aug 2018

Examining The Associative Learning And Accumbal Dopaminergic Mechanisms Of Caffeine Reinforcement, Curtis Bradley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, and most caffeine consumption in coffee and energy drinks is intended to produce a psychoactive effect. However, caffeine is not a primary reinforcer in preclinical paradigms – non-human species do not reliably take the drug to produce a psychoactive effect. However, caffeine is a ‘reinforcement enhancer’ in preclinical models; the effects of caffeine increase the motivation to obtain other non-drug reinforcers. The overall goal of this project was to determine if these reinforcement enhancing effects of caffeine could promote caffeine self-administration and to subsequently investigate the behavioral and neurochemical underpinnings of ...


Childhood Development: How The Fine And Performing Arts Enhance Neurological, Social, And Academic Traits, Katherine Rowe May 2018

Childhood Development: How The Fine And Performing Arts Enhance Neurological, Social, And Academic Traits, Katherine Rowe

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Childhood development has always been a major topic when studying psychology and biology. This makes sense because the brain develops from the time a child is conceived to the time that child has reached around the age of twenty-seven. Doctors, psychologists, and sociologists look at numerous things when studying childhood development. However, how common is it for researchers to study how the fine and performing arts affect childhood development? Sociologists tend to be extremely open and mindful of all aspects of things such as culture, sexuality, religion, and even age. By taking a sociological standpoint when studying the arts ...


An Overview Of Suicide And The Impact Of Interacting Factors On Current Suicide Trends, Shawna Burrow May 2018

An Overview Of Suicide And The Impact Of Interacting Factors On Current Suicide Trends, Shawna Burrow

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Approximately 44,965 people committed suicide in 2016 in the United States, and the rate has been rising for a decade and a half. Suicide has far-reaching consequences which affect not only the victim, but those close to the person as well. For every suicide, an estimated six people are futher traumatized, bringing the current loss survivor estimate to over 5 million. Additionally, suicide costs tax payers about 70 billion dollars annually. Despite outranking homicide as a leading cause of death, the long-standing stigma associated with suicide creates a barrier for open and effective communication about the issue. This paper ...


Assessing Readiness For Group Therapy In Primary Care: An Initial Survey Exploring Need, Philip Randall May 2018

Assessing Readiness For Group Therapy In Primary Care: An Initial Survey Exploring Need, Philip Randall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primary care providers have become the front line of treatment for mental health in the United States. Group interventions have been argued to be an effective way to treat more patients with fewer resources, which could reduce the burden of psychopathology on primary care settings. Group therapy faces many barriers to successful implementation in primary care, including site constraints, provider perceptions, population needs, and recruiting difficulties. A survey was developed to assess primary care providers’ perspectives on these areas and distributed via online survey to practitioners in Appalachia; 28 providers responded. No hypotheses were supported, likely a result of the ...


Conceptualization And Measurement Of Spirituality: Towards The Development Of A Nontheistic Spirituality Measure For Use In Health-Related Fields, Valerie M. Hoots Dec 2017

Conceptualization And Measurement Of Spirituality: Towards The Development Of A Nontheistic Spirituality Measure For Use In Health-Related Fields, Valerie M. Hoots

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Relationships between spirituality and health outcomes are well supported in research; however, measurement of spirituality often reflects a Judeo-Christian framework and is predominantly theocentric, neglecting the increasing religious pluralism and non-traditional expressions of spirituality in the United States. A new measure of spirituality was based on a conceptualization of nontheistic spirituality that is understood to be a relatively stable motivational process entailing a search for sacred connection, with “sacred” being defined by individual perceptions and not necessitating divine association. Item development for the current instrument included an initial pool of 65 items and two phases of revision and content validation ...


Predicting And Promoting Health-Related Quality Of Life For Parents Of Children With Autism: A Mixed-Methods Approach, Laura Delustro Dec 2017

Predicting And Promoting Health-Related Quality Of Life For Parents Of Children With Autism: A Mixed-Methods Approach, Laura Delustro

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The present study used a mixed methodology approach to understand factors that predict and promote health related quality of life (HRQOL) for parents of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The first component of the study used quantitative analyses to determine the extent to which study variables predict HRQOL for parents of youth with ASD (N = 365). Findings show that HRQOL is positively impacted by increased total annual household income, increased age of the child with ASD, male gender, and tangible support. HRQOL was negatively impacted by increased age of the parent, increased parental perceptions of burden, and use of ...


Evaluating A Stepped Care Protocol For Postpartum Depression In A Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, Sarah C. Smith Aug 2017

Evaluating A Stepped Care Protocol For Postpartum Depression In A Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, Sarah C. Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent, complex illness impacting 10% to 20% of mothers and their families. Treatments for PPD, such as medication and psychotherapy, are effective at reducing the severity of symptoms and generally improving quality of life for new mothers and their families. Unfortunately, many mothers with PPD go unrecognized due to a lack of standardized screening methods. Further, mothers regularly encounter barriers to accessible, evidence-based follow-up care to treatment even when symptoms of PPD are detected. The use of a stepped care protocol, set in a pediatric primary care clinic, is one proposed strategy to address the ...