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Psychology

Western Michigan University

Theses/Dissertations

Safety

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The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Jonathan M. Hochmuth Aug 2018

The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Jonathan M. Hochmuth

Master's Theses

The gateway in-street sign treatment has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for increasing driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. In the present study, wide and narrow gateway widths were compared at two sites to determine if there was a differential effect on driver yielding behavior. Then, the relationship between width and yielding was refined with a parametric analysis at one of these sites. Gateway width was varied in two-foot intervals from 12ft to 18ft. The results indicated an inverse relationship between gateway width and driver yielding behavior. There are likely two variables related to this effect. First, because drivers ...


Increasing Caregiver Supervision Of Young Children: Teaching Scanning, Predicting Behavior, And Modifying For Safety, Natalie Truba Aug 2016

Increasing Caregiver Supervision Of Young Children: Teaching Scanning, Predicting Behavior, And Modifying For Safety, Natalie Truba

Dissertations

Unintentional injuries account for a significant number of child deaths and visits to the emergency department. Although increased supervision is routinely shown to be an effective method of preventing unintentional childhood injuries, few interventions systemically teach caregivers behavioral skills to supervise their children appropriately. The present study utilized a multiple baseline design to pilot test an intervention designed to increase caregiver supervision and decrease unintentional childhood injuries by training caregivers how to provide appropriate levels of supervision for their young children (ages 6 to 36 months). Specifically, caregivers were taught in the present study include: (1) scanning the environment (for ...


Comparison Of The Effectiveness Of Different Observation Methods And An Exploratory Analysis Of The Importance Of Accuracy Of Various Observations On Safety Performance, Marlies Hagge Apr 2016

Comparison Of The Effectiveness Of Different Observation Methods And An Exploratory Analysis Of The Importance Of Accuracy Of Various Observations On Safety Performance, Marlies Hagge

Dissertations

Behavior Based Safety (BBS) applies various types of safety observation to improve occupational safety in business. The purpose of the following study was to examine and compare different observation foci: peer-observation, self-observation and a combination of both options as well as supervisor observations and observations of employee behavior obtained by research assistants (RA). Participants were unionized employees of the facilities management department at a Midwestern university. Target behaviors included safe lifting and vacuuming. The dependent variables were safety performance and the discrepancy between the different observation types. Incident data were also reported. The different observational methods were investigated via a ...


Use Of Task Clarification, Feedback, And Recognition To Increase Desired Behaviors Within An Organization’S Permit To Work System - Analysis Of Data Previously Collected As An Organizational Consultant, Tarek Abousaleh Apr 2014

Use Of Task Clarification, Feedback, And Recognition To Increase Desired Behaviors Within An Organization’S Permit To Work System - Analysis Of Data Previously Collected As An Organizational Consultant, Tarek Abousaleh

Dissertations

The term ‘culture’ can be used to describe both a ‘social culture’ and a ‘work culture’. A social culture can be defined behaviorally as a pattern of overt and covert behaviors that are consequated by the verbal community and the contingency specifying rules that facilitate behavior independent of any first hand experience. It is this community that defines which behaviors are reinforced, extinguished, or punished. Similarly, a work culture can be defined as a pattern of overt and covert behaviors that are consequated by the work community (leadership, employees, self, etc.) and the contingency specifying rules that facilitate behavior/performance ...


The Effect Of Innovative Technology On Seatbelt Use, Bryan W. Hilton Dec 2012

The Effect Of Innovative Technology On Seatbelt Use, Bryan W. Hilton

Master's Theses

A previous pilot study documented that providing sustained haptic feedback to the gas pedal when a driver exceeded 25mph with his seatbelt unbuckled and removing the feedback contingent on seatbelt use increased seatbelt use in 7 commercial drivers. This study replicated this effect with 20 young drivers who did not consistently wear their seatbelt.

In the current study unbuckled drivers received increased accelerator pedal resistance when they exceeded 20 mph. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design was employed for this study. The dependent variable was percentage of trips driven without seatbelt use. The independent variable was an increase accelerator pedal resistance ...


Comparing The Effects Of Simulated, Intelligent Audible, Checklists And Analog Checklists In Simulated Flight, Bryan Hilton Dec 2012

Comparing The Effects Of Simulated, Intelligent Audible, Checklists And Analog Checklists In Simulated Flight, Bryan Hilton

Dissertations

This study examined the effect of using a simulated intelligent audible checklist in simulated flight as compared to a standard analog (paper) checklist. Participants were three Western Michigan University students in the College of Aviation. All participants were licensed pilots with instrument ratings. The main dependent variable was the number of checklist errors or omissions committed by the pilots in simulated flight. During each flight, each participant could make up to 42 errors. The error count would initiate at the appropriate time to perform the “before-take off checklist” and would end one minute after parking the plane, the logical time ...