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Dynamics Of Momentary Perceived Self-Regulation Abilities As Novel Predictors Of Overeating In Daily Life, Kayla Dawn Skinner Aug 2019

Dynamics Of Momentary Perceived Self-Regulation Abilities As Novel Predictors Of Overeating In Daily Life, Kayla Dawn Skinner

Theses and Dissertations

Despite an increase of research in the realm of overeating - a well-known contributor to obesity - the psychological mechanisms that maintain overeating behaviors across time and context are still poorly understood. It may be that people’s perceptions of their self-regulation abilities fluctuate over time, and overeating results from momentary increases in negative mood eliciting negative perceptions of their self-efficacy and current willpower, stronger beliefs that cravings can be controlled and a greater ability to tolerate distress. The current study examined the dynamics of and momentary predictors of overeating using a 7-day EMA protocol to study unsuccessful restrained eaters (n = 94 ...


Effect Of A 14-Day Mindfulness Intervention On Daily Desire Experiences And Desire Regulation, Nabila Farhin Jahan Jan 2019

Effect Of A 14-Day Mindfulness Intervention On Daily Desire Experiences And Desire Regulation, Nabila Farhin Jahan

Theses and Dissertations

A growing body of research suggests that mindfulness, a receptive attentiveness to one’s present moment experiences, has the potential to adaptively regulate habitual behaviors. No prior study has tested the effect of mindfulness interventions on people’s daily desire experiences to inform the potential for adaptive desire regulation. The present exploratory randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a 14-day smartphone-based mindfulness intervention (versus a coping control intervention) on the frequency, intensity, duration, and enactment of everyday desires in 19 participants. The desire domains included basic need-based desires (i.e., for food, drink, sleep) and secondary desires (e.g ...


Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill Dec 2018

Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill

Theses and Dissertations

People struggle with temptation in their everyday lives. Research often attributes failures in self-regulation to overwhelming and uncontrollable impulses. However, research also supports the idea that cognitive factors (e.g., justification) can license tempting behavior and allow individuals to behave in ways that run counter to their long-term goals. In addition, it is likely that affect plays a role in justification-based self-control failure. The current set of three studies investigated the role of affect in justification-based self-control failure. Study 1 tested the prediction that recall of past successes would result in increased positive affect. Study 2 assessed whether justification results ...


Autism, Alexithymia, And Anxious Apprehension: A Multimethod Investigation Of Eye Fixation, Kevin G. Stephenson Jul 2018

Autism, Alexithymia, And Anxious Apprehension: A Multimethod Investigation Of Eye Fixation, Kevin G. Stephenson

Theses and Dissertations

Reduced eye fixation and deficits in emotion identification accuracy have been commonly reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (AS), but are not ubiquitous. There is growing evidence that emotion processing deficits may be better accounted for by comorbid alexithymia (i.e., difficulty understanding and describing one's emotional state), rather than AS symptoms per se. Another possible explanation is anxiety, which is often comorbid with AS; emotion processing difficulties, including attentional biases, have also been observed in anxiety disorders, suggesting that anxiety symptoms may also influence emotion processing within AS. The purpose of the current study was to test ...


Experiential Similarity Of Depression And Interpersonal Empathy, Sarah E. Caputo Jun 2018

Experiential Similarity Of Depression And Interpersonal Empathy, Sarah E. Caputo

Theses and Dissertations

The ability to build and maintain supportive, social relationships has been linked to both physical and psychological well-being (e.g., Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Kawachi & Berkman, 2001). Yet, social struggles are a commonly observed symptom among individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), particularly with regards to interpersonal empathy. Perceptions of interpersonal similarity can influence empathic engagement with others (e.g., Batson et al., 1996; Hodges, Kiel, Kramer, Veach, & Villanueva, 2010); often, interpersonal similarity will lead to greater empathic engagement. The present study asked participants to listen to audio clips of a fictitious therapy client discussing either depression or non-depression-related financial distress and then to indicate the degree to which they felt and expressed empathy for this client via written response letters. I hypothesized that participants with depression would report greater feelings of empathy than non-depressed participants and that depressed participants who specifically listened to ...


Effects Of Self-Affirmation On Emotion And Cardiovascular Responses, Wei-Ju Chen Aug 2017

Effects Of Self-Affirmation On Emotion And Cardiovascular Responses, Wei-Ju Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Self-affirmation is the act of focusing on important aspects of the self, such as personal values and characteristic. Benefits of self-affirmation have been documented in past research. However, the immediate impacts of self-affirmation on cardiovascular responses have not been fully explored. Therefore, the present study examined such effects both during and consequent to the practice of self-affirmation. One hundred and twenty-five participants completed the study. A within-subject design was used, in which each participant went through both the control and self-affirmation conditions (the order of presentation was counterbalanced). In the self-affirmation condition, participants were asked to write about their top-ranked ...


Give Hate A Chance: An Exploration Of The Affective State Of Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick May 2017

Give Hate A Chance: An Exploration Of The Affective State Of Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick

Theses and Dissertations

Interpersonal hate, the affective state of one individual experiencing hate toward another, is widely experienced. However, to date there is no experimental evidence of interpersonal hate. This phenomenon was explored, as was its place in the triad of hostile emotions. It was theorized that interpersonal hate would be differentiated from the hostile emotions (contempt, anger, and disgust) by appraisal of violation type and by behavioral response, and that the hostile emotions could be recognized by these characteristics, as well. Specifically, it was hypothesized that interpersonal hate would be incited by autonomy violations and avoidance responses; anger would be incited by ...


To Help Or Not To Help? Assessing The Impact Of Envy And Gratitude On Prosocial Behaviors, Anna Maria C. Behler Jan 2017

To Help Or Not To Help? Assessing The Impact Of Envy And Gratitude On Prosocial Behaviors, Anna Maria C. Behler

Theses and Dissertations

Envy is an other-oriented but negative emotion; no research has examined the influence of envy on prosocial behavior. Study 1 examined whether envy and gratitude would promote or inhibit prosocial behavior. I hypothesized that envy would result in less helping behavior than a neutral condition, whereas gratitude would increase helping behavior. Results supported the hypothesis that envy inhibits prosocial behavior. There was not enough evidence to suggest that gratitude promoted helping.

Study 2 examined how envy and gratitude affected prosocial behavior when participants were given the choice to help or harm others. I hypothesized that experiencing envy would result in ...


Synchrony And Concordance: A Multilevel Analysis Of The Effects Of Individual Differences During A Co2 Challenge, Rachel E. Wallace Jan 2017

Synchrony And Concordance: A Multilevel Analysis Of The Effects Of Individual Differences During A Co2 Challenge, Rachel E. Wallace

Theses and Dissertations

Emotion theories posit that emotion systems (e.g., behavior, self-report, physiology) should be related when an emotion is being elicited because this serves an adaptive purpose and allows the individual to respond appropriately to the present situation. Oftentimes, this coherent relationship is not found, and research has hypothesized that the type of analyses used and lack of examination of individual differences could be affecting this relationship. Most studies examine the relationship between emotion systems between-subjects when within-subjects analyses may be more appropriate. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported distress (SUDS) and heart rate, and whether trait differences of ...


The Role Of Mindfulness In The Regulation Of Behavior Among Those Prone To Negative Urgency, Alexandra M. Martelli Jan 2017

The Role Of Mindfulness In The Regulation Of Behavior Among Those Prone To Negative Urgency, Alexandra M. Martelli

Theses and Dissertations

Negative emotions can be challenging to regulate, and for some individuals can lead to failures of behavior regulation. The present study is an initial effort to explore the role that mindfulness may play in fostering effective behavior regulation among those prone to high negative urgency (NU). Eighty undergraduate students were recruited based on their high or low scores of NU. First, participants completed a self-report measure of mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; MAAS), an Emotional Go/No Go task in an fMRI scanner, and then reported alcohol consumption. Results showed that those with high in NU had low levels of ...


Proximal Mechanisms Of Externalizing Behaviors: An Intensive Longitudinal Design Investigating The Effects Of Temporally Varying Processes, Ke Anne Zhang Aug 2016

Proximal Mechanisms Of Externalizing Behaviors: An Intensive Longitudinal Design Investigating The Effects Of Temporally Varying Processes, Ke Anne Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

Externalizing behaviors have been shown to exhibit within-individual changes, increasing the need to identifying factors that influence such behavior to be more or less likely to occur in any given moment. The current study aimed to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms that influence externalizing behavior using an intensive longitudinal design. Demographic variables and personality traits were measured at baseline. Momentary personality states, situational context, affect, decision-making processes, and externalizing behaviors were measured three times per day for seven days in a university sample (N = 170). Results: A new measure of momentary externalizing—Momentary-Externalizing Spectrum Inventory—was created as a ...


The Perceived Invalidation Of Emotion Scale (Pies): Development And Psychometric Properties, Melissa Jean Zielinski Aug 2016

The Perceived Invalidation Of Emotion Scale (Pies): Development And Psychometric Properties, Melissa Jean Zielinski

Theses and Dissertations

Despite the decades that have passed since invalidation was first theorized to causally influence the development of psychopathology (Linehan, 1993), no measures have been designed and statistically validated to index current emotion invalidation. Research on invalidation has thus grown slowly and often used measures that were designed to assess other constructs (e.g., criticism, abuse) or that retrospectively assess childhood invalidation. This series of five studies describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Perceived Invalidation of Emotion Scale (PIES), a novel measure of emotion invalidation. Items for the PIES were developed using themes from a qualitative investigation of adults ...


Developmental Changes In Response To Music-Evoked Emotion Among Children And Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Kevin G. Stephenson Jul 2016

Developmental Changes In Response To Music-Evoked Emotion Among Children And Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Kevin G. Stephenson

Theses and Dissertations

Significant symptoms of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may arise due to impaired emotion recognition. In light of reports showing ASD-specific developmental changes in amygdala volumes, we expanded a previous study of recognition of music-evoked emotions in ASD versus typical controls (CON). We explicitly compared both behavioral and psychophysiological response to music-evoked emotions of children (ages 8-11) and older adolescents (ages 16-18). A total of 91 participants (42 ASD) listened to segments of instrumental music that had been previously validated to evoke happy, sad, or scary emotional valence. We measured accuracy and reaction time while also collecting ...


Attention Deficits And Perception Of Emotion In Groups, Agnes Renee Strojewska Jun 2016

Attention Deficits And Perception Of Emotion In Groups, Agnes Renee Strojewska

Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigated the relationship between attention deficits and the recognition of emotions of either individuals or groups (ensembles). Previous research has suggested that individuals with ADHD may have deficits in social cognition, specifically in recognizing the internal (emotional) states of others, though it remains unclear whether these deficits are a discrete component of ADHD or merely the byproduct of the inattention characteristic of the disorder. Perception of ensemble characteristics, or ensemble coding, has recently been the target of increased interest in perception research, and appears to represent a powerful mechanism for processing sensory information, particularly in situations when ...


Pathways Linking Sleep Timing To Obesity In Midlife Women, Dana R. Schreiber Jan 2016

Pathways Linking Sleep Timing To Obesity In Midlife Women, Dana R. Schreiber

Theses and Dissertations

Midlife women are vulnerable to developing obesity. Both sleep timing and negative emotion are risk factors, yet limited research has explored their role on weight outcomes in this population. The current investigation explored the association of sleep timing (i.e., mean sleep time, sleep time variability) and obesity (i.e., BMI, waist circumference) in midlife women, considering emotional pathways (i.e., depressive symptoms, anger) that might mediate this association. PROCESS parallel mediation models assessed direct and indirect pathways. In follow-up analyses, sleep duration was explored as an indirect pathway linking sleep timing to obesity. Results demonstrated that sleep timing does ...


Can Non-Haptic Manipulation Of Temperature Influence The Same Emotions As Ostracism?, Rebecca Ann Oglesby Oct 2015

Can Non-Haptic Manipulation Of Temperature Influence The Same Emotions As Ostracism?, Rebecca Ann Oglesby

Theses and Dissertations

I explored the possibility that temperature can alter the same variables affected by ostracism (i.e., being ignored and excluded): belonging, control, meaningful existence, and self-esteem need satisfaction, feelings of ostracism, mood, and loneliness. According to the theory of embodied cognition, individuals can associate physical warmth with social intimacy, as well as cold temperatures with social isolation (Zhong & Leonardelli, 2008; IJzerman et al., 2012). Bargh and Shalev (2012) found that participants holding a cold pack reported higher loneliness than participants holding a neutral or warm pack. My study expands upon Bargh and Shalevâ??s (2012) findings by examining more emotions frequently associated ...


I Judge, Therefore I React: An Experimental Investigation Of Acceptance, Jennifer Ann Shaver Jul 2015

I Judge, Therefore I React: An Experimental Investigation Of Acceptance, Jennifer Ann Shaver

Theses and Dissertations

The present study was designed to provide empirical tests of some of the mechanisms thought to operate in mindfulness-based treatments. Specifically, I tested the hypothesis that appraising distress judgmentally (as a needless and useless indication of personal weakness) would be associated with experiencing meta-distress (e.g., feeling ashamed about being distressed), which would, in turn, be associated with increased experiential avoidance (i.e., suppression or distraction from the distress) and shorter distress tolerance. In addition, I examined the hypothesis that compassionately appraising distress (as normal, understandable, and potentially a source of growth) would be associated with spending more time curiously ...


The Effects Of Alcohol On The Interpretation Of Social And Emotional Cues: A Field Study Of College Student Drinking, Emotion Recognition, And Perceptions Of A Hypothetical Sexual Assault, Alexander James Melkonian Jul 2015

The Effects Of Alcohol On The Interpretation Of Social And Emotional Cues: A Field Study Of College Student Drinking, Emotion Recognition, And Perceptions Of A Hypothetical Sexual Assault, Alexander James Melkonian

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol use and abuse among emerging adults is highly correlated with increased risk for sexual victimization. Alcohol myopia theory has been used to explain impairments in Social information processing resulting in decreased attention to environmental Social cues including risk factors for sexual assault as well as facial emotional recognition. Those with deficits in Social information processing may be at particular risk for the misperception of salient risk factors for sexual assault by victims, perpetrators, and bystanders when intoxicated. In this naturalistic field study, participants who had been consuming alcohol were recruited to engage in tasks of facial emotion recognition and ...


Emotional Interference Of Response Inhibition In Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Thomas Grover Adams Aug 2014

Emotional Interference Of Response Inhibition In Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Thomas Grover Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have hypothesized that failures of inhibition are partially responsible for habitual and perseverative symptoms that are unique to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). It is also well known that sequelae of emotional processes are also implicated in the etiology and maintenance of obsessions and compulsions. However, little research has tested how emotional processes moderate inhibitory functions in OCD. In the present study, high contamination phobic (HCP, n = 17) and low contamination phobic (LCP, n = 30) participants completed an emotional go/no-go task, which measured the interfering effects contamination-threat processing on action restraint. The present study had a two level between-subjects-quasi-independent factor ...


Children's Recognition Of Pride: An Experimental Approach, Darren Jason Garcia Dec 2013

Children's Recognition Of Pride: An Experimental Approach, Darren Jason Garcia

Theses and Dissertations

Pride is elicited when a child takes credit for an achievement or exceeds a socially valued standard or expectation. Evidence suggests that pride has a distinct nonverbal expression that is recognized by adults across cultures (Tracy & Robins, 2004). Research examining when children recognize pride has yielded age discrepancies between studies that use forced-choice response formats and those that use spontaneous-response formats. Differences in children's ability to use and comprehend language may account for some of these differences. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the age at which children reliably recognize pride, while minimizing the need for children ...


Dispositional Mindfulness As A Moderator Of Electrocortical And Behavioral Responses To Affective Social Stimuli, Jordan T. Quaglia Apr 2013

Dispositional Mindfulness As A Moderator Of Electrocortical And Behavioral Responses To Affective Social Stimuli, Jordan T. Quaglia

Theses and Dissertations

Numerous studies have linked dispositional mindfulness to enhanced emotion regulation. The present research examined dispositional mindfulness as a predictor of emotion regulation in social affective contexts. Participants completed passive viewing and Emotional Go/No-Go tasks involving social affective stimuli (happy, neutral, and fearful facial expressions). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses were examined to discern whether dispositional mindfulness predicted differential neural and behavioral responses indexing attention to, awareness of, and inhibitory control over automatic responses to affective social stimuli. Dispositional mindfulness predicted larger (more negative) N100, N200 and No-Go N200 amplitudes during the Emotional Go/No-Go task, but was not ...


An Examination Of Disgust, Its Measures, And Gender Differences In The Experience Of Disgust Sensitivity, Diane M. Kedzierski Jan 2013

An Examination Of Disgust, Its Measures, And Gender Differences In The Experience Of Disgust Sensitivity, Diane M. Kedzierski

Theses and Dissertations

The emotion of disgust is understudied. It has been implicated in various forms of psychopathology, but its overall influence remains unclear. New and improved methods and constructs are required if we are to better understand the relationship of disgust in attitude formation and psychological functioning. This study was an investigation of a measure referred to herein as the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Evolutionary Scale (DPSES). A total of 655 participants were recruited from a private university in the southeastern United States to complete a pencil -and-paper version of the measure in exchange for course credit. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an ...


Examination Of The Limbic System's Role In Emotional Experience Using A Human Lesion Model, Justin Stanich Feinstein May 2012

Examination Of The Limbic System's Role In Emotional Experience Using A Human Lesion Model, Justin Stanich Feinstein

Theses and Dissertations

The current prevailing notion is that the limbic system is inextricably linked to emotion, and indeed, most textbooks, research articles, and scientific lectures tout the limbic system as being the predominant purveyor of emotional processing in the brain. Yet, more than a half-century of research has produced surprisingly little evidence in support of such a notion, suggesting that the concept of an emotional limbic system is overly simplistic. The primary objective of this thesis is to determine whether the limbic system is necessary for one aspect of emotion, namely, its conscious experience. Neurological patients with focal damage to different regions ...


Associations Between Binge Eating And Executive Functioning Among Young Women, Nichole Kelly Apr 2012

Associations Between Binge Eating And Executive Functioning Among Young Women, Nichole Kelly

Theses and Dissertations

Binge eating is a pervasive disordered eating behavior associated with numerous psychological and physical comorbidities. Preliminary research indicates that emotion regulation difficulties, behavioral impulsivity, and executive dysfunction may contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of these behaviors. However, few studies have utilized neuropsychological measures to examine this link, and the assessment of behavioral and cognitive emotion regulation strategies are limited in scope. The purpose of the current study was to gain a deeper understanding of the emotional, behavioral and cognitive processes associated with binge eating behavior. Greater clarity regarding how these factors relate to binge eating is critical to ...


The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk Jan 2012

The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Hierarchical Structure Of Emotional Expressivity: Scale Development And Nomological Implications, John Jeffrey Humrichouse May 2010

The Hierarchical Structure Of Emotional Expressivity: Scale Development And Nomological Implications, John Jeffrey Humrichouse

Theses and Dissertations

Integrating existing models of emotional expressivity, the 3-level hierarchical model contains a general factor of emotional expressivity vs. inexpressivity at the highest level; relatively independent factors of positive and negative expressivity at the second-order level; and discrete expressivity factors of sadness, hostility, guilt/shame, fear, joviality, confidence and amusement at the lowest level. The bottom-up analytic strategy consisted of identifying first the structure of the discrete affects; subsequent second-order factor analyses supported the existence of the higher order factors. The Iowa Scales of Emotional Expressivity (ISEE)--a hierarchical set of scales--systematically incorporate the level of abstraction of the items to ...


Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen Dec 2009

Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen

Theses and Dissertations

Most research investigating vocal expressions of emotion has focused on one or more of three questions: whether there exist unique acoustic profiles of individual encoded emotions, whether the nature of emotion expression is universal across cultures, and how accurately decoders can identify expressed emotions. This dissertation begins to answer a fourth question, whether there exist unique patterns in the types of acoustic properties persons focus on to identify vocalized emotions. Three hypotheses were tested: first, whether acoustic patterns are interpreted idiographically or nomothetically as reflected in a comparison of individual vs. group lens model identification ratios; second, whether there exists ...


Emotional Regulation In Infants Of Postpartum Depressed Mothers, Christina Louise Franklin Dec 2009

Emotional Regulation In Infants Of Postpartum Depressed Mothers, Christina Louise Franklin

Theses and Dissertations

A large body of evidence has accumulated which indicates that infants of postpartum depressed mothers are at risk for negative sequelae including later psychopathology. However, methodological difficulties including discordant definitions of postpartum depression and the use of paradigms which used the mother-infant relationship to assess infant emotional expression and regulation have decreased the ability to reach a consensus regarding the nature and transmission of that risk. This study sought to address those methodological difficulties by employing an established paradigm designed to elicit emotionality in infants, the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith & Rothbart, 1999).

Participants were 30 women who met ...


The Development And Validation Of The Ares: A Measure Of A Person's Proclivity To Attribute Responsibility To Others For Their Emotions, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen Mar 2008

The Development And Validation Of The Ares: A Measure Of A Person's Proclivity To Attribute Responsibility To Others For Their Emotions, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen

Theses and Dissertations

Research involving attribution theories typically surrounds attributions of responsibility for actions in general. However, people also regularly attribute responsibility to themselves, others, or environmental circumstances for emotions. This research aims to develop a measure of a person's proclivity to attribute responsibility to others for their emotions—the Attributions of Responsibility for Emotions Scale (ARES). The research involves two studies, the first designed to develop items for inclusion in the ARES, and the second designed to validate and determine the reliability of the ARES. Participants in Study 1 included 71 (30 male and 41 female) undergraduate students from Brigham Young ...


The Predictive Relationship Of Inhibitory Control, Emotion Regulation, Moral Emotions, And Life Stressors On Behavior Problems In School-Aged Children Of Incarcerated Mothers, Geraldine M. Lotze Jan 2006

The Predictive Relationship Of Inhibitory Control, Emotion Regulation, Moral Emotions, And Life Stressors On Behavior Problems In School-Aged Children Of Incarcerated Mothers, Geraldine M. Lotze

Theses and Dissertations

Children whose mothers go to prison are at high risk for poor outcomes of many kinds,including externalizing behaviors, internalizing disorders, school dropout, and eventual criminal activity. Inhibitory control, moral emotions, emotion regulation, and stressful life events were examined as predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in children of incarcerated mothers. Participants were 50 children age 6 to 12 years (M = 9.77 y, SD = 1.54) with mothers currently in prison who attended a faith-based recreational summer camp. Inhibitory control was not impaired in these children, showing that their brains were functioning appropriately in this area of executive functioning ...