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The Feedback-Related Negativity Is A Time-Dependent Brain Mechanism That Facilitates Aversive Learning: Implications For The Reinforcement Learning Frn Hypothesis, Eric Rawls Dec 2019

The Feedback-Related Negativity Is A Time-Dependent Brain Mechanism That Facilitates Aversive Learning: Implications For The Reinforcement Learning Frn Hypothesis, Eric Rawls

Theses and Dissertations

Organisms encode rewarding and aversive experiences through reinforcement learning, capitalizing on prediction errors (PEs), which adapt action strategies over time. Computational theories are explicit that PE signals should update action weights continuously over the course of a behavioral task, an important time-dependent variation that is eschewed in traditional neuroscience studies that average over large numbers of trials. I examined variation in reaction times and feedback-locked cortical activity over time as a function of PE to critically examine theories indicating that PE signals drive time-dependent learning. We recorded EEG while participants completed a novel reinforcement task that varied prediction error on ...


Components Of Mindfulness Training: Impacts On Attention And Affect, Maximilian Fey Dec 2019

Components Of Mindfulness Training: Impacts On Attention And Affect, Maximilian Fey

Theses and Dissertations

The literature on mindfulness supports a distinction between two components of non-judgmental acceptance and directed attention. The present research analyzed whether there are distinct differences in attentional capabilities or affect between mindfulness inductions which differed in either including only directed attention or directed attention and non-judgmental acceptance. I hypothesized that the acceptance component of mindfulness would increase participants sustained attentional capabilities relative to a control condition; furthermore, I hypothesized that the non-judgmental acceptance component of mindfulness would lead to significant increases in positive affect and decreases in negative affect relative to control. Lastly, I hypothesized that an individual difference measure ...


Mindfulness And Blood Pressure Across Demographics: Analyses From The Serenity Study, Gabrielle R. Chin Aug 2019

Mindfulness And Blood Pressure Across Demographics: Analyses From The Serenity Study, Gabrielle R. Chin

Theses and Dissertations

Mindfulness, as a state, trait, and training, is linked with myriad positive mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding the individual characteristics potentially influencing links between mindful traits, mindfulness training, and physical health, is therefore important, yet remains under-addressed. Utilizing data from the ongoing Serenity Study (NCT02371317), the current project examines if (1) at baseline, higher trait mindfulness relates to lower BP consistently as a function of demographics, (2) Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training lowers BP consistently across demographic subgroups and initial levels of trait mindfulness, and (3) if change in trait mindfulness following MBSR training correlates with change in BP ...


When Children Hurt You: Examining The Experiences Of Clinicians Who Work With Aggressive Young Children, Melisa Madsen Aug 2019

When Children Hurt You: Examining The Experiences Of Clinicians Who Work With Aggressive Young Children, Melisa Madsen

Theses and Dissertations

This grounded theory qualitative research study examined the experiences of mental health staff who work with aggressive young children under the age of 9. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, participants were asked about individual and organizational aspects that affect the care they provide to young children and their decision to stay with the organization. 14 mental health professionals from five different intensive outpatient programs for youth with behavioral concerns were interviewed. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin’s (1998) three-step data analysis process of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. In answer to the question “What experiences ...


Intersecting Realities: A Qualitative Study Exploring The Experiences Of Stress And Coping Among Transgender Latinx Immigrants, Silvia P. Salas Aug 2019

Intersecting Realities: A Qualitative Study Exploring The Experiences Of Stress And Coping Among Transgender Latinx Immigrants, Silvia P. Salas

Theses and Dissertations

Research on Trans immigrant communities of Latinx descent is underdeveloped, with even less emphasis on how this community experiences and copes with the stressors associated with their membership in multiple oppressed social groups (e.g., ethnicity, gender identity, and immigration status). Nativism, ethnocentrism, and cissexism all impact Trans Latinx immigrants, heightening their risk of being targets of community violence, hate crimes, and discrimination associated with their ethnicity, gender identity, and immigration status. These stressors and violence may be experienced by this community from within and outside their respective communities (e.g., Trans Community, Latinx Community, and Broader U.S. Community ...


Psychosocial Characteristics Of Children With And Without Toileting Dysfunction, Ellen Sejkora Aug 2019

Psychosocial Characteristics Of Children With And Without Toileting Dysfunction, Ellen Sejkora

Theses and Dissertations

Toilet training is a stressful time for parents and families; however, pediatric providers are often uncertain of how to guide parents through this period because of limited systematic research in this area. The current study investigated the role of timing and method of toilet training, use of physician and community resources, and parent and child psychosocial variables to better understand normative toilet training and clarify the role of family, parent, and child characteristics in the toilet training process. The literature regarding early childhood development and normative toileting was reviewed, followed by a discussion of voiding dysfunction and relevant psychosocial and ...


Deaf Cultural Socialization: Exploring The Role Of Parents In Deaf Cultural Identity Development, Macrae Husting Aug 2019

Deaf Cultural Socialization: Exploring The Role Of Parents In Deaf Cultural Identity Development, Macrae Husting

Theses and Dissertations

There is an assumption in the Deaf identity literature that suggests that parents’ hearing status determines the cultural identity and well-being of deaf and hard of hearing individuals. This dissertation challenges that assumption. It does so by proffering an alternative explanation of the role that parents play by introducing two forms of socialization as mechanisms through which parents influence their child’s cultural identity development and well-being. Deaf cultural socialization is the process by which parents transmit messages to children regarding the importance and meaning of Deaf culture and membership in the Deaf community. Minority status socialization is the process ...


The Impact Of Mother And Adolescent Offspring Distress Reduction Training On Maternal Anxiety And Alcohol Related Behaviors Following Conflict, Sarah Ann Bilsky Aug 2019

The Impact Of Mother And Adolescent Offspring Distress Reduction Training On Maternal Anxiety And Alcohol Related Behaviors Following Conflict, Sarah Ann Bilsky

Theses and Dissertations

Nearly half of people suffering from psychopathology meet criteria for more than one disorder. Scholars have focused on understanding factors that may simultaneously maintain multiple psychiatric problems. Elevated distress during interpersonal conflict is likely to maintain both alcohol use and anxiety psychopathology. Reducing distress elicited by normative mother-adolescent conflict holds particular promise. Conflict is common in families with problematic drinking and anxiety disorders and the affective impact of parent-offspring conflict is malleable. Distress reduction skills, such as cognitive reappraisal, are effective in reducing distress during conflict. The current study examined the unique and combined effects of training mothers and adolescents ...


Preliminary Outcomes, Acceptability, And Feasibility Of A Brief Crisis Response Planning Intervention For Reducing Suicide Risk In Primary Care Behavioral Health Patients, Aubrey R. Dueweke Aug 2019

Preliminary Outcomes, Acceptability, And Feasibility Of A Brief Crisis Response Planning Intervention For Reducing Suicide Risk In Primary Care Behavioral Health Patients, Aubrey R. Dueweke

Theses and Dissertations

Primary care is an important setting for improving identification and treatment of people at risk for suicide. However, there are few developed protocols for management of suicide risk in this setting. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary outcomes, acceptability, and feasibility of a brief crisis response planning intervention for patients at a moderate risk for suicide in a primary care behavioral health (PCBH) setting. The outcomes examined included change in suicidal cognitions, suicidal intent, hope, and coping efficacy. Twenty-two adult primary care patients at moderate risk for suicide participated in this study, which involved filling out self-report measures before ...


How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian Aug 2019

How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian

Theses and Dissertations

Sexual assault among young adults is a highly prevalent public health concern. Alcohol is often implicated as a risk factor for sexual assault through its impairing effects on an individual’s ability to process and respond to social cues in the environment. The effect of alcohol myopia can result in greater focus of attention on salient environmental cues. The relationship between alcohol intoxication and resulting behavior may depend on what type of information is most salient. The current study examined the effects of alcohol on social information processing as it relates to sexual assault risk detection. Method: Participants were 48 ...


Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick Aug 2019

Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick

Theses and Dissertations

Research has demonstrated that hate is a protective emotional response to perceived evil, yet the dimensions by which people perceive evil have not been clearly identified. Research has also indicated that it is evil to feel hate, which presents an interesting paradox: if hate protects us from evil, then how can it be evil to feel hate? The present research attempts to identify the dimensions of evil and elucidate the relationship between hate and evil by comparing it to the relationship between dislike and evil. Study 1 tested how participants identified evil in third person scenarios. As predicted, evil was ...


Dynamics Of Momentary Perceived Self-Regulation Abilities As Novel Predictors Of Overeating In Daily Life, Kayla Dawn Skinner Aug 2019

Dynamics Of Momentary Perceived Self-Regulation Abilities As Novel Predictors Of Overeating In Daily Life, Kayla Dawn Skinner

Theses and Dissertations

Despite an increase of research in the realm of overeating - a well-known contributor to obesity - the psychological mechanisms that maintain overeating behaviors across time and context are still poorly understood. It may be that people’s perceptions of their self-regulation abilities fluctuate over time, and overeating results from momentary increases in negative mood eliciting negative perceptions of their self-efficacy and current willpower, stronger beliefs that cravings can be controlled and a greater ability to tolerate distress. The current study examined the dynamics of and momentary predictors of overeating using a 7-day EMA protocol to study unsuccessful restrained eaters (n = 94 ...


"I Like . . . Red Bone:" Colorism, Rappers, And Black College Sorority Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Whitney Frierson Aug 2019

"I Like . . . Red Bone:" Colorism, Rappers, And Black College Sorority Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Whitney Frierson

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, I examine black college sorority women’s views about skin tone bias in hip-hop culture. I conduct interviews with 12 black undergraduate women in Black Greek Letter Sororities at a predominantly white institution. Prior research finds that rap music sends skin color messages to adolescent women through lyrical content and music videos. I build on this work by exploring how the experiences of being in college shape black college sorority women’s views on skin tone bias and hip-hop. I find that time in college has been an important life stage in which black sorority women gained ...


Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race Aug 2019

Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race

Theses and Dissertations

Confidence can be a strong predictor of accuracy if circumstances are ideal (Wixted & Wells, 2017), but ideal circumstances are not always present. As such it is important to understand ways to ameliorate potentially negative effects on eyewitness metacognition. Rapport building, though seen as an important element of police/witness interaction (Vallano et al., 2015), can lead to some potentially negative memory effects (Wright et al., 2015). Additionally steering, or the process of directing a witness toward a particular suspect, can increase false identifications. Recently the researcher has developed a paradigm meant to better calibrate confidence by reinstating the context of ...


Emotion Identification And Beliefs About Emotions As Mediators Of Ptsd And Parenting Meta-Emotion Philosophies, Maegan Calvert Aug 2019

Emotion Identification And Beliefs About Emotions As Mediators Of Ptsd And Parenting Meta-Emotion Philosophies, Maegan Calvert

Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 20% of women are sexually victimized and incarcerated women’s rates of victimization are much higher. In addition, women have a higher rate of PTSD and trauma-related sequelae than men. Interpersonal trauma experiences can have a negative impact on emotional processes such as alexithymia, recognizing others’ emotions, and healthy beliefs about emotional experiences. These difficulties are associated with problematic parenting. However, the mediational processes by which PTSD and disruptive emotional processes affect parenting is unclear. The current study examines the associations among PTSD, alexithymia, negative beliefs about emotions, emotion recognition in children, and parenting meta-emotion philosophies in incarcerated women ...


The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland Aug 2019

The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how the anxiety levels of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy are affected while holding hands with a secure attachment. This study utilized three experimental single-case designs: participant one measured under a B-design, participant two measured under a B-A design, and participant three measured under an A-B design. Each participant’s anxiety was assessed during six chemotherapy treatments and one meeting with their primary oncologist to discuss the prognosis of their cancerous disease. Results visually indicate a greater effect on anxiety reduction during treatment when the intervention is utilized compared to only ...


Tattoo Narratives And Counseling, Danny Lane Mccarty Aug 2019

Tattoo Narratives And Counseling, Danny Lane Mccarty

Theses and Dissertations

Much research has been done on tattoos and on those who acquire them, but most of the research has focused on negative correlations that might exist with people who have tattoos. This current research, however, showed that people’s tattoo narratives can relate to how they view self, others, and the world, and to how they approach life. A narrative approach to qualitative research was used, and ten people participated in the study. Participants’ views of self, others, and the world were discussed as these views emerged from the narratives. Their possible approaches to life were also addressed. Themes that ...


The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson Aug 2019

The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. For example, after returning from war, a person might begin to experience fear in response to the sound of fireworks, a stimulus typically regarded as safe. When excessive, “overgeneralization” serves as a core feature of fear and anxiety-related disorders, such as PTSD. The present collection of studies sought to investigate the neural correlates and temporal dynamics of fear generalization in humans.

The first study sought to investigate the causal role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus in the generalization of fear. Contrary ...


Communication Infrastructure Theory: A Rural Application, Callie S. Embry Aug 2019

Communication Infrastructure Theory: A Rural Application, Callie S. Embry

Theses and Dissertations

The health of a community’s communication infrastructure influences their efficacy and efficiency in dealing with societal problems. The majority of previous communication infrastructure research has focused on multicultural urban centers. This study looks at the communication infrastructure of one rural Arkansas town, specifically looking for the places residents report as communication assets and the subjects discussed within the storytelling network. I used a combination of communication asset mapping and semi-structured interviews to identify the physical locations within the community where residents regularly converse with one another. The interviews along with observations also provided insight into the subject matter that ...


Community College Students’ Perceptions Of Law Enforcement, Jason L. Sharp Aug 2019

Community College Students’ Perceptions Of Law Enforcement, Jason L. Sharp

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to extend our understanding of public perception towards law enforcement. Students from three different Kansas community colleges were surveyed about their perceptions of law enforcement effectiveness and professionalism, and what might impact those perceptions.

A total of 159 community college students responded to the survey. The majority of the respondents were female (78%), and Caucasian (77.4%). Respondent’s age represented the following percentage breakdowns: 29.6% being 18-19 years old, 27.7% being 20-24 years old, and 30.8% being 25-34. Resulting in 88% of respondents being between the ages of 18-34 years ...


Effects Of Multivitamin-Mineral Supplementation On Mental Health Among Young Adults, Ya-Hsuan Chang Aug 2019

Effects Of Multivitamin-Mineral Supplementation On Mental Health Among Young Adults, Ya-Hsuan Chang

Theses and Dissertations

The percentage of young adults who had mental illnesses has increased from 2008 to 2015. However, few existing studies investigating the potential benefits of multivitamin-mineral (MVM) supplementation on mental health focused on young adults (18-24 years of age), whose eating behaviors are often unhealthy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a MVM supplement on mental health in young adults. One hundred and thirty-three college students (Mage=20.59, SD=1.77; 80.15% female) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed either a MVM supplement or a placebo for 30 days. The supplement ...


Implicit Bias And The Boundaries Of Belief: A Single-Representational Dual-Attitude Account Of Implicit Attitudes, Austin Dakota Synoground Aug 2019

Implicit Bias And The Boundaries Of Belief: A Single-Representational Dual-Attitude Account Of Implicit Attitudes, Austin Dakota Synoground

Theses and Dissertations

Since their inception, implicit attitudes have been defined as associative mental states, separate from beliefs, which are considered to be propositional in nature. Recently, several philosophers have challenged this distinction, arguing that implicit attitudes are actually unconscious beliefs. In turn, I argue that the attitudes detected by current experimental paradigms are blind to distinctions between implicit attitudes, which I define as the products of an associative learning mechanism, and unconscious beliefs, which are the products of a propositional learning mechanism. Specifically, I argue for a single-representational dual-attitude account of implicit bias.


Need Fulfillment And Happiness In Botswana, Carolyn Moe Jul 2019

Need Fulfillment And Happiness In Botswana, Carolyn Moe

Theses and Dissertations

Happiness has been an important aspect of people’s lives spanning centuries and continents; as such, it is a widely researched area. A current prominent theory in happiness research is Needs Theory which has the premise that there are universal human needs and having these needs met would lead to a person’s happiness. Most often, the needs referenced are those presented by Abraham Maslow including needs of physiology, safety and security, love and belonging, esteem, knowing and understanding, aesthetics, self-actualization and transcendence. However, some studies have found that there are individuals who do not fit this theory either through ...


Reassessing The Confluence Model Of Men's Risk Of Sexual Aggression, Ebru Yucel Jul 2019

Reassessing The Confluence Model Of Men's Risk Of Sexual Aggression, Ebru Yucel

Theses and Dissertations

The confluence model of sexual aggression has been a gold standard for identifying men's risk of sexual aggression. However, many replications and iterations of the model have continued to produce similar results with slight improvement. This consistent occurrence may be due to changes in the dating landscape that have occurred since the synthesis of the confluence model. In addition, these replications and iterations of the confluence model have utilized different ways of measuring one of the core constructs of the confluence model: impersonal sex. This study had two aims: (1) identify the best method of measuring impersonal sex, and ...


Suicide Literacy And Laypersons’ Ability To Accurately Recognize Suicide Warning Signs And Risk Factors, Salman Ibrahim Jul 2019

Suicide Literacy And Laypersons’ Ability To Accurately Recognize Suicide Warning Signs And Risk Factors, Salman Ibrahim

Theses and Dissertations

Suicide is considered a public health crisis in the United States due to the large number of individuals attempting and completing suicide each year. Oftentimes, the first line of defense or “gatekeepers” against suicide is non-mental health professionals. The body of literature on suicide risk assessment has not explored the efficacy of non-mental health professionals’ ability to accurately recognize various levels of suicide risk. This study focused on examining whether non-mental health professionals ability to accurately recognize suicide risk in others is influenced by their level of suicide literacy (knowledge regarding the various aspects of suicide). This study also examined ...


Assessing The Functions Of Prescription Stimulant Abuse Among College Students, Matthew J. Dwyer Jul 2019

Assessing The Functions Of Prescription Stimulant Abuse Among College Students, Matthew J. Dwyer

Theses and Dissertations

Non-medical prescription stimulant use (NMPSU), such as using medications like Ritalin, Adderall, and Concerta without a prescription or at a higher dosage than prescribed, is a rising trend in American adults. Use is most prevalent among college age adults (18-25 years old). Survey research among experienced users has identified several reasons college students are engaging in NMPSU, including enhancement of cognitive, athletic, and social performance, but less is known about how the relative reinforcing value differs based on the reasons of use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks have been used to capture reinforcer strength and motivation related to use of ...


A Mixed Methods Psychometric Validation Of The Microaggression Experiences Among University Women Of Color Scale, Kinjal Pandya Jul 2019

A Mixed Methods Psychometric Validation Of The Microaggression Experiences Among University Women Of Color Scale, Kinjal Pandya

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to develop a measure of gender and racial microaggressions among university women of color (WOC). Microaggressions are conceptualized as verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights that can be intentional or unintentional, but communicate derogatory messages towards a group of marginalized people. Despite many qualitative, legal, and narrative reports of microaggressions against university WOC, there are no validated measures specific to the experiences of WOC in academic settings. This study attempts to fill that gap by creating and testing the factor structure of a measure of microaggressions experienced by university WOC. Phase I of ...


Risk And Resistance Factors For Depression And Anxiety Among Youth With Sickle Cell Disease, Laura Reinman Jul 2019

Risk And Resistance Factors For Depression And Anxiety Among Youth With Sickle Cell Disease, Laura Reinman

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: Depression and anxiety are common problems for adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). It is important to understand both risk and resiliency factors contributing to psychological outcomes among youth with SCD in order to prevent and effectively treat such problems. To better elucidate contributing factors to depression and anxiety among youth with SCD selected risk and resiliency factors from the risk-and-resistance model adapted for SCD were examined (Barakat, Lash, Lutz, & Nicolaou, 2006). The risk factor of fatigue and resistance/resiliency factors of cognitive appraisal of stress and self-concept are of focus because they have been understudied, and their temporal ...


What Black College Students Say About Race: An Exploration Of Peer Racial Socialization, Alexandrea R. Golden Jul 2019

What Black College Students Say About Race: An Exploration Of Peer Racial Socialization, Alexandrea R. Golden

Theses and Dissertations

In addition to the normative tasks of emerging adulthood and stressors of transitioning into the college environment, Black undergraduate students must also contend with race-related stressors (i.e., racial discrimination, racial stereotypes). Studies suggest that parent-child communications preparing youth for encounters of racism and instilling pride about their race (i.e., parent racial socialization) protect youth from the ramifications of racial discrimination (Harris-Britt, Valrie, Kurtz-Costes, & Rowley, 2007). Although peers have been identified as another important resource in the racial socialization process (Lesane-Brown, Brown, Caldwell, & Sellers, 2005) as well as youth’s ability to cope with discrimination (Datnow & Cooper, 1997; Butler-Barnes, Chavous, Hurd, & Varner, 2013), the positive impacts of peers in the lives of Black youth have gone largely understudied. As such, additional study is needed to understand peer-specific race socialization practices among college students and their relation to Black college students’ discrimination experiences and subsequent outcomes.

Using a multi-method qualitative approach, the current study sought to fill this gap by highlighting the contributions of peer racial socialization in the development of Black adolescents. Specific research questions are as follows: (1A) What is the process (i.e., thematic content, frequency, circumstances) of peer racial socialization messages between Black college students and their peers; (2) What is the concordance between peer racial socialization content and modalities and current conceptualizations of parent racial socialization; (3) How do peer racial socialization messages differ between males and females. Participants ...


The Influence Of Adhd Symptoms And Social Functioning On Anxiety And Depression Symptoms In College Students, Danielle Willis Jul 2019

The Influence Of Adhd Symptoms And Social Functioning On Anxiety And Depression Symptoms In College Students, Danielle Willis

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with impaired social functioning in children and adolescents. ADHD and poor social functioning have been shown to be separately associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms as well. However, little research has examined these associations among college students. College is a transitional period of increased stress and exposure to new social situations for all students, but may be even more challenging for those with ADHD, who are already at risk for increased internalizing problems and impairment in social functioning. The current study aimed to examine the influence of ADHD ...