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Social Connectedness And Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Nicole Nunez May 2019

Social Connectedness And Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Nicole Nunez

Psychology

Eating disorders are a well-known and well-documented issue with known deleterious effects on one’s health. Because of this fact, it is important to identify protective factors against the development and/or maintenance of eating disorders. Social support has been identified as a factor that can play a role in recovery from eating disorders. While the importance of social support has been broadly examined in research, social connectedness specifically has been explored less explicitly. Social connectedness involves feelings of belonging, identification with others, and healthy social interaction. This study sought to assess the role of social connectedness in eating disorder ...


Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine May 2019

Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine

Psychology

The literature shows that words processed according to their survival relevance typically produce a memory advantage. Similarly, words containing an emotional connotation tend to lead to better memory. The current study examined whether combining both the survival processing effect and the emotion processing advantage would cause an interaction that amplified the effects on memory. Using a modified version of the traditional survival processing paradigm, participants rated emotion words (positive, negative, or neutral) on their relevance to a survival context or home-moving control context. They were later given a surprise recall task for the rated words. The results did not show ...


The Impact Of Exposure To The Thin Ideal On Chocolate Cravings In U.S. -Born Women, Kathryn M. Helm May 2019

The Impact Of Exposure To The Thin Ideal On Chocolate Cravings In U.S. -Born Women, Kathryn M. Helm

Psychology

Food cravings are experienced by a large proportion of the population and have a variety of negative implications- including overweight/ obesity, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. Prior research has shown a lack of support for biological causes of craving. As such, we look to other factors such as culture, cognition, and sex, to explore why such factors have an influence on craving. The purpose of this study is to look at the impact of viewing thin ideal images on chocolate cravings in United States born women-including (but not restricted to) their reports of ambivalence towards chocolate. Participants were randomized ...


Visual Search Array Structure And Satisfaction Of Search Errors: Evidence From Eye Movements, Leah Gloskey Dec 2018

Visual Search Array Structure And Satisfaction Of Search Errors: Evidence From Eye Movements, Leah Gloskey

Psychology

Multiple-target visual searches are susceptible to errors when the recognition of one target hinders the detection of another. This phenomenon is known as "satisfaction of search" (SOS; Tuddenham, 1962) or more recently "subsequent search misses" (SSM; Cain, et al. 2013). Although this phenomenon was first identified in radiology, SSM errors extend beyond the medical domain. Exploring SSM errors in proofreading, this study examines whether the discovery of one misspelled word interferes with the detection of a second misspelled word amongst other correctly spelled words. Manipulating the display structure of task, it is hypothesized that the pattern of SSM errors may ...


Empathy And Negative Reciprocity As Predictors Of Third-Party Punishment, Olivia Johansen May 2018

Empathy And Negative Reciprocity As Predictors Of Third-Party Punishment, Olivia Johansen

Psychology

What motivates us to punish others? Individual differences dictate most of our behaviors, so our beliefs about fairness and retribution play into the type and degree of punishment we administer. Past work has highlighted the significant negative correlation between empathy and punishment, but a potentially stronger predictor of punishment behavior exists. This study pits empathic concern against negative norms about reciprocity to see which is a better predictor of punishment behavior in an economic goods game. We predicted that the negative reciprocity would be a better predictor of punishment than empathy, but ultimately found that empathy prevailed as the stronger ...


Effects Of Stereotype Threat On Black And White Individuals’ Verbal Responses In Police Encounters, Samantha N. Strine May 2018

Effects Of Stereotype Threat On Black And White Individuals’ Verbal Responses In Police Encounters, Samantha N. Strine

Psychology

I examined whether Black and White individuals have different verbal behaviors in police encounters and, if so, whether stereotype threat explains these differences. This question is important because police officers use certain verbal behaviors as evidence of deception. Thus, unconscious behaviors arising from concern about being stereotyped as a criminal could cause Black men to be perceived by police as suspicious and, in turn, contribute to discrepancies in police treatment of Black versus White men. In this study, Black and White men interacted with a White security officer in a staged encounter that varied in stereotype relevance (low or high ...


Developmental Changes In Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 In The Postnatal Dentate Gyrus, Danielle Fico Apr 2018

Developmental Changes In Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 In The Postnatal Dentate Gyrus, Danielle Fico

Psychology

Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) has been established as a key modulator in the stress response. Areas of research have primarily focused on brain regions that control the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, extensive research has yet to be conducted on the CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) in the dentate gyrus, a region associated with memory functions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate age-related changes in CRFR1 in the granule layer and the hilus layer of the dentate gyrus in CRFR1 reporter mice at three different age groups; pre-pubertal (p21), adult (p90), and old (22-24 months) age. The results of ...


The Intrinsic Motivation Of Immigrant Women In Male-Dominated Fields Of Study, Cassandra Edwards May 2017

The Intrinsic Motivation Of Immigrant Women In Male-Dominated Fields Of Study, Cassandra Edwards

Psychology

The present study examined the hypothesis that female students with first- or second-generation immigrant status (vs. their native-born peers) would be better prepared academically and have stronger intentions of pursuing and staying within their current field of study. We focused specifically on students in STEM versus non-STEM fields, as STEM fields are traditionally male-dominated. We predicted that female immigrant STEM majors in particular would not only perform better than their non-immigrant male peers, but also cope with stressors more efficiently and be less vulnerable to stereotype threat. We tested our predictions by assigning participants to one of two possible conditions ...


Investigating The Roles Of Felt Obligation And Politics In The Context Of Procedural Justice-Outcome Relationships, Caitlin Briggs May 2017

Investigating The Roles Of Felt Obligation And Politics In The Context Of Procedural Justice-Outcome Relationships, Caitlin Briggs

Psychology

Social Exchange Theory positions employee felt obligation as a mechanism by which organizational justice leads to positive organizational outcomes such as decreased turnover and increased job satisfaction. However, little has been done to test the empirical value of this theoretical claim. Additionally, although organizational politics is generally negatively correlated with justice, investigation of the mechanism by which politics might influence justice is lacking. Here, I look at whether politics has a moderating role on procedural justice and felt obligation, and thus turnover intentions and job satisfaction, or in words, whether politics reduces the positive relationship between procedural justice and felt ...


Psychotherapy Clients’ Recalled Treatment Experiences: A Survey Of Perceived Evidence-Based Practice Elements, Yadi Chen May 2017

Psychotherapy Clients’ Recalled Treatment Experiences: A Survey Of Perceived Evidence-Based Practice Elements, Yadi Chen

Psychology

Background: Common evidence-based practice (EBPs) elements can be observed across cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) manuals for commonly occurring disorders. Example EBP elements include exposure, cognitive restructuring, teaching active coping skills (e.g., relaxation), enhancing positive affect, and facilitating a positive working alliance. It is unclear if EBP elements are frequently delivered or prioritized in routine psychotherapy. Also, little is known about the prevalence or pervasiveness of EBP elements from the routine clients’ perspective. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess psychotherapy clients’ self-reported retrospective treatment experiences with regard to common EBP elements. Method: Participants (N = 592) were consenting university ...


Follow-Up To An Early Intervention For Parents Of Young Children With Or At-Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexandra Payne May 2017

Follow-Up To An Early Intervention For Parents Of Young Children With Or At-Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexandra Payne

Psychology

The goal of this research was to study a training program for parents of young children with or at genetic risk for autism and assess the program’s impact on self-reported parent stress levels and competence beliefs. The current study was part of a larger parent training project at the Center for Autism and Related Disabilities (CARD) at the University at Albany, State University of New York. Parents completed assessment measures of stress, knowledge, and competence at pre-training, post-training, and again six weeks following the completion of the parent training. Paired samples t-tests were used to assess for significant changes ...


The Contributions Of Perceived Ethnic Discrimination And Rumination To Depression, Anxiety, And Anger In Emerging Adults, Alexis M. Lima May 2017

The Contributions Of Perceived Ethnic Discrimination And Rumination To Depression, Anxiety, And Anger In Emerging Adults, Alexis M. Lima

Psychology

Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED), a type of race-based social stress, is conceptualized as a subjective experience of discrimination based on phenotype, linguistic, or cultural characteristics. As an environmental stressor, it is associated with the same negative outcomes as other stressors such as greater depressive and anxious symptoms, poorer academic performance, and poorer health outcomes. Previous research has focused on PED’s association with mental and physical health outcomes, but cognitive factors (i.e., cognitive ruminations, coping strategies, executive functioning) that might mediate or moderate outcomes have received less attention. Moreover, while some research has investigated the associations of anger rumination ...


How Emerging Adults Are Affected By Parental Chronic Illness: A Study Of Psychosocial Functioning And Academic Achievement, Ashley May Jan 2017

How Emerging Adults Are Affected By Parental Chronic Illness: A Study Of Psychosocial Functioning And Academic Achievement, Ashley May

Psychology

Chronic illness is widespread and often affects parents, yet the impact of parental chronic illness on emerging adults has been largely ignored by research. The existing literature on the impact of chronic illness on family members suggests spousal and parental caregivers can suffer significant adverse psychological, social, cognitive, and physical consequences. This study was designed to examine the effects of parental chronic illness on children transitioning to adulthood. Participants were asked to complete several questionnaires, which quantified psychosocial and academic functioning of college students. Upon comparing those with parents with chronic illness to those without, we found that emerging adults ...


Homophobia In Non-Heterosexuals And Their Families, Merel Hermans May 2016

Homophobia In Non-Heterosexuals And Their Families, Merel Hermans

Psychology

Homophobia is described as the negative attitudes towards non-heterosexual individuals. The evolutionary advantage of homophobia and of sexualities other than heterosexuality remain poorly understood within evolutionary psychology. This research extends Gallup’s 1995 research, in which people were found to respond more negatively towards same-sex pairs (i.e. imagining their daughter spending time with a lesbian mother, and a son spending time with a gay father), than opposite-sex pairs.Gallup’s original study did not include lesbian, gay, bisexual and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, however given the increasing acceptance of these groups it is now appropriate to expand this research to ...


The Effects Of System Justification And Reminders Of Ingroup Disadvantage On Just World Beliefs, Lukas Sotola May 2016

The Effects Of System Justification And Reminders Of Ingroup Disadvantage On Just World Beliefs, Lukas Sotola

Psychology

The tendency to believe that people get what they deserve—termed just world beliefs—is a pervasive phenomenon associated with acceptance of the suffering of others. We tested whether we could decrease just world beliefs. We experimentally manipulated system justification, and gave participants false feedback on a gender Implicit Association Test telling them that they favor the “opposite” gender. For female participants, this false feedback represented a reminder of their ingroup’s low status by suggesting that they support the status quo that disadvantages women. Participants then completed a self-report measure of just world beliefs. As an indirect measure of ...


The Mediating Effect Of Moral Beliefs On Responses To Cyberbullying Scenarios, Valdis Rice May 2016

The Mediating Effect Of Moral Beliefs On Responses To Cyberbullying Scenarios, Valdis Rice

Psychology

Just as in traditional bullying, bystanders play a pivotal role in cyberbullying as well. The current study sought to elucidate characteristics that distinguish individuals who act as passive bystanders from those who intervene on a victim’s behalf who is cyberbullied (“active bystanders”). Of particular interest was to examine whether empathy, moral beliefs and emotion regulation predict bystanding. Social self-efficacy, i.e., the belief in one’s ability to express one’s opinion and handle interpersonal conflict, was also examined. A sample of 400 college students completed a set of self-report instruments assessing these constructs and cyberbullying. Additionally, participants were ...


Effects Of Massive Familiarization On Crossmodal Aesthetic Preference, Nicholas J. Voss, Dylan S. Campbell, Ronald S. Friedman May 2016

Effects Of Massive Familiarization On Crossmodal Aesthetic Preference, Nicholas J. Voss, Dylan S. Campbell, Ronald S. Friedman

Psychology

An investigation was carried out to determine whether familiarization to the experience of visual dissonance would have crossmodal effects on the preference for dissonant and consonant musical stimuli. We hypothesized that subjects who viewed a large number of disharmonious color combinations would come to show greater liking for dissonant musical stimuli than their counterparts who had seen either harmonious or single color images. Findings showed that there was no difference in preference between groups, though musical experience and score on a benign masochism measure predicted larger differences between average ratings of consonant and dissonant chords. These results are discussed in ...


Role Of Recent And Remote Context Exposures On Incubation Of Fear Memories, Peter Zambetti Dec 2015

Role Of Recent And Remote Context Exposures On Incubation Of Fear Memories, Peter Zambetti

Psychology

Studying learning and memory through the methods of Pavlovian fear conditioning has been a topic of behavioral neuroscience research for decades. Anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder can be modeled in rodents through fear conditioning. This study took on a different approach to study the learning and recall of a fear memory by using a within subjects group. This group was tested at both a recent and remote interval. The recent timepoint was three days after conditioning and the remote timepoint was thirty-one days after conditioning. The timepoints are used to observe the effect the passage of time has ...


The Effects Of Interpersonal And Noninterpersonal Loss On Music Preference, Alberte Bjornsson May 2015

The Effects Of Interpersonal And Noninterpersonal Loss On Music Preference, Alberte Bjornsson

Psychology

Through a series of studies, Lee, Andrade, and Palmer (2013) predicted and found that sadness caused by an interpersonal loss creates greater preference for listening to mood-congruent music than sadness caused by a noninterpersonal loss. However, in their experimental procedures, they inadvertently confounded the intensity of the sadness induced in the noninterpersonal and interpersonal sadness conditions, such that the interpersonal sadness condition created stronger feelings of sadness. The current study sought to replicate Lee et al.’s (2013) findings with the modification of unconfounding the intensity of sadness in the interpersonal and noninterpersonal conditions. After controlling for intensity, this study ...


The Role Of Transfer-Appropriate Processing In The Testing Effect, Mary T. Veltre May 2014

The Role Of Transfer-Appropriate Processing In The Testing Effect, Mary T. Veltre

Psychology

The testing effect is the finding that taking a review test enhances performance on a final test relative to merely restudying the material. I investigated the role of transfer-appropriate processing in the testing effect using semantic cues to evoke conceptual processing and orthographic cues to evoke data-driven processing. After an initial study phase, subjects either restudied the material or took a cued recall test consisting of half semantic cues and half orthographic cues. Two days later, all of the subjects returned for a final cued recall test. The final test consisted of the exact same cue given for that target ...


The Role Of Social Expressiveness Expectancies And Body Image In College Students’ Alcohol Use: A Moderation Model, Ashley Zenner May 2014

The Role Of Social Expressiveness Expectancies And Body Image In College Students’ Alcohol Use: A Moderation Model, Ashley Zenner

Psychology

This study examined the role of social expressiveness expectancies in the relationship between body image and alcohol use and explored possible gender differences. Body image, social expressiveness expectancies, alcohol use and consequences from alcohol use were examined using a moderation model. Based on the responses of 265 college students (160 women and 88 men) to self-report questionnaires the findings showed that women with poor body image and high social expressiveness expectancies used alcohol significantly more than women who did not have a poor body image. For men, no such relationship was observed. Contrary to hypotheses, negative consequences from alcohol use ...


The Effect Of Emotional Intelligence On The Relationship Between Negative Mood And Risk Taking, Gabriela Melillo May 2014

The Effect Of Emotional Intelligence On The Relationship Between Negative Mood And Risk Taking, Gabriela Melillo

Psychology

Emotional intelligence is conceptualized as encompassing perception, utilization, and management of emotion. Research suggests that the managing one’s own emotions subscale (MOE) may be particularly relevant to risky behaviors such as substance use and gambling. The present study examined the effects of emotional intelligence and mood manipulation on risk taking. Participants were randomly assigned to a positive, negative, or neutral mood condition. Baseline measures of mood state were obtained by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), followed by self-report questionnaires. Participants were then presented with a brief film clip for the mood manipulation. Immediately thereafter, a second PANAS ...


The Effect Of Harsh Parenting On Anxiety Levels In Adolescents As Moderated By Rsa And Family Stability, Laura B. Welburn May 2014

The Effect Of Harsh Parenting On Anxiety Levels In Adolescents As Moderated By Rsa And Family Stability, Laura B. Welburn

Psychology

The present study examines the relation between harsh parenting experienced during adolescence on anxiety symptoms during adulthood as moderated by the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity and family stability. Participants completed questionnaires assessing parenting styles, the regularity or family activities, and current anxiety symptoms (61 adults; mean age = 19.39 years; 50.8% European American; 47.5% male). PNS activity was measured by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The results suggest that among males, relatively high RSA buffers the effects of harsh parenting on anxiety symptoms. Also, for males, the stability of home life at relatively high levels can be ...


The Relationships Among Sharing Behaviors, Social Skills, And Problem Behaviors In Preschool Children, Taylor P. Bulman May 2013

The Relationships Among Sharing Behaviors, Social Skills, And Problem Behaviors In Preschool Children, Taylor P. Bulman

Psychology

Over the past few decades, the field of developmental psychopathology has become increasingly interested in children’s development during preschool, a time of immense cognitive and social growth (Parker et al., 2006). Past research indicates that prosocial behaviors exhibited during childhood can predict later adaptive functioning (Gresham et al., 2010). The goal of the present study was to explore the relationships among sharing behaviors, social skills, and problem behaviors in preschool children. Predominantly lower-income preschool children (N = 57, Male = 28) were recruited for participation. Teachers of the participants completed the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS). A modified version of a ...


Social Story Intervention For Children With Autism To Decrease Challenging Behaviors During Homework, Arianna Doss May 2013

Social Story Intervention For Children With Autism To Decrease Challenging Behaviors During Homework, Arianna Doss

Psychology

Researchers have created interventions to improve the social behavior and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder. One such intervention is called Social Stories, which describes social situations and their corresponding appropriate behaviors in order to help children with autism better understand social cues. Although several studies indicate the usefulness of this intervention, more evidence is needed. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of social stories in decreasing challenging behaviors of first-graders with autism during homework time and to measure changes in parental stress and family quality of life. Homework time was chosen because children with autism experience homework ...


Comparing Grief As A Negative Emotion To Survival For Memory Enhancement, Sarah Pate May 2013

Comparing Grief As A Negative Emotion To Survival For Memory Enhancement, Sarah Pate

Psychology

The survival memory effect tested using a comparison of a survival scenario to the strong negative emotion of a grief scenario. The main hypothesis was that strong, negative emotions allow one’s self to relate to the scenario as it seems to do in the survival scenario. Strong negative emotions may outperform survival in a free recall memory task due to deeper levels of processing. Grief and survival scenarios were compared to a moving scenario that was used as a control condition. The three scenarios were each followed by a list of separate words to be rated on their relevancy ...


Connection Between Cannabis Use And Psychosis And The Direct Vs. Indirect Form Of Inquiry To Combat Self-Report Bias, Lauren Grady May 2013

Connection Between Cannabis Use And Psychosis And The Direct Vs. Indirect Form Of Inquiry To Combat Self-Report Bias, Lauren Grady

Psychology

The purpose of this paper is to investigate two problems: one clinical and one methodological. The first is whether there is a connection between drug use, and specifically cannabis use, and psychosis. Previous research on the subject has provided mixed results. Van Os et al. (2002) and Arseneault et al. (2002) both found that cannabis use predicted the onset of psychosis. Van Dam, Earleywine, & DiGiacomo (2008) found that the use of other drugs was a better predictor of psychosis than cannabis alone. The second problem involves how to maximize honesty when people answer questions regarding their own drug use. Self-report ...


Factors Affecting The Detection Of Relationship Status Deception, Fatima Aboul-Seoud May 2013

Factors Affecting The Detection Of Relationship Status Deception, Fatima Aboul-Seoud

Psychology

Evolutionary theory predicts that people should have sex-specific adaptations based on differential reproductive costs and benefits. Males have to contend with the costs of being cuckolded, while females have to contend with the costs of being abandoned. Previous research on reproductive deception has shown that males and females engage in sex-specific deception in ways that maximize fitness. This project examined the ability to discern ingenuous and disingenuous claims about romantic and sexual relationship status. Participants viewed and rated the veracity of pre-recorded claims about targets’ relationship status. Results showed that the ability to discern claim veracity was dependent upon the ...


The Effects Of Progesterone Receptor On Development Of Serotonergic Circuits That Mediate Cognition, Heather Smith May 2013

The Effects Of Progesterone Receptor On Development Of Serotonergic Circuits That Mediate Cognition, Heather Smith

Psychology

As the rate of premature births has been substantially increasing, progestin administration is becoming a common treatment for the prevention of preterm labor. However, not much is known regarding how these hormonal supplements may affect the development of the fetal brain. The developing brain is highly sensitive to progesterone as progesterone receptor (PR) is expressed in many regions during critical developmental periods. Steroid hormone receptors such as PR are powerful transcription factors and regulate gene expression to alter fundamental processes of neural development. During the developmental period of post-natal day one (P1) to P14 in rats, PR is transiently expressed ...


The Moderating Effect Of Skin Conductance Level On The Relationship Between Family Conflict And Disordered Eating Behaviors, Laura B. Kenneally May 2013

The Moderating Effect Of Skin Conductance Level On The Relationship Between Family Conflict And Disordered Eating Behaviors, Laura B. Kenneally

Psychology

The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effect of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) on the relation between family conflict and disordered eating behaviors. Participants were 67 undergraduate students at the University at Albany, SUNY, ages 17 to 40. Researchers used a retrospective measure of harsh parenting and interparental aggression experienced during childhood and adolescence to determine how sympathetic activation interacts with family conflict in predicting disordered eating behaviors in a sample of university students. SNS activation was measured by baseline skin conductance level (SCL). Results indicated that SCL moderated the relationship between harsh parenting experienced during ...