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Long-Term Gene–Culture Coevolution And The Human Evolutionary Transition, Timothy M. Waring, Zachary T. Wood 2021 University of Maine

Long-Term Gene–Culture Coevolution And The Human Evolutionary Transition, Timothy M. Waring, Zachary T. Wood

School of Economics Faculty Scholarship

It has been suggested that the human species may be undergoing an evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI). But there is disagreement about how to apply the ETI framework to our species, and whether culture is implicated as either cause or consequence. Long-term gene–culture coevolution (GCC) is also poorly understood. Some have argued that culture steers human evolution, while others proposed that genes hold culture on a leash. We review the literature and evidence on long-term GCC in humans and find a set of common themes. First, culture appears to hold greater adaptive potential than genetic inheritance and is probably ...


Learning To Feel Safe: A Translational Study Of The Influence Of Safety Learning On Anxiety-Related Overgeneralized Fear, Hyein Cho 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Learning To Feel Safe: A Translational Study Of The Influence Of Safety Learning On Anxiety-Related Overgeneralized Fear, Hyein Cho

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health diagnoses, affecting about a third of the population in their lifetime. However, approximately a third of individuals with anxiety do not respond to current treatment approaches, highlighting the need to identify additional potential therapeutic mechanisms. Safety learning is one such mechanism, but methodological challenges and a dearth of research have prevented the field from advancing the understanding of the role of safety learning in the etiology and remediation of anxiety disorders. Animal research, using single-cued safety learning paradigms, has yielded promising early findings, demonstrating that safety learning directly reduces anxiety-related behaviors ...


Characterizing The Brain Dynamics And Eye Movement Behavior Of Memory-Guided Saccades: A Preliminary Investigation Of Distractor Influence On Memory-Guided Saccades, Angelo V. Colmenero 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Characterizing The Brain Dynamics And Eye Movement Behavior Of Memory-Guided Saccades: A Preliminary Investigation Of Distractor Influence On Memory-Guided Saccades, Angelo V. Colmenero

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research has helped to shed light on the functional organization and neural mechanisms of distractors on memory-guided saccades. In our current study we have utilized eye tracking and EEG technology to simultaneously record the changes in saccadic eye movement (SEM) behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with performance on a memory-guided saccade task with distractor conditions. Thirteen healthy control participants (n = 13; 6 female) were tasked to complete 864 memory-guided saccade trials with both visible (white) and invisible (black) distractors presented on a black background before saccade initiation. Compared with the control (black) distractor condition, distractor presentation produced a significant ...


Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter 2021 Brigham Young University

Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Darwin offered an evolutionary perspective on the origins of human morality, suggesting that humans share a biological foundation with nonhuman primates. This paper reviews the current literature on moral and prosocial behaviors of nonhuman primates, specifically examining whether nonhuman primates exhibit behaviors that are typical of empathy and fairness. The literature documents that nonhuman primates exhibit empathetic behaviors regarding emotional contagion and sympathetic concern. There is also evidence that nonhuman primates have a sense of fairness, seen in their reciprocal behaviors and aversion to inequity. Taken together, this suggests that there are evolutionary roots of morality, lending empirical support to ...


The Biopsychosocial Model And Clinical Decision Science In The Age Of Black Lives Matter: A Clinical Reflection, Abdul-Rahman M. Suleiman, Samer Ilayan 2021 Wayne State University School of Medicine

The Biopsychosocial Model And Clinical Decision Science In The Age Of Black Lives Matter: A Clinical Reflection, Abdul-Rahman M. Suleiman, Samer Ilayan

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

The author reflects on the biopsychosocial considerations of elevated blood pressure in teenage African American youth during the era of Black Lives Matter (BLM). Parallels are drawn between Dr. Engel’s biopsychosocial model and clinical decision science.


Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers 2021 Lesley University

Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The impact of a deafblind diagnosis on an individual’s mental health and the well-being of the family involved can be profound. However, current research and available literature for the mental health treatment and therapy practices of deafblind persons and their families is limited (Kyzar et al., 2016; “WFDB Global Report 2018,” n.d.). This thesis used the Leeds Family Psychology and Therapy Service principles (Leeds FPTS) and the Expressive Therapies Continuum with established deafblind teaching strategies to facilitate an original arts-based community project entitled: “Things We Like.” This project provided an opportunity for deafblind students (ages three to 22 ...


Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson 2021 The University of San Francisco

Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

The Japanese health practice of Reiki attempts to maximize the latent ability of the human system to heal itself. The Reiki system, established over a century ago, combines multiple Asian health traditions, experimenting with practices that maximize the natural processes of the body to perform its own repairs. Reiki encourages healthy behaviors that balance the mind and body, return the human system to a lowered stress level, and allow for an optimal recovery state for the patient. This paper illustrates how this Japanese health-affirming method can be integrated and utilized within existing health and medical practices. An area that is ...


Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips 2021 Cleveland State University

Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips

The Downtown Review

Personality research centered on the Big Five personality traits has heavily impacted our understanding in regards to what forces orient a person on a political spectrum. Examining how personality differences interact with political orientation, this research seeks to provide information on what makes someone either more or less likely to be liberal or conservative based on their temperament. In this paper, previous personality research is synthesized into one discussion, centered on what the effects of each trait are and how they impact political orientation, the heritability of personality, and what implications there are for such research in the realm of ...


Effects Of Neonatal Ethanol Exposure In Normal And Dopamine Deficient Rats, Jessica Luz Razo 2021 California State University - San Bernardino

Effects Of Neonatal Ethanol Exposure In Normal And Dopamine Deficient Rats, Jessica Luz Razo

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder characterized by impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity. In rodents, neonatal 6-OHDA lesions is an established model of ADHD because it produces symptoms of hyperactivity and cognitive deficits that improve following psychostimulant treatment. Recently, early alcohol exposure in rodents has also been suggested as a model of ADHD due to the high prevalence of ADHD in children exposed prenatally to alcohol. However, children exposed to prenatal alcohol differ in symptoms from children with idiopathic ADHD, suggesting that ADHD caused by prenatal alcohol exposure may be a special subtype of ADHD or a ...


The Neurobiological Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment And Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd), Morgan Clinton 2021 Pepperdine University

The Neurobiological Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment And Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd), Morgan Clinton

Global Tides

Childhood maltreatment compromises healthy development, impacts neurobiology, and is associated with lasting alterations to emotional perception, processing, and regulation. Most significantly, childhood maltreatment increases the risk for later development of emotional disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The stress associated with both childhood maltreatment and MDD can lead to lasting alterations to the fronto-limbic circuitry. Using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, researchers have observed hippocampal atrophy and amygdala hyperresponsiveness in participants who’ve experienced both childhood maltreatment and MDD. Furthermore, researchers have also observed increased connectivity between the hippocampus and amygdala in victims of childhood maltreatment. Because childhood ...


258— Differential Response To Cocaine In Mice Exposed To Stress, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Isabel Ross, Katie Bugbee, April Rowell, Jennifer Bodzon, Allison R. Bechard Ph.D. 2021 SUNY Geneseo

258— Differential Response To Cocaine In Mice Exposed To Stress, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Isabel Ross, Katie Bugbee, April Rowell, Jennifer Bodzon, Allison R. Bechard Ph.D.

GREAT Day

Exposure to trauma is a risk factor for substance use disorders. Using a mouse model of PTSD, we tested the effects of exposure to a stressor (synthetic fox pheromone: TMT) on response to cocaine. Cocaine induced locomotion and cocaine seeking behavior in a conditioned place preference (CPP) were assessed. TMT was an effective stressor, indicated by freezing behavior, which is a known fear response in mice. In both males and females, TMT-exposed mice showed a greater locomotor response to cocaine compared to control mice, resulting in the interaction between time and TMT treatment. TMT-exposed males, but not females, were overall ...


249— The Role Of The Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathway In A Mouse Model Of Repetitive Circling Behavior, Gavin Vaughan, Allison R. Bechard 2021 SUNY Geneseo

249— The Role Of The Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathway In A Mouse Model Of Repetitive Circling Behavior, Gavin Vaughan, Allison R. Bechard

GREAT Day

Repetitive behaviors are associated with a variety of disorders in humans and are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders. Repetitive behaviors can be modeled in rodents. In our previous experiments, we have been able to reduce repetitive circling behaviors in mice using a ketogenic diet. The mechanisms behind the ketogenic diet are still under investigation. Previous investigations have indicated that the ketogenic diet plays a role in neurotransmitter functioning. This study sought to investigate the potential role of neurotransmitters in repetitive behaviors by investigating how three drugs (L-741,626, a dopamine receptor antagonist; CGS21680, an adenosine agonist; & CDPPB, a glutamate positive ...


The Relationship Among Social Support, Stress, And Inflammatory Markers Among College Students: A Correlational Study, Bailey Bryant 2021 Southern Adventist University

The Relationship Among Social Support, Stress, And Inflammatory Markers Among College Students: A Correlational Study, Bailey Bryant

Campus Research Day

The relationship between psychological factors and the immune system is a relatively new area of study. Nevertheless, it has been found that significant relationships do exist among these variables; prolonged exposure to maladaptive forms of these variables may lead to the development or expression of inflammation. There is, however, a lack of studies that look at more than one variable in relationship to inflammation at a time. Thus, this study analyzes the correlation among social support, stress, and inflammatory markers among college students.

Keywords: mood, stress, inflammation, inflammatory markers, IL-6, social support, susceptibility


The Relationship Among Social Support, Stress, And Inflammatory Markers Among College Students: A Correlational Study, Bailey Bryant 2021 Southern Adventist University

The Relationship Among Social Support, Stress, And Inflammatory Markers Among College Students: A Correlational Study, Bailey Bryant

Campus Research Day

The relationship between psychological factors and the immune system is a relatively new area of study. Nevertheless, it has been found that significant relationships do exist among these variables; prolonged exposure to maladaptive forms of these variables may lead to the development or expression of inflammation. There is, however, a lack of studies that look at more than one variable in relationship to inflammation at a time. Thus, this study analyzes the correlation among social support, stress, and inflammatory markers among college students.


The Human Instinct To Resilience: Clinical And Evolutionary Efficacy Of Intrinsically Motivated Stressor Exposure, Brady Barley 2021 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

The Human Instinct To Resilience: Clinical And Evolutionary Efficacy Of Intrinsically Motivated Stressor Exposure, Brady Barley

Ramifications

Environmental stressors threaten optimal behavioral functioning, and thus contribute to the development of psychopathology and exert evolutionary selection pressure. Voluntary stressor exposure has the efficacious effect of increasing resilience to future stressors in humans and other animals. This theoretical paper considers the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation toward behaviors requiring voluntary stressor exposure mitigates evolutionary selection pressure exerted by environmental stressors by inducing neural and neuroendocrine plasticity which results in increased resilience. In this view, intrinsically motivated stressor exposure is both efficacious and innate. Empirical and theoretical support for this hypothesis suggest that humans possess an instinct to resilience. Stress-related disorders ...


Antecedents Of Borderline Personality Disorder And Antisocial Personality Disorder: An Examination Of Gene X Environment Interactions, Amy L. Medina 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Antecedents Of Borderline Personality Disorder And Antisocial Personality Disorder: An Examination Of Gene X Environment Interactions, Amy L. Medina

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Current thinking suggests that genotypes associated with impulse-control disorders and negative emotionality, such as monoamine oxidase-a (MAOA), interact with negative early environmental factors like childhood maltreatment and develop into the disorders know as Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). Using existing data from a prospective cohort design study of the consequences of child abuse and neglect, participants (N = 896 represent individuals with documented histories of child abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group that were followed up into adulthood and interviewed. A subsample of 631 participants gave permission for DNA extraction and analyses during a follow-up ...


Internal And External Challenges To Culpability, Stephen J. Morse 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Internal And External Challenges To Culpability, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article was presented at “Guilty Minds: A Virtual Conference on Mens Rea and Criminal Justice Reform” at Arizona State University’s Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law. It is forthcoming in Arizona State Law Journal Volume 53, Issue 2.

The thesis of this article is simple: As long as we maintain the current folk psychological conception of ourselves as intentional and potentially rational creatures, as people and not simply as machines, mental states will inevitably remain central to ascriptions of culpability and responsibility more generally. It is also desirable. Nonetheless, we are in a condition of unprecedented internal ...


Music And Its Effects On The Brain, Caitlyn Herron 2021 The University of Akron

Music And Its Effects On The Brain, Caitlyn Herron

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper will discuss, in short, how music influences our brain, as well as some behavioral and physiological effects as a result. The brain consists of many regions responsible for different cognitive processes, such as learning, memory, recall, speech, and our emotions. It has been found that music helps to facilitate all of these cognitive processes, regardless of its emotional valence or whether the music is active or passive, such as singing or listening to it, respectively. It was discovered that music influences our ability to learn novel concepts related to mathematics, reading, and even language acquisition. It was also ...


The Inevitability Of Collision: Creating Empathy Through Fiction, Danielle Beckman 2021 Regis University

The Inevitability Of Collision: Creating Empathy Through Fiction, Danielle Beckman

Student Publications

While the stigma for mental illnesses has greatly declined in the last decade, there is still a disconnect between individuals without neurological illnesses and those with neurological illnesses, especially those that cause individuals to lose contact with reality. The goal of this interdisciplinary paper is to create empathy for these individuals, specifically people with schizophrenia, Alzheimer disease, and post-traumatic amnesia. Through a collection of four stories told from the perspective of these unreliable narrators, I used fiction writing techniques from the field of cognitive literary studies such as gapping and defamiliarization to create more empathy in the reader. In reading ...


Analysis Of Circadian Rhythm Irregularities On The Health Of Shift Workers, Sahil Rajan 2021 The University of Akron

Analysis Of Circadian Rhythm Irregularities On The Health Of Shift Workers, Sahil Rajan

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Circadian rhythms involve the natural 24 wake-sleep cycle that governs proper maintenance of biological sleep schedules. Circadian rhythm disruption has been associated with health issues such as diabetes, obesity, and mental health disorders such as bipolar and sleep disorders. In this study, a survey method was utilized in order to analyze specific population demographics to determine whether working day or night shifts predisposed individuals to health issues due to disruptions in their circadian rhythms. This study was also carried out to observe popular coping strategies among night shift workers. Of all the variables tested comparing the difference between day and ...


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