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The Problem Of Blackness In America: Becoming When The Being Never Comes To Be, Nkiru Anyaegbunam 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Problem Of Blackness In America: Becoming When The Being Never Comes To Be, Nkiru Anyaegbunam

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The problem of Blackness in America is a consequence of the historical reality and continued legacies of colonialism, the triangular trade and chattel slavery that have been facilitated through violence and capitalism. This thesis will argue that this problem that is pronounced through racialized institutional systems of violence such as mass incarceration and housing inequality, which disproportionately negatively impacts Black Americans is part of a larger discourse on the human and (mis)recognition. This violence has created a quintessential incompleteness for Black Americans who neither are recognized as citizens nor human. The problem of Blackness will be continuously grounded in ...


Lactating Justice: Constructing A Society Economically Focused On Optimizing Health Through Human Lactation, Shadley Hobour 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Lactating Justice: Constructing A Society Economically Focused On Optimizing Health Through Human Lactation, Shadley Hobour

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper uses a qualitative research method to answer if a Universal Base Income would be a good economic policy to adopt to optimize Black chestfeeding. The key idea this thesis aims to clarify is how anti Blackness is killing Black people and how one economic policy could improve health. In this essay, I will break down the significance and importance of human lactation for lifelong better health, and investment in a UBI would especially work as a preventative measure for several health issues Black people experiences.


Pupil Responses To Emotional Images And Relations With Alexithymic And Autistic Traits, Margaret Grinshtein 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Pupil Responses To Emotional Images And Relations With Alexithymic And Autistic Traits, Margaret Grinshtein

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Comprehending emotional states in others and oneself is a complex cognitive process. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication and interaction difficulties. Autistic individuals often show socio-emotional difficulties specifically in emotion recognition and understanding. However, it has been posited that these emotion processing difficulties may be due to alexithymia, a distinct co-occurring phenomenon typified by difficulty in identifying and describing feelings. Autism, alexithymia, and emotion understanding have been studied through behavioral, neural, and psychophysiological methods, and the current study examines how these characteristics are related in a non-autistic sample. Pupil diameter was measured in response ...


Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioral changes which follow a 24-hour cycle. Drosophila Melanogaster’s circadian clock neuronal network (CCNN) has been identified and several subpopulations have been characterized based on previous studies; the classifications of subpopulations of neurons within the CCNN are based on a return of anticipatory locomotor activity preceding the two daily light transitions (Lights on = dawn/Lights off = dusk). The neurons responsible for the return of anticipatory morning locomotor activity have been referred to as the M-cells, the group of neurons known to rescue evening anticipatory locomotor activity have been termed the E-cells. In this study ...


Financial Openness And Economic Growth, Doo Kyun Wang 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Financial Openness And Economic Growth, Doo Kyun Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

An ongoing controversy in economics relates to the effect of financial openness on economic growth. Despite their longstanding nature, these questions are not easily resolved. Theoretically, capital market liberalization can lower the cost of capital. Given perfect international capital mobility, this can cause factor price equalization and finally accelerate economic growth. In contrast with the strong theoretical argument, empirical studies on the effect financial openness have on growth are still inconclusive.

Given the diverse perspective, the goal of this paper is to further investigate the role and effect of financial openness on economic growth in different time periods and at ...


A Machine Learning Approach To Text-Based Sarcasm Detection, Lara I. Novic 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Machine Learning Approach To Text-Based Sarcasm Detection, Lara I. Novic

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Sarcasm and indirect language are commonplace for humans to produce and recognize but difficult for machines to detect. While artificial intelligence can accurately analyze sentiment and emotion in speech and text, it may struggle with insincere and sardonic content, although it is possible to train a machine to identify uttered and written sarcasm. This paper aims to detect sarcasm using logistic regression and a support vector machine (SVM) and compare their results to a baseline.

The models are trained on headlines from a Kaggle dataset containing headlines from the satirical news website The Onion and serious news website Huffpost (formerly ...


North Of The Grid: The Black Experience Of 17th -19th Century Rural New York City, Stephanie E. Barnes 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

North Of The Grid: The Black Experience Of 17th -19th Century Rural New York City, Stephanie E. Barnes

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the United States, transatlantic slavery was a racial project and template for race-making which created a country that relied on institutions that were organized and performed through social stratification. Today, the nation still operates on systemically racist institutions that have benefited whites while disadvantaging ‘others.’ The narratives presented in American history are rooted in whiteness and benefit the white community while marginalizing nonwhites. Over two hundred years of slavery history in this country has been purposely manipulated and left out. My research focuses on using an historical archaeological framework to research and share the lives of free and enslaved ...


Expanding The Pronominal Account Of Tense: A Reexamination Of The Double Access Reading In English, Brynne E. Wilkinson 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Expanding The Pronominal Account Of Tense: A Reexamination Of The Double Access Reading In English, Brynne E. Wilkinson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this thesis I will argue that the double access reading in English is not limited to the present-under-past construction but is instead available in the present-under-future construction as well. Unlike the traditional present-under-past construction, however, the double access reading is not the only available reading in the present-under-future construction. I will present data that shows that any context which licenses the double access reading also necessarily licenses a simultaneous reading as a result of a Sequence of Tense rule. Additional data will show that, when interpreted de re, the embedded present tense in the present-under-future construction is constrained by ...


Covert Determiners In Appalachian English Narrative Declarative Sentences, William Oliver 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Covert Determiners In Appalachian English Narrative Declarative Sentences, William Oliver

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this thesis, I explore the syntax and semantics of covert determiners (Ds) in matrix subject determiner phrases (DPs) with definite specific interpretations. To conduct my investigation, I used the Audio-Aligned and Parsed Corpus of Appalachian English (AAPCAppE), a million-word Penn Treebank corpus, and the software CorpusSearch, a Java program that searches Penn Treebank corpora. My research shows that Appalachian English contains a linguistic phenomenon where speakers drop the D, replacing overt Ds with covert Ds, in definite specific DPs. For example, where Standard English speakers say The doctor came by horseback, Appalachian speakers may use a covert D in ...


Essays On Intergenerational Mobility In Education, Ercio A. Munoz Saavedra 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Essays On Intergenerational Mobility In Education, Ercio A. Munoz Saavedra

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of three chapters that investigate intergenerational mobility in education in Chile, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

Chapter 1: In this chapter, I estimate intergenerational mobility (IGM) in education using data from 91 censuses that span 24 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) over half a century. I measure upward mobility as the likelihood of obtaining at least a primary education for individuals whose parents did not finish primary school, whereas downward mobility as the likelihood of failing to complete primary education for individuals whose parents completed at least primary school. In addition, I explore ...


Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

MA is a potent, highly addictive psychomotor stimulant known to produce neurotoxic effects on the brain leading to neurological impairments1-6 characterized by neurodegeneration of dopaminergic fibers, cell bodies and pathways, as well as brain regions such as the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and midbrain1,5.

In MA addiction, women are more vulnerable to the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA compared to men. Adult human literature reveals gender differences in usage patterns and women demonstrate increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects and health effects of MA use. Women begin drug use at an earlier age, escalate drug use quicker ...


Unraveling The Double-Bind: An Investigation Of Black And Latina Women In Stem, Katlyn L. Milless 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Unraveling The Double-Bind: An Investigation Of Black And Latina Women In Stem, Katlyn L. Milless

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Civil rights activist Robert P. Moses was a driving force in defining equitable dissemination of quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education as an act of social justice. My work borrows this frame to highlight access to STEM education as a civil rights issue and to emphasize the importance of taking a social justice approach to interventions for those who experience intersecting systems of oppression (i.e., Black and Latina women), and for whom previous intervention efforts have not adequately addressed. Ameliorating racial and gender disparities through fostering psychological safety (e.g., belonging) in STEM fields has been a ...


Exploring Social Identity Threat And Safety Cues For Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Pansexual, And Queer Cisgender Women In Ob/Gyn Care, Rachel Fikslin 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Exploring Social Identity Threat And Safety Cues For Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Pansexual, And Queer Cisgender Women In Ob/Gyn Care, Rachel Fikslin

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, pansexual and queer (LGBPQ) cisgender women (CW) experience a number of health inequities compared to heterosexual cisgender women related to sexual and reproductive health. Heterosexist health care cultures may signal social identity threat for LGBPQ-CW that may undermine their health care engagement and outcomes. In three online studies, I examined the effects of two heterosexist cultures (i.e., gender essentialism and pronatalism) as well as two potentially identity-safe alternatives (i.e., gender diversity and reproductive/sexual autonomy) on the identity threat and health care engagement experiences of LGBPQ-CW in OB/GYN care.

In Study 1 (n = 213 ...


Cooperation Or Competition With China: Interest Groups And Us Policy On Climate Change, Lucia G. Green-Weiskel 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cooperation Or Competition With China: Interest Groups And Us Policy On Climate Change, Lucia G. Green-Weiskel

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation analyzes the existence of two constellations of political forces, emphasizing their relationship to each other and the link between their interests related to China and climate change. It argues that two China-related alignments on climate issues are driven by their opposing approaches to US China relations in general in such a way that the latter predicts the former. These broad but opposing coalitions of political forces—one favoring and one opposing cooperation with China—are made up of think tanks, NGOs and industry groups, which have demonstrated a convergence in policy preferences over the course of two presidential ...


A Solitary Solidarity: Conditions For Attunement In The "Migration Crisis" In Greece, Katherine Sheese 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Solitary Solidarity: Conditions For Attunement In The "Migration Crisis" In Greece, Katherine Sheese

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation I draw on ethnographic field work and qualitative interviews with activist volunteers in Greece in 2016 to explore the conditions for ethical and affective attunement in the face of crisis and complicity. I offer a thick description of the multiple injuries to one’s senses and sensemaking capacities and the contradictions, tensions, dilemmas that undermine the capacity for attunement, a term I use to refer to the overlapping abilities to feel, to be moved, and to locate oneself and to connect to others. I begin by developing a contextual analysis of the complex and contradictory machinery of ...


Survival Politics: Regime Security And Alliance Institutionalization, Inwook KIM, Jackson WOODS 2022 Singapore Management University

Survival Politics: Regime Security And Alliance Institutionalization, Inwook Kim, Jackson Woods

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

What determines states’ willingness to institutionalize alliances? Contrary to conventional emphasis on system-level conditions, we argue that states pay close attention to the domestic political consequences of institutionalizing alliances. This is particularly true for unequal allies. Client regimes are disproportionately sensitive to alliance design, as it affects patron allies’ ability to influence their military, distribute finance and arms, and legitimate preferred political groups. Two factors—power consolidation and political compatibility—determine whether the client views alliance institutionalization as complementary or conflictual with regime survival. The divergent alliance designs North and South Korea chose after the Korean War support our argument ...


Testing The Dimensionality Of Policy Shocks, Jia LI, Viktor TODOROV, Qiushi. ZHANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Testing The Dimensionality Of Policy Shocks, Jia Li, Viktor Todorov, Qiushi. Zhang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper provides a nonparametric test for deciding the dimensionality of a policy shock as manifest in the abnormal change in asset returns' stochastic covariance matrix, following the release of a macroeconomic announcement. We use high-frequency data in local windows before and after the event to estimate the covariance jump matrix, and then test its rank. We find a one-factor structure in the covariance jump matrix of the yield curve resulting from the Federal Reserve's monetary policy shocks prior to the 2007-2009 financial crisis. The dimensionality of policy shocks increased afterwards due to the use of unconventional monetary policy ...


Episode Based Payment Models And The Hospital Safety-Net: An Evaluation Of The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program, John A. Gravina 2022 CUNY School of Public Health

Episode Based Payment Models And The Hospital Safety-Net: An Evaluation Of The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program, John A. Gravina

Dissertations and Theses

Episode Based Payment Models and the Hospital Safety-net: An Evaluation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program

By John Anthony Gravina

Advisor: Alexis Pozen, Ph.D.

Introduction: Payments for Healthcare services are increasingly being tied to clinical quality, patient experience, health outcomes, and efficiency through value-based payment arrangements (VBP). VBP presents a potential opportunity to reduce healthcare expenditures by requiring providers to take on financial risk associated with the cost and quality of care, therefore aligning payment incentives with the goals of providing higher quality and efficient care. As of 2020, 80 percent ...


A Consistent Specification Test For Dynamic Quantile Models, Peter HORVATH, Jia LI, Zhipeng LIAO, Andrew PATTON 2022 Singapore Management University

A Consistent Specification Test For Dynamic Quantile Models, Peter Horvath, Jia Li, Zhipeng Liao, Andrew Patton

Research Collection School Of Economics

Correct specification of a conditional quantile model implies that a particular conditional moment is equal to zero. We nonparametrically estimate the conditional moment function via series regression and test whether it is identically zero using uniform functional inference. Our approach is theoretically justified via a strong Gaussian approximation for statistics of growing dimensions in a general time series setting. We propose a novel bootstrap method in this nonstandard context and show that it significantly outperforms the benchmark asymptotic approximation in finite samples, especially for tail quantiles such as Value-at-Risk (VaR). We use the proposed new test to study the VaR ...


Dimensions Of Social Networks: A Taxonomy And Operationalization, Michael GENKIN, Nicholas HARRIGAN, Rajalakshmi KANAGAVEL, Janice YAP 2022 Singapore Management University

Dimensions Of Social Networks: A Taxonomy And Operationalization, Michael Genkin, Nicholas Harrigan, Rajalakshmi Kanagavel, Janice Yap

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

What are the basic types of social network ties captured by name generators? While there have been several classifications proposed, and a large proliferation of name generators capturing various tie content has emerged, there is no clear way to map a given name generator to a particular tie type. Building on previous research, this paper proposes a framework for doing so in a principled way based on two studies. Study 1 is a dimension reduction of 24 common name generators. We find two dimensions (Valence and Social Distance), three positive tie types (Admiration, Closeness, Socialize), and three negative tie types ...


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