Using Machine Learning Methods To Predict The Movement Trajectories Of The Louisiana Black Bear, 2021 Southern Methodist University
Using Machine Learning Methods To Predict The Movement Trajectories Of The Louisiana Black Bear, Daniel Clark, David Shaw, Armando Vela, Shane Weinstock, John Santerre, Joseph D. Clark
SMU Data Science Review
In 1992, the Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) was placed on the U.S. Endangered Species List. This was due to bear populations in Louisiana being small and isolated enough where their populations couldn’t intersect with other populations to grow. Interchange of individuals between subpopulations of bears in Louisiana is critical to maintain genetic diversity and avoid inbreeding effects. Utilizing GPS (Global Positioning System) data gathered from 31 radio-collared bears from 2010 through 2012, this research will investigate how bears traverse the landscape, which has implications for gene exchange. This paper will leverage machine learning tools to improve ...
Analysis Of Multigenerational Behavioral Effects Of Dietary Benzo[A]Pyrene Exposure In Adult Zebrafish, 2021 University of Mississippi
Analysis Of Multigenerational Behavioral Effects Of Dietary Benzo[A]Pyrene Exposure In Adult Zebrafish, Mary Beth Gillespie
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is linked to negative reproductive and developmental effects in humans and animals. Because BaP is carcinogenic, and its continued presence in the environment allows it to be inhaled and ingested, better understanding of the effects of BaP is needed. To determine the behavioral effects of BaP exposure, zebrafish were used as a model. Wild-type zebrafish (5D) underwent two separate 21-day dietary exposures to 2.5 and 25 μg BaP/g fish to compare how BaP exposure affects locomotor activity. Following the dietary exposure, fish were mated to obtain and raise ...
The Canine-Campus Connection: Roles For Dogs In The Lives Of College Students, 2021 Purdue University
The Canine-Campus Connection: Roles For Dogs In The Lives Of College Students, Mary Renck Jalongo
Purdue University Press Book Previews
No abstract provided.
Exploring How Maternal Phosphorus Status Affects Calf Growth And Performance, 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Exploring How Maternal Phosphorus Status Affects Calf Growth And Performance, Elizabeth Lafferty
Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses
This study will focus on how maternal phosphorus status of beef heifers affects the growth and performance of their calves. Heifers have been offered free-choice mineral with either 0 or 4% supplemental phosphorus from 30 days after weaning until calving. A study by H. Hilfiker, a University of Arkansas honors student, investigated the effects of these treatments from 30 days after weaning until 60 days after the breeding season when heifers were confirmed to be bred or open. For this developing heifer project 64 crossbred Angus heifers were assigned randomly into 8 groups (8 heifers/ group) before assigning each group ...
Shelter Dogs Need A Home: The Effect Of Enrichment And Human Contact On The Welfare And Adoptability Of Shelter Dogs, 2021 Grand Valley State University
Shelter Dogs Need A Home: The Effect Of Enrichment And Human Contact On The Welfare And Adoptability Of Shelter Dogs, Hannah G. Clark
It comes as no surprise that an animal shelter can be a stressful place for dogs. Shelter conditions, accompanied by multiple, novel stimuli, produce a stressful environment that cause hormonal and behavioral responses in dogs housed in shelters. Many of the stereotypical behaviors produced by the stress of living in a shelter, which tend to worsen as length of stay increases, are undesirable to potential adopters. However, many studies have shown that enrichment with a variety of toys, exercise, and human interaction can buffer the stress response in shelter dogs and improve their well-being. Implementing obedience training and temporary fostering ...
Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty
Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the day and the time of sample collection of an
experimental challenge with Eimeria maxima (EM) and Eimeria acervulina (EA) in broiler chickens. One day old male Cobb-Vantress broiler chickens were randomly allocated to one of three groups with ten replicates (n=8 chickens/replicate). Chickens were placed in battery cages with a controlled age-appropriate environment: Group 1) Negative control (no challenge or treatment); 2) Challenge control (Eimeria challenge only); 3) Challenge + Salinomycin. Challenged chickens were orally gavaged with the mixed culture of EM/EA (10,000 sporulated EM containing 4 ...
Black-Capped Chickadee (Parus Atricapillus) Food Preference, 2021 University of Southern Maine
Black-Capped Chickadee (Parus Atricapillus) Food Preference, Isabelle Gilbert
Thinking Matters Symposium
All animals must make decisions on where to find, select, capture, and eat food. These factors contribute to a species’ food preference, such as making decisions on what food to eat based on calories. Optimal foraging theory predicts how an animal behaves when searching for food, including optimization of food type, patch choice, time spent in patches, and movement. All animals also make decisions based on predation risk by avoiding predators and making trade-offs on time spent searching for, pursuing, and handling food. The objective of my study is to examine food preference of black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus). Birds may ...
The Effect Of Herbicide On Activity Level And Chemically-Mediated Antipredator Responses In Wolf Spiders, 2021 Susquehanna University
The Effect Of Herbicide On Activity Level And Chemically-Mediated Antipredator Responses In Wolf Spiders, Joar Mejia Feliz
Senior Scholars Day
Spiderlings of the wolf spider Rabidosa rabida show innate effective antipredator responses (freezing) in the presence of silk and excreta cues of the syntopic intraguild predatory spider, Pardosa milvina. Both species are commonly found in agricultural systems where herbicides may interfere with predator-prey dynamics within these species. Published studies indicate that a variety of environmental factors may degrade or modify spider silk and therefore could potentially influence the ability of predator cues to inform antipredator decisions in prey spiders. Some herbicides may act as a stimulant and increase the activity level of wolf spiders. We tested the effect of dicamba ...
Bearing Witness To The Beauty Of Enactive Kinesthetic Empathy Across Species In Canine-Human And Equine-Human Interactions: Participant-Observation Ethnographies, Donna A. Carlyle, Pamela Graham
People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice
Through observations from ethnographic fieldwork the authors seek to highlight the significance of equine-human and canine-human communication to the fields of both human- animal studies and eudaimonia theories of human well-being. As we shared our insights through academic conversations about our respective research findings, we realized that both studies explore the enigmatic and significant concept of kinesthetic empathy in communication and relationship building between horses and young people and between dogs and young children. The canine-child setting (Study A) is a primary school and classroom in which the children voted to share their environment with a school dog, and the ...
055— Ketogenic Diet And Dendritic Morphology In A Mouse Model Of Repetitive Behavior, Samantha Seeger, Yume Iriyama, Allison R. Bechard
Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant movements with no apparent function. They are associated with several disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about the causes of these restricted behavior patterns, and effective treatments are lacking. ASD has recently been treated with a ketogenic diet (KD). Now a popular fad, KD is a high-fat, low-carb diet that has treated intractable epilepsy for decades. However, the mechanisms mediating KD’s beneficial effects are still unclear. We first show KD can attenuate repetitive circling behavior. We then assessed dendritic spine density in the left and right dorsolateral striatum as a ...
258— Differential Response To Cocaine In Mice Exposed To Stress, 2021 SUNY Geneseo
258— Differential Response To Cocaine In Mice Exposed To Stress, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Isabel Ross, Katie Bugbee, April Rowell, Jennifer Bodzon, Allison R. Bechard Ph.D.
Exposure to trauma is a risk factor for substance use disorders. Using a mouse model of PTSD, we tested the effects of exposure to a stressor (synthetic fox pheromone: TMT) on response to cocaine. Cocaine induced locomotion and cocaine seeking behavior in a conditioned place preference (CPP) were assessed. TMT was an effective stressor, indicated by freezing behavior, which is a known fear response in mice. In both males and females, TMT-exposed mice showed a greater locomotor response to cocaine compared to control mice, resulting in the interaction between time and TMT treatment. TMT-exposed males, but not females, were overall ...
249— The Role Of The Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathway In A Mouse Model Of Repetitive Circling Behavior, Gavin Vaughan, Allison R. Bechard
Repetitive behaviors are associated with a variety of disorders in humans and are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders. Repetitive behaviors can be modeled in rodents. In our previous experiments, we have been able to reduce repetitive circling behaviors in mice using a ketogenic diet. The mechanisms behind the ketogenic diet are still under investigation. Previous investigations have indicated that the ketogenic diet plays a role in neurotransmitter functioning. This study sought to investigate the potential role of neurotransmitters in repetitive behaviors by investigating how three drugs (L-741,626, a dopamine receptor antagonist; CGS21680, an adenosine agonist; & CDPPB, a glutamate positive ...
The Importance Of Goats In The World, 2021 Heifer International, Little Rock, AR
The Importance Of Goats In The World, Mahendra Lohani, Dilip Bhandari
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal
It is a challenge to transform the mindset of subsistence farmers to consider goats as a productive asset. Goat health, breeding, housing and nutrition are the main challenges in a smallholder production system. The development of the goat market sector is informal and underdeveloped. As a result, goats have not been identified as a significant contributor to the national gross domestic product. Many development organizations consider goats a preferred livestock commodity for poverty alleviation. Therefore, it is desirable to have a systematic approach to optimize goat production for smallholders. A smallholder goat value chain works well with a focus on ...
Sugar Glider (Petaurus Breviceps) Behavior In Red Vs Blue Lighting, 2021 University of South Dakota
Sugar Glider (Petaurus Breviceps) Behavior In Red Vs Blue Lighting, Elisa Hillman
Sugar gliders are an exotic pet that is increasing in popularity in households as well as in zoos. One challenge that caregivers have to manage is their nocturnal circadian rhythm. In order for people to view or interact with sugar gliders during their active time, many zoos will reverse their diurnal cycle with lights. The discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) which seems to have an increased sensitivity to blue light and how these cells affect the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and circadian rhythm has led to an increase in awareness on the health effects of being exposed ...
Sheep Replace Pronghorn: An Environmental History Of The Mono Basin, 2021 Whittier College
Sheep Replace Pronghorn: An Environmental History Of The Mono Basin, Robert B. Marks
Eastern Sierra History Journal
This article examines the ways in which the hunting-gathering people of the Mono Basin lived before their way of life and environment was overturned by the nineteenth-century arrival of Euro-American settlers with vastly different ways of interacting with the environment. And it tracks some of these alterations by tracking when and how sheep replaced pronghorns.
Predictors Of Separation Anxiety In Dogs, 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Predictors Of Separation Anxiety In Dogs, Mckenna Yohe
Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Understanding the potential causes and risk factors associated with separation anxiety in dogs is necessary to provide insight for possible prevention measures and to maintain the health and well-being of the animals affected by this condition. While a considerable amount of research has been done on this subject, it is still unclear what specific characteristics of dogs and their owners relate to the occurrence of separation anxiety and related behaviors. This study aimed to reexamine several dog and owner characteristics that have previously been evaluated in relation to the incidence of separation anxiety, as well as investigate how the frequency ...
Sex-Specific Variation Of Social Play In Wild Immature Tibetan Macaques, Macaca Thibetana, 2021 Anhui University
Sex-Specific Variation Of Social Play In Wild Immature Tibetan Macaques, Macaca Thibetana, Tong Wang, Xi Wang, Paul A. Garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lixing Sun, Dong-Po Xia, Jin-Hua Li
Biology Faculty Scholarship
Theories proposed to explain social play have centered on its function in establishing social relationships critical for adulthood, its function in developing motor skills needed to survive, and promoting cognitive development and social learning. In this study, we compared variations in social play among infant and juvenile male and female Macaca thibetana. Given that this species is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal, we hypothesized that immature females use social play as a mechanism to develop bonds that persist through adulthood whereas immature males use play to develop social skills needed to successfully enter new groups. The results indicated ...
Effects Of Hierarchical Steepness On Grooming Patterns In Female Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Dong-Po Xia, Xi Wang, Paul A. Garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lori K. Sheeran, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li
Anthropology and Museum Studies Faculty Scholarship
Hierarchical steepness, defined as status asymmetries among conspecifics living in the same group, is not only used as a main characteristic of animal social relationships, but also represents the degree of discrepancy between supply and demand within the framework of biological market theory. During September and December 2011, we studied hierarchical steepness by comparing variation in grooming patterns in two groups of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), a primate species characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy. Using a focal sampling method, we collected behavioral data from two provisioned, free-ranging groups (YA1 and YA2) at Mt. Huangshan, China. We found that female ...
Sexual Interference Behaviors In Male Adult And Subadult Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), 2021 Anhui University
Sexual Interference Behaviors In Male Adult And Subadult Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Kui-Hai Pang, Amanda K. Rowe, Lori K. Sheeran, Dong-Po Xia, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li
Anthropology and Museum Studies Faculty Scholarship
Male nonhuman primate sexual interference, which includes copulation interruption and copulation harassment, has been related to reproductive success, but its significance has been challenging to test. Copulation interruption results in the termination of a copulation before ejaculation, whereas copulation harassment does not. We conducted this study using the all-occurrence behavior sampling method on sexual interference behaviors of seven adult and four subadult male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in mating and non-mating seasons at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2016 to May 2017. Our results showed that males’ individual proportion of copulation interruption and harassment was higher during the mating season ...
Phenology Of Antler Casting And Occurrence Of Late-Breeding In Nebraska White-Tailed Deer, 2021 University of Nebraska at Kearney
Phenology Of Antler Casting And Occurrence Of Late-Breeding In Nebraska White-Tailed Deer, Brian C. Peterson, Patrick D. Farrell, Dave Fehlhafer, Miranda C. Reinson, Dustin H. Ranglack
Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Nebraska primarily breed in November (stimulated by photoperiod), but this season extends into December and January for unfertilized females and healthy fawns reaching the appropriate breeding weight by winter. Variation in the typical mating period can be attributed to geographic region, skewed sex ratios, and fawns reaching sexual maturity during their first year of birth. During April of 2019, we observed late season breeding by a male white-tailed deer in the central Platte River valley and documented late antler casting for this same late-copulating male. An additional male was observed in April of 2020 still ...