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Albedo Effects In Polar Regions, Morton Sternheim 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Albedo Effects In Polar Regions, Morton Sternheim

IPY STEM Polar Connections

•Why are Polar Regions more affected by global warming than other parts of the globe? •One reason (there are others) is that as sea ice melts and more open water appears, more energy is absorbed, and warming accelerates. •This is a form of positive feedback and it makes the polar climate change faster than the climate in temperate areas. •Increasing vegetation on land also has a similar positive feedback effect.


Detecting Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide With Btb, Stephan Schneider 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Detecting Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide With Btb, Stephan Schneider

IPY STEM Polar Connections

A study of the concentration of carbon dioxide gas in air samples requires an understanding of effective sampling techniques, the use of pH indicators, an understanding of chemical reactions that result on the formation of acidic compounds, and an understanding of the chemical processes that contribute to the composition and characteristics of Earth’s atmosphere.


Recommended Books, Holly Hargraves, Ray Bradley 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Recommended Books, Holly Hargraves, Ray Bradley

IPY STEM Polar Connections

No abstract provided.


Teacher’S Guide: Penguins Of Antarctic Region, Marie Silver 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Teacher’S Guide: Penguins Of Antarctic Region, Marie Silver

IPY STEM Polar Connections

These activities help to connect science learning with real world issues through a study of the Antarctic region. By studying the penguins of the South Pole region you can tap students’ interest in a charismatic macrospecies through demonstrating their adaptation to ongoing climate changes and human activity. A number of current research projects at Antarctic research stations can be accessed online and the data used to demonstrate key concepts of feeding behavior, migration, breeding and population dynamics. The attached activity is in three parts and includes one hands-on demonstration, several mapping exercises and some data interpretation. These activities also provide ...


Caribou, Whales, Andenvironmental Variability, Craig Nicolson 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Caribou, Whales, Andenvironmental Variability, Craig Nicolson

IPY STEM Polar Connections

How many caribou are there? Increasing or decreasing? Carrying capacity? How do we measure habitat quality?? Satellite imagery. Whale migration patterns. Activities on caribou and whales. Also, see http://www.nfb.ca/film/being_caribou/ a video entitled Being Caribou..


Carbon Travels Game, Marie Silver 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Carbon Travels Game, Marie Silver

IPY STEM Polar Connections

Carbon cycle game.

Proportions for this activity are based LOOSELY on data from the Exploring the Environment website http://davem2.cotf.edu/ete/modules/carbon/effig11_full.html

They have a brief overview of the carbon cycle at http://davem2.cotf.edu/ete/modules/carbon/efcarbon.html


Atmospheric Co2 And Temperature. What Is Normal?, Beth Caissie, Julie Brigham-Grette 2010 Iowa State University

Atmospheric Co2 And Temperature. What Is Normal?, Beth Caissie, Julie Brigham-Grette

IPY STEM Polar Connections

–How much of a change in CO2 concentration and other GHGs is natural? –What is the normal range of CO2 and temperature variability? How is normal defined in this context? –What is the relationship between CO2 and global temperatures?


Climate In The Southern Sawatch Range And Elk Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A., During The Last Glacial Maximum: Inferences Using A Simple Degree-Day Model, Keith A. Brugger 2010 University of Minnesota, Morris

Climate In The Southern Sawatch Range And Elk Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A., During The Last Glacial Maximum: Inferences Using A Simple Degree-Day Model, Keith A. Brugger

Geology Publications

Equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) were determined from reconstructions of 22 paleoglaciers at their extent during the local last glacial maximum (LGM) using the accumulation-area method. LGM ELAs thus derived ranged from 2980 to 3560 m and follow a statistically significant regional trend of rising ~4.5 m km-1 to the east. Two approaches using a degree-day model were used to infer LGM climate by finding plausible combinations of temperature and precipitation change that (1) would be required to lower ELAs to their mean LGM values in both the Taylor Park/eastern Elk Mountains region and western Elk Mountains, and (2 ...


Post-Coring Entrapment Of Modern Air In Some Shallow Ice Cores Collected Near The Firn-Ice Transition: Evidence From Cfc-12 Measurements In Antarctic Firn Air And Ice Cores, Murat Aydin, S. A. Montzka, M. O. Battle, M. B. Williams, Warren J. De Bruyn, J. H. Butler, K. R. Verhulst, C. Tatum, B. K. Gun, D. A. Plotkin, B. D. Hall, Eric S. Saltzman 2010 University of California - Irvine

Post-Coring Entrapment Of Modern Air In Some Shallow Ice Cores Collected Near The Firn-Ice Transition: Evidence From Cfc-12 Measurements In Antarctic Firn Air And Ice Cores, Murat Aydin, S. A. Montzka, M. O. Battle, M. B. Williams, Warren J. De Bruyn, J. H. Butler, K. R. Verhulst, C. Tatum, B. K. Gun, D. A. Plotkin, B. D. Hall, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

In this study, we report measurements of CFC-12 (CCl2F2) in firn air and in air extracted from shallow ice cores from three Antarctic sites. The firn air data are consistent with the known atmospheric history of CFC-12. In contrast, some of the ice core samples collected near the firn-ice transition exhibit anomalously high CFC-12 levels. Together, the ice core and firn air data provide evidence for the presence of modern air entrapped in the shallow ice core samples that likely contained open pores at the time of collection. We propose that this is due to closure of the open pores ...


Higher-Order Physic For Modeling Ice Streams In Ice Sheets, Debra A. Kenneway 2010 The University of Maine

Higher-Order Physic For Modeling Ice Streams In Ice Sheets, Debra A. Kenneway

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ice streams are transitional between inland glaciers and ice shelves. Hence no stresses can be neglected. Ice streams are important dynamic features of a glacier; it is well known that ice streams drain up to 90% of the ice from an ice sheet. Herein I model ice streams as a multiphysics system of coupled components. This includes treating ice as a non-Newtonian fluid since empirical measurements show a power law relation between stress and strain rate. Sliding is a physical feature that must be included. This is done with a novel approach to sliding by way of a slippery layer ...


Climate Investigations Using Ice Sheet And Mass Balance Models With Emphasis On North American Glaciation, Sean David Birkel 2010 The University of Maine

Climate Investigations Using Ice Sheet And Mass Balance Models With Emphasis On North American Glaciation, Sean David Birkel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the application of the University of Maine Ice Sheet Model (UM-ISM) and Environmental Change Model (UM-ECM) to understanding mechanisms of ice-sheet/climate integration during ice ages. The UM-ECM, written by the author for this research, calculates equilibrium biome and snow/ice mass balance solutions for the globe based on modern input climatology and user-defined parameter values. The program was produced in conjunction with a National Science Foundation ITEST grant meant to seed inquiry-based classroom study of Earth systems using computer models. To that end, the UM-ECM serves as both a research and teaching tool. The model has ...


Women In Glaciology, An Historical Perspective, Christina L. Hulbe, Weili Wang, Simon Ommanney 2010 Portland State University

Women In Glaciology, An Historical Perspective, Christina L. Hulbe, Weili Wang, Simon Ommanney

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Women's history in glaciology extends as far back in time as the discipline itself, although their contributions to the scientific discourse have for all of that history been constrained by the sociopolitical contexts of the times. The first Journal of Glaciology paper authored by a woman appeared in 1948, within a year of the founding of the Journal, but it was not until the 1980s that women produced more than a few percent of Journal and Annals of Glaciology papers. Here international perspectives on women's participation in the sciences are presented in order to establish an economic and ...


Grounding-Line Basal Melt Rates Determined Using Radar-Derived Internal Stratigraphy, Ginny Catania, Christina L. Hulbe, Howard Conway 2010 University of Texas at Austin

Grounding-Line Basal Melt Rates Determined Using Radar-Derived Internal Stratigraphy, Ginny Catania, Christina L. Hulbe, Howard Conway

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We use ice-penetrating radar data across grounding lines of Siple Dome and Roosevelt Island, Antarctica, to measure the spatial pattern, magnitude and duration of sub-ice-shelf melting at these locations. Stratigraphic layers across the grounding line show, in places, a large-amplitude downwarp at, or slightly downstream of, the grounding line due to sub-ice-shelf basal melting. Localized downwarping indicates that melting is transient; melt rates, or the grounding line position, have changed within a few hundred years in order to produce the observed stratigraphy. Elsewhere, no meltrelated stratigraphic signature is preserved. In part, heterogeneity in the amount of sub-ice-shelf melt is due ...


Propagation Of Long Fractures In The Ronne Ice Shelf Investigated Using A Numerical Model Of Fracture Propagation, Christina L. Hulbe, Christine Marie LeDoux, Kenneth M. Cruikshank 2010 Portland State University

Propagation Of Long Fractures In The Ronne Ice Shelf Investigated Using A Numerical Model Of Fracture Propagation, Christina L. Hulbe, Christine Marie Ledoux, Kenneth M. Cruikshank

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Long rifts near the front of the Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, are observed to begin as fractures along the lateral boundaries of outlet streams feeding the shelf. These flaws eventually become the planes along which tabular icebergs calve. The fractures propagate laterally as they advect through the shelf, with orientations that can be explained by the glaciological stress field. Fracture length remains constrained over much of the advective path, and locations of crack tip arrest are observed to coincide with structural boundaries, such as suture zones between ice from adjacent outlet glaciers. Geomechanical principles and numerical models demonstrate that in ...


A New Technique For Firn Grain-Size Measurement Using Sem Image Analysis, N.E. Spaulding, D.A. Meese, I. Baker, P.A. Mayewski 2010 University of Maine

A New Technique For Firn Grain-Size Measurement Using Sem Image Analysis, N.E. Spaulding, D.A. Meese, I. Baker, P.A. Mayewski

Dartmouth Scholarship

Firn microstructure is accurately characterized using images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Visibly etched grain boundaries within images are used to create a skeleton outline of the microstructure. A pixel-counting utility is applied to the outline to determine grain area. Firn grain sizes calculated using the technique described here are compared to those calculated using the techniques of Gow (1969) and Gay and Weiss (1999) on samples of the same material, and are found to be substantially smaller. The differences in grain size between the techniques are attributed to sampling deficiencies (e.g. the inclusion of pore filler in ...


A Dynamic Physical Model For Soil Temperature And Water In Taylor Valley, Antarctica, H. W. Hunt, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran, Hassan J. Basagic 2010 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

A Dynamic Physical Model For Soil Temperature And Water In Taylor Valley, Antarctica, H. W. Hunt, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran, Hassan J. Basagic

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

We developed a simulation model for terrestrial sites including sensible heat exchange between the atmosphere and ground surface, inter- and intra-layer heat conduction by rock and soil, and shortwave and longwave radiation. Water fluxes included snowmelt, freezing/thawing of soil water, soil capillary flow, and vapour flows among atmosphere, soil, and snow. The model accounted for 96-99% of variation in soil temperature data. No long-term temporal trends in soil temperature were apparent. Soil water vapour concentration in thawed surface soil in summer often was higher than in frozen deeper soils, leading to downward vapour fluxes. Katabatic winds caused a reversal ...


To The Ice: George Bird Grinnell's 1887 Ascent Of Grinnell Glacier, Richard Vaughan 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

To The Ice: George Bird Grinnell's 1887 Ascent Of Grinnell Glacier, Richard Vaughan

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article discusses a climbing expedition undertaken by U.S. conservationist George Bird Grinnell to ascend what would come to be known as Grinnell Glacier in Montana. Grinnell’s efforts to establish Glacier National Park are detailed. Grinnell’s previously unpublished descriptions of the glacier and its surrounding area are analyzed by the author.


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