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Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Po157 Genes In Biofilm Development In Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Edl933, Supraja Puttamreddy, Nancy A. Cornick, F. Chris Minion 2010 Iowa State University

Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Po157 Genes In Biofilm Development In Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Edl933, Supraja Puttamreddy, Nancy A. Cornick, F. Chris Minion

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, a world-wide human food-borne pathogen, causes mild to severe diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The ability of this pathogen to persist in the environment contributes to its dissemination to a wide range of foods and food processing surfaces. Biofilms are thought to be involved in persistence, but the process of biofilm formation is complex and poorly understood in E. coli O157:H7. To better understand the genetics of this process, a mini-Tn5 transposon insertion library was constructed in strain EDL933 and screened for biofilm-negative mutants using a microtiter plate assay. Ninety-five of ...


Establishment Of Culture Conditions For Survival Of Histomonas Meleagridis In Transit, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Lollis, R Beckstead, L McDougald 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Establishment Of Culture Conditions For Survival Of Histomonas Meleagridis In Transit, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Lollis, R Beckstead, L Mcdougald

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Fresh ceca samples from turkeys in North Carolina infected with Histomonas meleagridis were collected at necropsy, inoculated into warmed Dwyers medium, and sent by overnight courier to our laboratory at The University of Georgia. Further incubation at 40 C yielded positive cultures from all four samples. PCR and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of H. meleagridis. To further establish conditions for survival in transit, we infected turkeys with H. meleagridis, euthanatized the birds 10 days postinfection, and allowed carcasses to incubate at room temperature for either 2 or 24 hr. After incubation, samples of cecal contents (0.5 g) were ...


Tactics For Identifying And Eliminating Tritrichomonas Foetus From Infected Beef Herds, Jeff D. Ondrak 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Tactics For Identifying And Eliminating Tritrichomonas Foetus From Infected Beef Herds, Jeff D. Ondrak

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The protozoan, Tritrichomonas foetus (TF), has been recognized as a cause of bovine infertility for more than 100 years (Skirrow and BonDurant, 1988). As an obligate parasite of the bovine reproductive tract its control and eradication seems achievable (Harding, 1950). However, this disease continues to trouble US cattle producers and a recent epidemic in the Western US has lead to increased interest in research and regulatory efforts (Cima, 2009).

Outbreak investigations were carried out on three Nebraska ranches to assess the efficiency of currently available diagnostic tests, culture, gel polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real time PCR (rtPCR), in identifying ...


Advances In Campylobacter Biology And Implications For Biotechnological Applications, Byeonghwa Jeon, Wayne T. Muraoka, Qijing Zhang 2010 Iowa State University

Advances In Campylobacter Biology And Implications For Biotechnological Applications, Byeonghwa Jeon, Wayne T. Muraoka, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiology of this organism. It is apparent that C. jejuni utilizes sophisticated mechanisms for effective colonization of the intestinal tracts in various animal species. Although Campylobacter is fragile in the environment and requires fastidious growth conditions, it exhibits great flexibility in the adaptation to various habitats including the gastrointestinal tract. This high adaptability is attributable to ...


The Change In Prevalence Of Campylobacter On Chicken Carcasses During Processing: A Systematic Review, M. T. Guerin, Jan M. Sargeant, L. Waddell, Annette M. O'Connor, Robert W. Wills, R. H. Bailey, J. A. Byrd 2010 University of Guelph

The Change In Prevalence Of Campylobacter On Chicken Carcasses During Processing: A Systematic Review, M. T. Guerin, Jan M. Sargeant, L. Waddell, Annette M. O'Connor, Robert W. Wills, R. H. Bailey, J. A. Byrd

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the change in prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses during processing. A structured literature search of 8 electronic databases using the key words for "Campylobacter," "chicken," and "processing" identified 1,734 unique citations. Abstracts were screened for relevance by 2 independent reviewers. Thirty-two studies described prevalence at more than one stage during processing and were included in this review. Of the studies that described the prevalence of Campylobacter on carcasses before and after specific stages of processing, the chilling stage had the greatest number of studies (9), followed by washing (6), defeathering (4 ...


Transmission Dynamics Of A Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak In A Dairy Farm, Cristina Lanzas, L Warnick, K James, E Wright, M Wiedmann, Y Grohn 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Transmission Dynamics Of A Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak In A Dairy Farm, Cristina Lanzas, L Warnick, K James, E Wright, M Wiedmann, Y Grohn

Cristina Lanzas

Cattle are recognized as an important source of foodborne Salmonella causing human illness, particularly for antimicrobial-resistant strains. The transmission dynamics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella after the onset of a clinical outbreak in a dairy farm has been rarely monitored. The early transmission of a pathogen influences the outbreak size and persistence of the pathogen at the farm level and, therefore, how long the herd represents a risk for Salmonella zoonotic transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the transmission dynamics of MDR Salmonella Typhimurium after the onset of a clinical outbreak in a dairy herd. For that purpose ...


The Association Between Proximity To Animal Feeding Operations And Community Health: A Systematic Review, Annette M. O'Connor, Brent Auvermann, Danelle A. Bickett-Weddle, Steve Kirkhorn, Jan M. Sargeant, Alejandro Ramirez, Susanna G. Von Essen 2010 Iowa State University

The Association Between Proximity To Animal Feeding Operations And Community Health: A Systematic Review, Annette M. O'Connor, Brent Auvermann, Danelle A. Bickett-Weddle, Steve Kirkhorn, Jan M. Sargeant, Alejandro Ramirez, Susanna G. Von Essen

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background: A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs.

Methodology/Principal Findings: The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified ...


Elaboración De Un Anticuerpo Monoclonal Contra Leptospira Interrogans Serovar Pomona, Yuly Andrea Guerrero Quiroga, Juan Carlos Villarraga Micolta 2010 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Elaboración De Un Anticuerpo Monoclonal Contra Leptospira Interrogans Serovar Pomona, Yuly Andrea Guerrero Quiroga, Juan Carlos Villarraga Micolta

Medicina Veterinaria

La leptospirosis es una zoonosis de distribución mundial, más común en áreas tropicales donde las condiciones para su transmisión son favorables. Su incidencia a nivel mundial depende del clima, los reservorios, y su vigilancia; pero en Colombia estos índices no son bien valorados por la falta de investigaciones certeras en el tema. Es considerada una enfermedad ocupacional que afecta a personas que se dedican a la agricultura, limpieza de desagües, minería y aquellos que tienen contacto con animales como los trabajadores de famas y los veterinarios (Céspedes M, et.al, 2003; Slak A, et.al, 2007), sin contar que puede ...


Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: Association Of Spa-Type With Serotype And Role In Protective Immunity, Alaina Louise Ingebritson, James A. Roth, Paul Joseph Hauer 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: Association Of Spa-Type With Serotype And Role In Protective Immunity, Alaina Louise Ingebritson, James A. Roth, Paul Joseph Hauer

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

A collection of swine, fish, and cetacean Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains representing 16 serotypes was analyzed for possession of the three currently recognized surface protective antigen (spa)-types: spaA, spaB, and spaC. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and Western blotting with a SpaA-specific monoclonal antibody demonstrated that spa-type is not confined to specific serotype groups. In particular, the spa-type of strains of aquatic origin was more variable than those of terrestrial origin, and possessed the distinct ability to express more than one spa. In a cross-protection study, mice immunized with an E. rhusiopathiae serotype 2 SpaA-type strain and challenged with various ...


Aata Is A Novel Autotransporter And Virulence Factor Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli, Ganwu Li, Yaping Feng, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Kelly A. Tivendale, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Fanghong Zhou, Catherine M. Logue, Cathy L. Miller, Lisa K. Nolan 2010 Iowa State University

Aata Is A Novel Autotransporter And Virulence Factor Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli, Ganwu Li, Yaping Feng, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Kelly A. Tivendale, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Fanghong Zhou, Catherine M. Logue, Cathy L. Miller, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Autotransporters (AT) are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria, and many of them are involved in virulence. An open reading frame (APECO1_O1CoBM96) encoding a novel AT was located in the pathogenicity island of avian pathogenicEscherichia coli (APEC) O1's virulence plasmid, pAPEC-O1-ColBM. This 3.5-kb APEC autotransporter gene (aatA) is predicted to encode a 123.7-kDa protein with a 25-amino-acid signal peptide, an 857-amino-acid passenger domain, and a 284-amino-acid β domain. The three-dimensional structure of AatA was also predicted by the threading method using the I-TASSER online server and then was refined using four-body contact potentials. Molecular analysis of AatA revealed ...


The Reflect Statement: Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials In Livestock And Food Safety: Explanation And Elaboration, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, Ian R. Dohoo, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, Kate Snedeker 2010 University of Guelph

The Reflect Statement: Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials In Livestock And Food Safety: Explanation And Elaboration, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, Ian R. Dohoo, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, Kate Snedeker

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Concerns about the completeness and accuracy of reporting of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and the impact of poor reporting on decision making have been documented in the medical field over the past several decades. Experience from RCTs in human medicine would suggest that failure to report critical trial features can be associated with biased estimated effect measures, and there is evidence to suggest that similar biases occur in RCTs conducted in livestock populations. In response to these concerns, standardized guidelines for reporting RCTs were developed and implemented in human medicine. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was first ...


The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety By Modifying The Consort Statement, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills 2010 Iowa State University

The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety By Modifying The Consort Statement, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health and food-safety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting these livestock trials. A 2-day consensus meeting was held on 18–19 November 2008 in Chicago, IL, USA, to achieve the objective. Prior to the meeting, a Web-based survey was conducted to identify issues for discussion. The 24 attendees were biostatisticians, epidemiologists, food-safety researchers, livestock-production specialists, journal editors, assistant editors and ...


Model Or Meal? Farm Animal Populations As Models For Infectious Diseases Of Humans, Cristina Lanzas, P Ayscue, R Ivanek, Y T. Grohn 2010 Cornell

Model Or Meal? Farm Animal Populations As Models For Infectious Diseases Of Humans, Cristina Lanzas, P Ayscue, R Ivanek, Y T. Grohn

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

In recent decades, theory addressing the processes that underlie the dynamics of infectious diseases has progressed considerably. Unfortunately, the availability of empirical data to evaluate these theories has not grown at the same pace. Although laboratory animals have been widely used as models at the organism level, they have been less appropriate for addressing issues at the population level. However, farm animal populations can provide empirical models to study infectious diseases at the population level.


Sequence Analysis And Characterization Of A Transferable Hybrid Plasmid Encoding Multidrug Resistance And Enabling Zoonotic Potential For Extraintestinal Escherichia Coli, Timothy J. Johnson, Dianna Jordan, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Adam L. Stell, Nathan P. Bell, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Claudia Fernández Alarcón, Ganwu Li, Kelly A. Tivendale, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan 2010 Iowa State University

Sequence Analysis And Characterization Of A Transferable Hybrid Plasmid Encoding Multidrug Resistance And Enabling Zoonotic Potential For Extraintestinal Escherichia Coli, Timothy J. Johnson, Dianna Jordan, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Adam L. Stell, Nathan P. Bell, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Claudia Fernández Alarcón, Ganwu Li, Kelly A. Tivendale, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

ColV plasmids of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) encode a variety of fitness and virulence factors and have long been associated with septicemia and avian colibacillosis. These plasmids are found significantly more often in ExPEC, including ExPEC associated with human neonatal meningitis and avian colibacillosis, than in commensal E. coli. Here we describe pAPEC-O103-ColBM, a hybrid RepFIIA/FIB plasmid harboring components of the ColV pathogenicity island and a multidrug resistance (MDR)-encoding island. This plasmid is mobilizable and confers the ability to cause septicemia in chickens, the ability to cause bacteremia resulting in meningitis in the rat model of human ...


An Investigation Of Humeral Stress Fractures In Racing Thoroughbreds Using A 3d Finite Element Model In Conjunction With A Bone Remodeling Algorithm, Ryan James Moore 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

An Investigation Of Humeral Stress Fractures In Racing Thoroughbreds Using A 3d Finite Element Model In Conjunction With A Bone Remodeling Algorithm, Ryan James Moore

Master's Theses

The humerus of a racing horse Thoroughbred is highly susceptible to stress fractures at a characteristic location as a result of cyclic loading. The propensity of a Thoroughbred to exhibit humeral fracture has made equines useful models in the epidemiology of stress fractures. In this study, a racing Thoroughbred humerus was simulated during training using a 3D finite element model in conjunction with a bone remodeling algorithm. Nine muscle forces and two contact forces were applied to the 3-dimensional finite element model, which contains four separate load cases representing fore-stance, mid-stance, aft-stance, and standing. Four different training programs were incorporated ...


Model Or Meal? Farm Animal Populations As Models For Infectious Diseases Of Humans, Cristina Lanzas, P Ayscue, R Ivanek, Y Grohn 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Model Or Meal? Farm Animal Populations As Models For Infectious Diseases Of Humans, Cristina Lanzas, P Ayscue, R Ivanek, Y Grohn

Cristina Lanzas

In recent decades, theory addressing the processes that underlie the dynamics of infectious diseases has progressed considerably. Unfortunately, the availability of empirical data to evaluate these theories has not grown at the same pace. Although laboratory animals have been widely used as models at the organism level, they have been less appropriate for addressing issues at the population level. However, farm animal populations can provide empirical models to study infectious diseases at the population level.


Identification Of Parelaphostrongylus Odocoilei (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) First-Stage Larvae In The Feces Of Gray Wolves (Canis Lupus) By Molecular Methods, Heather M. Bryan, Kathrin A. Sim, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, Brent Wagner, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes, Judit E. Smits, Nell B. Chilton 2010 University of Saskatchewan

Identification Of Parelaphostrongylus Odocoilei (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) First-Stage Larvae In The Feces Of Gray Wolves (Canis Lupus) By Molecular Methods, Heather M. Bryan, Kathrin A. Sim, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, Brent Wagner, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes, Judit E. Smits, Nell B. Chilton

Parasitology Collection

First-stage nematode larvae with a dorsal-spine (DSL) were detected in five of 1,565 fecal samples from gray wolves (Canis lupus) collected in British Columbia, Canada, between 2005 and 2008. Molecular techniques were used to identify the DSL because it was not possible to determine their species identity using morphologic characters. The DSL were identified as Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei based on the results of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses and DNA sequencing of the ribosomal DNA first and second internal transcribed spacers. Finding DSL of P. odocoilei in the feces of gray wolves was unexpected because P. odocoilei adults are parasites ...


Colonization And Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Swine, Nancy A. Cornick, Dianna M. Jordan, Sheridan L. Booher, Harley W. Moon 2010 Iowa State University

Colonization And Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Swine, Nancy A. Cornick, Dianna M. Jordan, Sheridan L. Booher, Harley W. Moon

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) have emerged over the last several decades as a significant cause of food-borne illness in the United States. Approximately 5-10% of people clinically infected by these bacteria develop a systemic disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome, which has a fatality rate of approximately 5%. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that STEC cause some 110,000 illnesses and 90 deaths annually in the United States (Mead et al. 1999). In addition, the economic consequences of recalling large lots of food for public health reasons are significant. Cattle are considered ...


Causes And Consequences Of Emerging And Exotic Diseases Of Animals: Role Of The Veterinarian, James A. Roth, Jane Galyon, Amber Stumbaugh 2010 Iowa State University

Causes And Consequences Of Emerging And Exotic Diseases Of Animals: Role Of The Veterinarian, James A. Roth, Jane Galyon, Amber Stumbaugh

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Emerging and exotic animal diseases present a growing threat to human and animal health and jeopardize food security. Increases in human and animal populations, with accompanying environmental degradation and globalized trade and travel, enhance opportunities for transfer of pathogens within and between species. The resulting diseases pose enormous challenges now and in the future.


Descriptions Of Recent Incursions Of Exotic Animal Diseases, Anna R. Spickler, Jane Galyon, James A. Roth 2010 Iowa State University

Descriptions Of Recent Incursions Of Exotic Animal Diseases, Anna R. Spickler, Jane Galyon, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Historically, livestock and poultry diseases have been introduced into new areas by the uncontrolled importation of animals and trade (including smuggling), through the movements of people and wildlife, and by vectors. Some diseases spread widely in the past. Rinderpest or “cattle plague,” for example, devastated farms as it was transported across continents by invading armies and their cattle, as well as by trade, the development of railways, and other factors. Other pathogens remained fairly localized for various reasons. Most of the parasites that cause African animal trypanosomiasis, for instance, must be transmitted by tsetse flies, and these insects have not ...


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