Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Organisms Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,471 Full-Text Articles 4,065 Authors 1,101,610 Downloads 137 Institutions

All Articles in Organisms

Faceted Search

1,471 full-text articles. Page 59 of 59.

About Fish, Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy 2010 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

About Fish, Humane Society Institute For Science And Policy

Aquaculture Collection

Although a number of fish species have been studied in their freshwater life stages, further research on the behavior and habitat requirements of ocean-going fish is required. While fishes have historically been regarded as more “primitive” than other vertebrate groups, Rodriguez et al concluded that several memory and learning systems of bony fishes are noticeably similar to those of reptiles, birds, and mammals. When animals as small and under appreciated as fish display complex mating systems, parental care, and demonstrate the ability to traverse significant distances using olfactory and celestial cues, it is clear that previously established definitions of intelligence ...


About Chickens, The Humane Society of the United States 2010 WellBeing International

About Chickens, The Humane Society Of The United States

Agribusiness Collection

The chicken is the world’s most numerous domesticated bird, with over 52 billion farmed worldwide in 2008, rivaling the dog as the most ubiquitous domestic animal globally. These birds have fascinated scholars and researchers since the dawn of Western civilization, and recent studies are beginning to reveal the depths of their complexity and cognitive ability. According to Andrew F. Fraser, professor of veterinary surgery at Memorial University of Newfoundland, and Donald M. Broom, professor of animal welfare at University of Cambridge: “Those who have studied the behaviour of the domestic fowl in detail…, especially those who have looked at ...


Goplana Dioscoreae-Alatae Nom. Nov And Other Uredinales On Dioscoreaceae: Nomenclature And Taxonomy, Jose R. Hernandez, Erica T. Cline 2010 USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

Goplana Dioscoreae-Alatae Nom. Nov And Other Uredinales On Dioscoreaceae: Nomenclature And Taxonomy, Jose R. Hernandez, Erica T. Cline

SIAS Faculty Publications

Among the sixteen species of rust fungi described on Dioscoreaceae, three require replacement names. This paper re-describes and proposes Goplana dioscoreae-alatae as a replacement name for Goplana dioscoreae Cummins, nom. illegit. We also propose Uredo dioscoreae-doryphorae as a replacement name for Uredo spinulosa Y. Ono, nom. illegit.; and Aecidium tumbayensis as a replacement name for Aecidium dioscoreae J.C. Lindq., nom. illegit. We discuss nomenclatural controversies surrounding these taxa.


Isolation And Cultivation Of Equine Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts And Myofibroblasts, Dylan G. Buss, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 University of Missouri, Columbia

Isolation And Cultivation Of Equine Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts And Myofibroblasts, Dylan G. Buss, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—To establish an in vitro model for the investigation of equine corneal wound healing. To accomplish this goal, a protocol to isolate and culture equine corneal keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts was developed.

Animal material—Equine corneal buttons were aseptically harvested from healthy research horses undergoing humane euthanasia for reasons unrelated to this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was performed prior to euthanasia by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist to ensure that all samples were harvested from horses free of anterior segment disease.

Procedure—Equine corneal stroma was isolated using mechanical techniques and stromal subsections were then cultured. Customized media at different culture ...


Gene Delivery In The Equine Cornea: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 University of Missouri, Columbia

Gene Delivery In The Equine Cornea: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—To determine if hybrid adeno-associated virus serotype 2/5 (AAV5) vector can effectively deliver foreign genes into the equine cornea without causing adverse side effects. The aims of this study were to: (i) evaluate efficacy of AAV5 to deliver therapeutic genes into equine corneal fibroblasts (ECFs) using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene and (ii) establish the safety of AAV5 vector for equine corneal gene therapy.

Animal Material—Primary ECF cultures were harvested from healthy donor equine corneas. Cultures were maintained at 370C in humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2.

Procedure—AAV5 vector expressing EGFP under control of hybrid ...


Equal Bmd After Daily Or Triweekly Exercise In Growing Rats, B. D. Kayser, J. K. Godfrey, R. M. Cunningham, R. A. Pierce, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida 2010 Chapman University

Equal Bmd After Daily Or Triweekly Exercise In Growing Rats, B. D. Kayser, J. K. Godfrey, R. M. Cunningham, R. A. Pierce, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of continuous resistance training (3 days/wk) compared to interrupted resistance training where 20-24 h separated an exercise bout (i.e. 6 days/wk) for enhancing bone mineral density (BMD) in growing male rats. The total volume of work performed per week between the two resistance training programs was equivalent by design. Young male rats were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 9), 3 days/wk resistance trained group (RT3, n = 9), and 6 days/wk resistance trained group (RT6, n = 9). The RT3 and RT6 groups were conditioned to ...


Aav Serotype Influences Gene Transfer In Corneal Stroma In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 Chapman University

Aav Serotype Influences Gene Transfer In Corneal Stroma In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

This study evaluated the cellular tropism and relative transduction efficiency of three AAV serotypes, AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9, for corneal gene delivery using mouse cornea in vivo and donor human cornea ex vivo. The AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9 serotypes having AAV2 plasmid encoding for alkaline phosphatase (AP) gene were generated by transfecting HEK293 cell line with pHelper, pARAP4 and pRep/Cap plasmids. Viral vectors (109 vg/μl) were topically applied onto mouse cornea in vivo and human cornea ex vivo after removing the epithelium. Human corneas were processed for transgene delivery at day 5 after viral vector application. Mouse corneas ...


The Isolation Of Viruses Infecting Archaea, Kenneth M. Stedman, Kate Porter, Mike L. Dyall-Smith 2010 Portland State University

The Isolation Of Viruses Infecting Archaea, Kenneth M. Stedman, Kate Porter, Mike L. Dyall-Smith

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

A mere 50 viruses of Archaea have been reported to date; these have been investigated mostly by adapting methods used to isolate bacteriophages to the unique growth conditions of their archaeal hosts. The most numerous are viruses of thermophilic Archaea. These viruses have been discovered by screening enrichment cultures and novel isolates from environmental samples for their ability to form halos of growth inhibition, or by using electron microscopy to screen enrichment cultures for virus-like particles. Direct isolation without enrichment has not yet been successful for viruses of extreme thermophiles. On the other hand, most viruses of extreme halophiles, the ...


Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar 2010 Texas Tech University

Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The plasma and tissue disposition of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP-1) or five (DMP-5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. Single 5-mg/kg doses (MP equivalent) of each prodrug or MP were administered intravenously, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Prodrug and drug concentrations were quantitated using HPLC, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Whereas conjugation of MP with dextran in both prodrugs substantially decreased the clearance of the drug by ∼200-fold, the accumulations of the drug in the liver, spleen, and kidneys were significantly increased by conjugation. However, the extent of ...


Different Training Volumes Yield Equivalent Increases In Bmd, R. A. Pierce, L. C. Lee, C. P. Ahles, S. M. Shdo, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida 2010 Chapman University

Different Training Volumes Yield Equivalent Increases In Bmd, R. A. Pierce, L. C. Lee, C. P. Ahles, S. M. Shdo, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise threshold existed in stimulating an elevation in bone mineral density (BMD), via resistance training, during the growth period in male rats. 27 male rats were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 9), 3 ladder climb resistance trained group (3LC, n = 9), and 6 ladder climb resistance trained group (6LC, n = 9). The 3LC and 6LC groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights appended to their tail 3 days/wk for a total of 6 wks, but the 6LC group performed significantly more work than the 3LC ...


Efficacy And Safety Of Mitomycin C As An Agent To Treat Corneal Scarring In Horses Using An In Vitro Model, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital

Efficacy And Safety Of Mitomycin C As An Agent To Treat Corneal Scarring In Horses Using An In Vitro Model, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—Mitomycin C (MMC) is used clinically to treat corneal scarring in human patients. We investigated the safety and efficacy of MMC to treat corneal scarring in horses by examining its effects at the early and late stages of disease using an in-vitro model.

Procedure—An in-vitro model of equine corneal fibroblast (ECF) developed was used. The equine corneal fibroblast or myofibroblast cultures were produced by growing primary ECF in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) under serum-free conditions. The MMC dose for the equine cornea was defined with dose-dependent trypan blue exclusion and MTT [(3-4 ...


Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon 2010 University of Missouri-Columbia

Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: This study tested whether controlled drying of the cornea increases vector absorption in mouse and rabbit corneas in vivo and human cornea ex vivo, and studied the effects of corneal drying on gene transfer, structure and inflammatory reaction in the mouse cornea in vivo.

Methods: Female C57 black mice and New Zealand White rabbits were used for in vivo studies. Donor human corneas were used for ex vivo experiments. A hair dryer was used for drying the corneas after removing corneal epithelium by gentle scraping. The corneas received no, once, twice, thrice, or five times warm air for 10 ...


Localization Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme In Rabbit Cornea And Its Role In Controlling Corneal Angiogenesis In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Daniel I. Bettis, John W. Cowden, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 Chapman University

Localization Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme In Rabbit Cornea And Its Role In Controlling Corneal Angiogenesis In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Daniel I. Bettis, John W. Cowden, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: The renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis. In this study we investigated (i) the existence of the RAS components angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) in the rabbit cornea using in vitro and ex vivo models and (ii) the effect of enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, to inhibit angiogenesis in rabbit cornea in vivo.

Methods: New Zealand White rabbits were used. Cultured corneal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells were used for RNA isolation and cDNA preparation using standard molecular biology techniques. PCR was performed to detect ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress