Does Being Cultured Pay? Racial And Language Concordance And Its Effect On Physician Income, 2012 Union College - Schenectady, NY
Does Being Cultured Pay? Racial And Language Concordance And Its Effect On Physician Income, Nayan Patel
Issues surrounding race and ethnicity in healthcare have increased in number as racial disparities as well as minority physicians become more prevalent in the USA. One such issue is the concordance rate of race and language amongst physicians and their patients. The effect of racial concordance in physician patient relationships has been looked at to determine if it affects the perceived level of health quality. Saha et al. (1999) found that Black and Hispanic patients were more satisfied in their healthcare when treated by a physician of their own race. In this study, I establish whether or not the racial …
Verbal Autopsy Tool For Infant Mortality, 2012 Ministry of Higher Education
Verbal Autopsy Tool For Infant Mortality, Vijay Kumar Chattu
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Information on causes of death is extremely important for policy-making, planning, monitoring and evaluation of health programs as well as for field research, comparisons and epidemic awareness.The Millennium Development Goal for India is to reduce infant mortality rate to 35 per 1000 & under-five mortality to 45 per 1000 live births by 2015.The incorporation of Verbal Autopsy (VA) in the existing Registration Systems is necessary in order to fulfil its ultimate goal of improving the information on causes of infant deaths in areas where Civil Registration and Death Certification are weak. VA provides information for local action by health authorities …
The Closure Of New Orleans' Charity Hospital After Hurricane Katrina: A Case Of Disaster Capitalism, 2012 University of New Orleans
The Closure Of New Orleans' Charity Hospital After Hurricane Katrina: A Case Of Disaster Capitalism, Kenneth Brad Ott
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
Amidst the worst disaster to impact a major U.S. city in one hundred years, New Orleans’ main trauma and safety net medical center, the Reverend Avery C. Alexander Charity Hospital, was permanently closed. Charity’s administrative operator, Louisiana State University (LSU), ordered an end to its attempted reopening by its workers and U.S. military personnel in the weeks following the August 29, 2005 storm. Drawing upon rigorous review of literature and an exhaustive analysis of primary and secondary data, this case study found that Charity Hospital was closed as a result of disaster capitalism. LSU, backed by Louisiana state officials, …
Lyme Disease Prophylaxis: Idsa Guidelines, 2012 Fletcher Allen Health Care and the University of Vermont
Lyme Disease Prophylaxis: Idsa Guidelines, Kristine Cruz Md
Family Medicine Scholarly Works
Clinical Question: When should patients be given antibiotics for lyme prophylaxis after a tick bite?
Bottom Line Answer: To provide antibiotic prophylaxis for Lyme disease ALL of these criteria should be met:
- Tick identified as an adult or nymphal deer tick
- Attached for > or = 36 hours (by engorgement or time of exposure)
- Treatment started within 72 hours of tick removal
- Local rate of infection of ticks with B. Bourgdorferi >=20% (assumed in Vermont)
- Doxyclycline is not contraindicated
The Role Of Religion And Spirituality In The Care Of Patients In Family Medicine, 2012 The University of Western Ontario
The Role Of Religion And Spirituality In The Care Of Patients In Family Medicine, Michael F. Lee-Poy
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Aims: This thesis explored patients’ perspectives on discussing their religious and spiritual beliefs with their family physicians and family physicians’ behaviours in discussing patients’ religion and spirituality.
Methods: This thesis examined the role of religion and spirituality in patient care in family medicine using qualitative and quantitative methodologies including in-depth interviews of patients and a survey of family physicians.
Findings: The majority of participants believed that religion and spirituality was important in patient care in family medicine. Barriers and facilitators were identified to the integration of religion and spirituality into patient care. Both studies identified physician comfort level as a …
Antibiotics In Suspected Infectious Diarrhea, 2012 University of Vermont
Antibiotics In Suspected Infectious Diarrhea, John G. King Md, Mph
Family Medicine Scholarly Works
Clinical Question: When should antibiotics be given for suspected infectious diarrhea?
Bottom line answer: Antibiotics has been shown to be beneficial in the following groups based on randomized clinical trials (SORT A):
- Moderate to severe traveler’s diarrhea (more than four unformed stools, fever, blood, pus or mucus in the stool).
- More than eight stools per day, dehydration, symptoms of more than one week, and those in which hospitalization is considered.
- Avoid antibiotics in some infections (bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain, but little or no fever – consistent with possible STEC infection). Empiric treatment:
- Oral fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, oflaxacin, levofloxicin) for 3-5 …
Healthcare Preferences Among Lesbians: A Focus Group Analysis, 2012 VA Boston Healthcare System
Healthcare Preferences Among Lesbians: A Focus Group Analysis, Margaret R. Seaver, Karen M. Freund, Leslie M. Wright, Jennifer Tjia, Susan M. Frayne
OBJECTIVE: The healthcare needs of lesbians are not well understood. We sought to characterize lesbians' experiences with, and preferences for, women's healthcare. METHODS: We conducted three age-stratified focus groups (18-29, 30-50, and >50 years) with a total of 22 participants using a semistructured interview guide to elicit lesbians' experiences and preferences. We analyzed transcripts of these audiotaped sessions using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Community-dwelling women who self-identified as lesbian and responded to advertisements were selected on first-come basis. RESULTS: Participants voiced experiences and preferences for healthcare that emerged into three themes: desired models of care, desired processes …
Predicting Nursing Home Adherence To A Clinical Trial Intervention: Lessons For The Conduct Of Cluster Randomized Trials, 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Predicting Nursing Home Adherence To A Clinical Trial Intervention: Lessons For The Conduct Of Cluster Randomized Trials, Jennifer Tjia, Kathleen Mazor, Terry Field, Peter Doherty, Ann Spenard, Jerry Gurwitz
OBJECTIVES: To describe factors predictive of nursing home (NH) adherence to a clinical trial intervention. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a cluster randomized trial (CRT) evaluating a structured communication intervention to improve nurse-physician telephone communication in NHs. SETTING: NH. PARTICIPANTS: All eligible licensed nursing staff in all participating NHs. MEASUREMENTS: Adherence was defined as active participation for at least 3 months of the 12-month trial. NH characteristics hypothesized to affect trial outcomes (profit status, bed size, nursing staff time, NH quality, and leadership turnover) were measured a priori. The association between intervention adherence, NH characteristics and preintervention questionnaire response rate …
Diagnostic E-Codes For Commonly Used, Narrow Therapeutic Index Medications Poorly Predict Adverse Drug Events, 2012 University of Pennsylvania
Diagnostic E-Codes For Commonly Used, Narrow Therapeutic Index Medications Poorly Predict Adverse Drug Events, Charles Leonard, Kevin Haynes, A. Localio, Sean Hennessy, Jennifer Tjia, Abigail Cohen, Stephen Kimmel, Harold Feldman, Joshua Metlay
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the validity of specific hospital discharge codes in identifying drug toxicity precipitating hospitalization, among elderly users of high-risk medications. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation assessing the diagnostic test characteristics of International Classification of Diseases-9 External-Cause-of-Injury codes (E-codes) compared with a reference standard of medical record review. This study was nested within a prospective cohort of elders using warfarin, digoxin, or phenytoin as identified in the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly benefit program. RESULTS: We identified 4,803 subjects contributing 11,409 person-years of exposure to at least one of three drug groups. …
A Comparison Of Outcomes Resulting From Generalist Vs Specialist Care For A Single Discrete Medical Condition: A Systematic Review And Methodologic Critique, 2012 Harvard Medical School
A Comparison Of Outcomes Resulting From Generalist Vs Specialist Care For A Single Discrete Medical Condition: A Systematic Review And Methodologic Critique, Gerald Smetana, Bruce Landon, Andrew Bindman, Helen Burstin, Roger Davis, Jennifer Tjia, Eugene Rich
BACKGROUND: Studies of clinical outcomes for generalist vs specialist care for diagnoses within a specialist's narrow domain have tended to favor specialty care. METHODS: A MEDLINE search from January 1, 1980, through April 1, 2005, and a hand search of retrieved bibliographies of English-language studies that compared generalist vs specialist care for individual patients with a single discrete medical condition were performed. Two reviewers determined eligibility for each study and abstracted data onto a standardized instrument. RESULTS: A total of 49 articles met our inclusion criteria: 24 studies favored specialty care, 13 found no difference in outcomes, 7 varied by …
A Systematic Review Of Validated Methods For Identifying Heart Failure Using Administrative Data, 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School
A Systematic Review Of Validated Methods For Identifying Heart Failure Using Administrative Data, Jane Saczynski, Susan Andrade, Leslie Harrold, Jennifer Tjia, Sarah Cutrona, Katherine Dodd, Robert Goldberg, Jerry Gurwitz
PURPOSE: To identify and describe the validity of algorithms used to detect heart failure (HF) using administrative and claims data sources.
METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed and Iowa Drug Information Service searches of the English language was performed to identify studies published between 1990 and 2010 that evaluated the validity of algorithms for the identification of patients with HF using and claims data. Abstracts and articles were reviewed by two study investigators to determine their relevance on the basis of predetermined criteria.
RESULTS: The initial search strategy identified 887 abstracts. Of these, 499 full articles were reviewed and 35 …
Growth In Dementia-Associated Hospitalizations Among The Oldest Old In The United States: Implications For Ethical Health Services Planning, 2012 University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Growth In Dementia-Associated Hospitalizations Among The Oldest Old In The United States: Implications For Ethical Health Services Planning, Marya Zilberberg, Jennifer Tjia
As the world population ages, an epidemic of neurologic diseases, such as Alzheimer-type dementia and Parkinson disease, is predicted. The most rapid population growth has been observed in the 85 years and older group ... Concurrent with this population growth, we have witnessed a vast expansion of health care utilization and expenditures, with the consequent close scrutiny and attempts to rein in this supply-driven juggernaut. ... We conducted this analysis to gain a better understanding of the current trends in dementia-associated hospitalizations among the 85 years and older population in the United States and its implications for future health care …
Medication Discrepancies Upon Hospital To Skilled Nursing Facility Transitions, 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Medication Discrepancies Upon Hospital To Skilled Nursing Facility Transitions, Jennifer Tjia, Alice Bonner, Becky Briesacher, Sarah Mcgee, Eileen Terrill, Kathleen Miller
BACKGROUND: Failure to reconcile medications across transitions in care is an important source of harm to patients. Little is known about medication discrepancies upon admission to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of, type of medications involved in, and sources of medication discrepancies upon admission to the SNF setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients admitted to SNF for subacute care. MEASUREMENTS: Number of medication discrepancies, defined as unexplained differences among documented medication regimens, including the hospital discharge summary, patient care referral form and SNF admission orders. RESULTS: Of 2,319 medications reviewed on admission, 495 (21.3%) had a …
Challenge Of Changing Nursing Home Prescribing Culture, 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Challenge Of Changing Nursing Home Prescribing Culture, Jennifer Tjia, Jerry Gurwitz, Becky Briesacher
This article described a framework for improving prescribing in nursing homes (NH) by focusing on the whole facility as a system that has created a "prescribing culture." We offered this paradigm as an alternative to focused interventions that target prescribers only. We used the example of atypical antipsychotics to illustrate the approach. We also highlighted elements of the NH culture change movement that are germane to medication prescribing, and illustrated which elements of NH culture were shown to be associated with suboptimal quality of care. We concluded by describing current models, including our study funded by the Agency for Healthcare …
A Systematic Review Of Validated Methods For Identifying Cerebrovascular Accident Or Transient Ischemic Attack Using Administrative Data, 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School
A Systematic Review Of Validated Methods For Identifying Cerebrovascular Accident Or Transient Ischemic Attack Using Administrative Data, Susan Andrade, Leslie Harrold, Jennifer Tjia, Sarah Cutrona, Jane Saczynski, Katherine Dodd, Robert Goldberg, Jerry Gurwitz
PURPOSE: To perform a systematic review of the validity of algorithms for identifying cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) using administrative and claims data. METHODS: PubMed and Iowa Drug Information Service searches of the English language literature were performed to identify studies published between 1990 and 2010 that evaluated the validity of algorithms for identifying CVAs (ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage) and/or TIAs in administrative data. Two study investigators independently reviewed the abstracts and articles to determine relevant studies according to pre-specified criteria. RESULTS: A total of 35 articles met the criteria for evaluation. …
Daily Medication Use In Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia, 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Daily Medication Use In Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia, Jennifer Tjia, Margaret Rothman, Dan Kiely, Michele Shaffer, Holly Holmes, Greg Sachs, Susan Mitchell
OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern and factors associated with daily medication use in nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Twenty-two Boston-area NHs. PARTICIPANTS: NH residents with advanced dementia (N=323). MEASUREMENTS: Data from residents' records were used to determine the number or daily medications, specific drugs prescribed, and use of drugs deemed "never appropriate" in patients with advanced dementia. Resident characteristics associated with the use of more daily medications and drugs deemed inappropriate were examined. RESULTS: Residents were prescribed a mean of 5.9 +/- 3.0 daily medications, and 37.5% received at least one medication considered …
Deeply Discounted Medications: Implications Of Generic Prescription Drug Wars, 2012 Rite Aid Pharmacy
Deeply Discounted Medications: Implications Of Generic Prescription Drug Wars, Jessica Czechowski, Jennifer Tjia, Darren Triller
OBJECTIVE: To describe the history of generic prescription pricing programs at major pharmacy chains and their potential implications on prescribing, quality of care, and patient safety. DATA SOURCES: Publicly available generic prescription discount program drug lists as of May 1, 2009. SUMMARY: Fierce competition among major pharmacy chains such as Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart has led to a generic prescription pricing war with unclear public health implications. Introduced in 2006, currently 7 of the 10 largest pharmacy chains advertise a version of a deeply discounted medication (DDM) program, accounting for more than 25,000 locations nationally. By early 2008, almost 70 …
Cholinesterase Inhibitor And Memantine Use In Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents With Dementia, 2012 Queen's University - Belfast
Cholinesterase Inhibitor And Memantine Use In Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents With Dementia, Carole Parsons, Becky Briesacher, Jane Givens, Yong Chen, Jennifer Tjia
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and memantine in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia upon NH admission and 3 months later and to examine factors associated with reduction in therapy.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: Nationwide sample of U.S. NHs.
PARTICIPANTS: Three thousand five hundred six NH residents with dementia newly admitted in 2006.
MEASUREMENTS: Data from pharmacy dispensing records were used to determine ChEI and memantine medication use upon NH admission and at 3-month follow-up. The Minimum Data Set was used to determine resident- and facility-level characteristics. Severity of dementia was defined using the Cognitive …
Interest In Breast Cancer Chemoprevention Among Older Women, 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Interest In Breast Cancer Chemoprevention Among Older Women, Jennifer Tjia, Ellyn Micco, Katrina Armstrong
OBJECTIVES: The study aim is to describe interest in breast cancer chemoprevention among older women without a history of breast cancer and to determine whether aging-related factors such as diminished life expectancy, increasing comorbidity and medication burden attenuate chemoprevention interest. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: University of Pennsylvania Health System. PARTICIPANTS: Four-hundred fifty-seven community-dwelling women aged 60-65 years old who were potentially eligible for breast cancer chemoprevention according to guidelines linking risk and eligibility to age. MEASUREMENTS: Interest in breast cancer chemopre vention, Gail model breast cancer risk, perceived breast cancer risk, breast cancer worry, self-reported health status and comorbidities, and …
Medicare Part D And Changes In Prescription Drug Use And Cost Burden: National Estimates For The Medicare Population, 2000 To 2007, 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Medicare Part D And Changes In Prescription Drug Use And Cost Burden: National Estimates For The Medicare Population, 2000 To 2007, Becky Briesacher, Yanfang Zhao, Jeanne Madden, Fang Zhang, Alyce Adams, Jennifer Tjia, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Jerry Gurwitz, Stephen Soumerai
CONTEXT: The full effect of Medicare Part D, after the initial policy transition period and across the United States Medicare population, remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate nationally representative changes in prescription drug use and out-of-pocket drug costs 2 years after implementation of Part D.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined study outcomes over 8 years (2000 to 2007) and estimated changes after Part D, accounting for earlier trends. Our analyses used the community-dwelling sample of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (unweighted unique n=38,798). Actual post-Part D outcomes were compared with projected values using 2000 to 2005 data. Subgroup analyses and …