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Prevalence Of Human Herpesvirus 8 (Hhv8) And Hepatitis C Virus (Hcv) In A Rural Community With High Risk For Blood Borne Infections In Central China, Tiejun Zhang, Na He, Yingying Ding, Kay L. Crabtree, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood 2011 Fudan University

Prevalence Of Human Herpesvirus 8 (Hhv8) And Hepatitis C Virus (Hcv) In A Rural Community With High Risk For Blood Borne Infections In Central China, Tiejun Zhang, Na He, Yingying Ding, Kay L. Crabtree, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Former illegal blood donation in the past decade has caused HIV outbreaks in some rural areas in China. Other HIV associated virus infections, such as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in such areas are still not well defined. In order to explore HHV8 and HCV seroprevalence and potential risk factors in such areas, a cross-sectional study with 305 HIV positive and 315 HIV negative subjects recruited from a rural county in Shanxi province was conducted, where illegal blood collection was reported. Interview questionnaires and serum testing were carried out with these participants. HCV and HHV8 seroprevalence were found to be higher …


Generation Of A Kupffer Cell-Evading Adenovirus For Systemic And Liver-Directed Gene Transfer, Reeti Khare, Shannon M. May, Francesco Vetrini, Eric A. Weaver, Donna Palmer, Amanda Rosewell, Nathan Grove, Philip Ng, Michael A. Barry 2011 Mayo Graduate School, Rochester,

Generation Of A Kupffer Cell-Evading Adenovirus For Systemic And Liver-Directed Gene Transfer, Reeti Khare, Shannon M. May, Francesco Vetrini, Eric A. Weaver, Donna Palmer, Amanda Rosewell, Nathan Grove, Philip Ng, Michael A. Barry

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

As much as 90% of an intravenously (i.v.) injected dose of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is absorbed and destroyed by liver Kupffer cells. Viruses that escape these cells can then transduce hepatocytes after binding factor X (FX). Given that interactions with FX and Kupffer cells are thought to occur on the Ad5 hexon protein, we replaced its exposed hypervariable regions (HVR) with those from Ad6. When tested in vivo in BALB/c mice and in hamsters, the Ad5/6 chimera mediated >10 times higher transduction in the liver. This effect was not due to changes in FX binding. Rather, Ad5/6 appeared to …


Comparison Of Adenoviruses As Oncolytics And Cancer Vaccines In An Immunocompetent B Cell Lymphoma Model, Eric A. Weaver, Christopher Y. Chen, Shannon M. May, Mary E. Barry, Michael A. Barry 2011 Mayo Clinic, Rochester & University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparison Of Adenoviruses As Oncolytics And Cancer Vaccines In An Immunocompetent B Cell Lymphoma Model, Eric A. Weaver, Christopher Y. Chen, Shannon M. May, Mary E. Barry, Michael A. Barry

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

We have screened human adenoviruses (Ads) for oncolytic activity against a variety of mouse and hamster cell lines and have found a number that are susceptible to a variety of Ad serotypes. A20 lymphoma is derived from BALB/c mice and is susceptible to infection and killing by a variety of human Ads. A20 is also a suitable cancer vaccine model, because these cells express a unique immunoglobulin variable region that can be targeted by vaccination. To compare Ads as cancer vaccines versus Ads as oncolytics, A20 tumors were initiated in im- munocompetent BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with first-generation Ad5 expressing …


Advances And Future Challenges In Adenoviral Vector Pharmacology And Targeting, Reeti Khare, Christopher Y. Chen, Eric A. Weaver, Michael A. Barry 2011 Mayo Graduate School

Advances And Future Challenges In Adenoviral Vector Pharmacology And Targeting, Reeti Khare, Christopher Y. Chen, Eric A. Weaver, Michael A. Barry

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Adenovirus is a robust vector for therapeutic applications, but its use is limited by our understanding of its complex in vivo pharmacology. In this review we describe the necessity of identifying its natural, widespread, and multi-faceted interactions with the host since this information will be crucial for efficiently redirecting virus into target cells. In the rational design of vectors, the notion of overcoming a sequence of viral “sinks” must be combined with re-targeting to target populations with capsid as well as shielding the vectors from pre-existing or toxic immune responses. It must also be noted that most known adenoviral pharmacology …


Species D Adenoviruses As Oncolytics Against B-Cell Cancers, Christopher Y. Chen, Julien S. Senac, Eric A. Weaver, Shannon M. May, Diane F. Jelinek, Philip Greipp, Thomas Witzig, Michael A. Barry 2011 Mayo Clinic, Rochester

Species D Adenoviruses As Oncolytics Against B-Cell Cancers, Christopher Y. Chen, Julien S. Senac, Eric A. Weaver, Shannon M. May, Diane F. Jelinek, Philip Greipp, Thomas Witzig, Michael A. Barry

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Purpose: Oncolytic viruses are self-amplifying anticancer agents that make use of the natural ability of viruses to kill cells. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been extensively tested against solid cancers, but less so against B-cell cancers because these cells do not generally express the coxsackie and adenoviral receptor (CAR). To determine whether other adenoviruses might have better potency, we "mined" the adenovirus virome of 55 serotypes for viruses that could kill B-cell cancers.

Experimental Design: Fifteen adenoviruses selected to represent Ad species B, C, D, E, and F were tested in vitro against cell lines and primary patient B-cell cancers …


Characterization Of Species C Human Adenovirus Serotype 6 (Ad6), Eric A. Weaver, Reeti Khare, Mathew L. Hillestad, Donna Palmer, Philip Ng, Michael A. Barry 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln & Mayo Clinic, Rochester

Characterization Of Species C Human Adenovirus Serotype 6 (Ad6), Eric A. Weaver, Reeti Khare, Mathew L. Hillestad, Donna Palmer, Philip Ng, Michael A. Barry

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Adenovirus serotype (Ad5) is the most studied Ad. Ad1, 2, and 6 are also members of species C Ad and are presumed to have biologies similar to Ad5. In this work, we have compared the ability of Ad1, 2, 5, and 6 to infect liver and muscle after intravenous and intramuscular injection. We found that Ad6 was surprisingly the most potent at liver gene delivery and that Ad1 and Ad2 were markedly weaker than Ad5 and 6. To understand these differences, we sequenced the Ad6 genome. This revealed that the Ad6 fiber protein is surprisingly three shaft repeats shorter than …


Public Opinions Of Schizophrenia, Amy Guiomard 2011 Ouachita Baptist University

Public Opinions Of Schizophrenia, Amy Guiomard

Honors Theses

Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, behavior, and communication that last longer than 6 months (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The symptoms of schizophrenia are often so severe that the individual is unable to function normally in society. The resulting erratic behavior, combined with misinformation about the disorder in general, leads to the negative stigma now associated with the disorder. The research presented here evaluates public stigmatization towards schizophrenics; it also explores the similarities between behavior due to racial stereotyping and behavior based on stigmatization of schizophrenics.


Dyssynchrony In Obese Subjects Without A History Of Cardiac Disease Using Velocity Vector Imaging, Bhaskar Purushottam MD, Anoop C. Parameswaran MD, MPH, Vincent M. Figueredo MD 2011 Jefferson Medical College

Dyssynchrony In Obese Subjects Without A History Of Cardiac Disease Using Velocity Vector Imaging, Bhaskar Purushottam Md, Anoop C. Parameswaran Md, Mph, Vincent M. Figueredo Md

Division of Cardiology Faculty Papers

Abstract

Aim: To examine the occurrence of intra-left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in obese versus non-obese subjects without known cardiac disease using velocity vector imaging (VVI).

Methods: One hundred ninety consecutive subjects with no known cardiac disease had their echocardiograms analyzed using VVI after excluding subjects with QRS duration >120ms or LV ejection fraction (LVEF) <55%. Study subjects were divided into two groups based on body mass index (BMI): obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <30 kg>/m2).

Results: The final cohort included 136 subjects (74 were obese), 32% female and mean age 55 + 16 years. Occurrence of intra LV dyssynchrony was higher in the obese compared to non-obese group.

Conclusions: There was an increased prevalence of …


Population Health Metrics Research Consortium Gold Standard Verbal Autopsy Validation Study: Design, Implementation, And Development Of Analysis Datasets, C.J.L. Murray, A.D. Lopez, R. Black, R. Ahuja, S.M. Ali, A. Baqui, L. Dandona, E. Dantzer, Vinita Das, U. Dhingra, A. Dutta, W. Fawzi, A.D. Flaxman, S. Gomez, B. Hernandez, R. Joshi, H. Kalter, A. Kumar, V. Kumar, R. Lozano, M. Lucero, S. Mehta, B. Neal, S.L. Ohno, R. Prasad, D. Praveen, Zul Premji, D. Ramirez-Villalobos, H. Remolador, I. Riley, M. Romero, M. Said, D. Sanvictores 2011 University of Washington

Population Health Metrics Research Consortium Gold Standard Verbal Autopsy Validation Study: Design, Implementation, And Development Of Analysis Datasets, C.J.L. Murray, A.D. Lopez, R. Black, R. Ahuja, S.M. Ali, A. Baqui, L. Dandona, E. Dantzer, Vinita Das, U. Dhingra, A. Dutta, W. Fawzi, A.D. Flaxman, S. Gomez, B. Hernandez, R. Joshi, H. Kalter, A. Kumar, V. Kumar, R. Lozano, M. Lucero, S. Mehta, B. Neal, S.L. Ohno, R. Prasad, D. Praveen, Zul Premji, D. Ramirez-Villalobos, H. Remolador, I. Riley, M. Romero, M. Said, D. Sanvictores

Pathology, East Africa

Background: Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment.

Methods: Data collection was implemented in six sites in four …


Plasmodium Falciparum Population Dynamics During The Early Phase Of Anti-Malarial Drug Treatment In Tanzanian Children With Acute Uncomplicated Malaria, A.M. Carlsson, B.E. Ngasala, S. Dahlstrom, C. Membi, I.M. Veiga, L. Rombo, S. Abdulla, Zul Premji, J.P. Gil, A. Bjorkman, A. Martensson 2011 Karolinska University Hospital

Plasmodium Falciparum Population Dynamics During The Early Phase Of Anti-Malarial Drug Treatment In Tanzanian Children With Acute Uncomplicated Malaria, A.M. Carlsson, B.E. Ngasala, S. Dahlstrom, C. Membi, I.M. Veiga, L. Rombo, S. Abdulla, Zul Premji, J.P. Gil, A. Bjorkman, A. Martensson

Pathology, East Africa

Background: This study aimed to explore Plasmodium falciparum population dynamics during the early phase of anti-malarial drug treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy in children with clinical malaria in a high transmission area in Africa.

Methods: A total of 50 children aged 1-10 years with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania, were enrolled. Participants were hospitalized and received supervised standard treatment with artemether-lumefantrine according to body weight in six doses over 3 days. Blood samples were collected 11 times, i.e. at time of diagnosis (-2 h) and 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 …


Preference Assessments For Older Adults With Dementia: Utility Of The Mswo Procedure And Assessment Of The Stability Of Preference, Paige B. Raetz 2011 Western Michigan University

Preference Assessments For Older Adults With Dementia: Utility Of The Mswo Procedure And Assessment Of The Stability Of Preference, Paige B. Raetz

Dissertations

Individuals with dementia suffer from a variety of cognitive deficits that can lead to a lack of engagement in activities. In recent years, researchers have begun to look at ways to assess preferences in hopes that increased identification of leisure items may lead to increases in engagement. Due to the decline in cognitive status a simple questionnaire may not be sufficient to assess preference for this population. As a result, several recent studies have incorporated the use of systematic preference assessments to assess preference for leisure activities with adults with dementia using a paired stimulus format. The purpose of the …


Alterations In Content And Localization Of Defensins In Rat Ileum And Jejunum Following Ischemia-Reperfusion Specific Peptides, In Specific Places, For Specific Jobs?, Rosemary A Kozar, Rachel J Santora, Brian J Poindexter, Stephen M Milner, Roger J Bick 2011 The Texas Medical Center Library

Alterations In Content And Localization Of Defensins In Rat Ileum And Jejunum Following Ischemia-Reperfusion Specific Peptides, In Specific Places, For Specific Jobs?, Rosemary A Kozar, Rachel J Santora, Brian J Poindexter, Stephen M Milner, Roger J Bick

Journal Articles

Objective: To determine alterations in quantities and distributions of natural antimicrobials following ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that these compounds would be upregulated in areas of small intestine where changes in permeability and cellular disruption were likely and where protective mechanisms would be initiated. Methods: Rats with ischemia-reperfusion underwent superior mesenteric artery clamping and reperfusion. Shams were subjected to laparotomy but no clamping. Ileum and jejunum were harvested and sectioned, and subjected to fluorescence deconvolution microscopy for determinations of content and localization of rat beta defensins, 1, 2, 3; rat neutrophil protein-1; and cathelicidin LL-37. Modeling was performed to determine cellular …


Complete Genome Sequence Of Treponema Paraluiscuniculi, Strain Cuniculi A: The Loss Of Infectivity To Humans Is Associated With Genome Decay, David Smajs, Marie Zobaníková, Michal Strouhal, Darina Cejková, Shannon Dugan-Rocha, Petra Pospíšilová, Steven J Norris, Tom Albert, Xiang Qin, Kym Hallsworth-Pepin, Christian Buhay, Donna M Muzny, Lei Chen, Richard A Gibbs, George M Weinstock 2011 The Texas Medical Center Library

Complete Genome Sequence Of Treponema Paraluiscuniculi, Strain Cuniculi A: The Loss Of Infectivity To Humans Is Associated With Genome Decay, David Smajs, Marie Zobaníková, Michal Strouhal, Darina Cejková, Shannon Dugan-Rocha, Petra Pospíšilová, Steven J Norris, Tom Albert, Xiang Qin, Kym Hallsworth-Pepin, Christian Buhay, Donna M Muzny, Lei Chen, Richard A Gibbs, George M Weinstock

Journal Articles

Treponema paraluiscuniculi is the causative agent of rabbit venereal spirochetosis. It is not infectious to humans, although its genome structure is very closely related to other pathogenic Treponema species including Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis. In this study, the genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A, was determined by a combination of several high-throughput sequencing strategies. Whereas the overall size (1,133,390 bp), arrangement, and gene content of the Cuniculi A genome closely resembled those of the T. pallidum genome, the T. paraluiscuniculi genome contained a markedly higher number of pseudogenes and gene fragments (51). In …


Undetected Common Variable Immune Deficiency In A Young Adult Of Pakistani Descent., M Owais Khan, Adil Iqba Memon, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Asifali Imam 2011 Dow Medical College

Undetected Common Variable Immune Deficiency In A Young Adult Of Pakistani Descent., M Owais Khan, Adil Iqba Memon, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Asifali Imam

Department of Medicine

Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is a syndrome which is due to deficiency of humoral immune response resulting in increased susceptibility to infections We report a case of CVID in a 24-year-old male whopresented with a history of recurrent pneumonias.


Postoperative Sensitivity In Class V Composite Restorations: Comparing Soft Start Vs. Constant Curing Modes Of Led., Fahad Umer, Frahan Raza Khan 2011 Aga Khan University

Postoperative Sensitivity In Class V Composite Restorations: Comparing Soft Start Vs. Constant Curing Modes Of Led., Fahad Umer, Frahan Raza Khan

Department of Surgery

Background: One of the major disadvantages associated with using composites is polymerization shrinkage, stresses are generated at the margins, and if these stresses exceed the bond strength, microleakage occurs at the tooth restoration interface which causes ingress of cariogenic bacteria, post-operative sensitivity, and secondary caries. LED offers several curing modes: constant cure, ramped cure, and soft start cure. It is claimed that soft start polymerization mode produces less polymerization shrinkage and consequently less postoperative sensitivity. Objective:To compare the postoperative sensitivity in Class V composite restorations using soft start and constant LED curing modes. Materials and

Methods:

Using the appropriate …


Post-Dural Puncture Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome, Fauzia N. Minai, Syeda Fauzia Hasan, Mughis Sheerani 2011 Aga Khan University

Post-Dural Puncture Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome, Fauzia N. Minai, Syeda Fauzia Hasan, Mughis Sheerani

Department of Anaesthesia

We report the case of a young patient with 36 weeks pregnancy, and an acute respiratory infection with severe bronchospasm, who developed an occipital headache and neck pain on the third day of inadvertent dural puncture during placement of combined epidural spinal anaesthesia for caesarian section. It was diagnosed as post-dural puncture headache until generalised tonic clonic siezures occurred the next day raising the suspicion of postpartum eclampsia or meningitis. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was diagnosed on MRI of the brain which showed features of reversible ischemia in the posterior region of the brain. With anticonvulsant therapy and antibiotics there …


Anaesthetic Challenges In Emergency Surgical Repair Of Acute Aortic Dissection Rupturing Into The Pericardium In A Pregnant Patient, Mohammad Irfan Akhtar, Khalid Samad 2011 Aga Khan University

Anaesthetic Challenges In Emergency Surgical Repair Of Acute Aortic Dissection Rupturing Into The Pericardium In A Pregnant Patient, Mohammad Irfan Akhtar, Khalid Samad

Department of Anaesthesia

Acute aortic dissection in pregnancy is a serious situation, because rapid and appropriate surgical decision making is required to save the life of both mother and baby. Aortic dissection is rare in young women but is likely during pregnancy (third trimester) secondary to the hyperdynamic and hypervolaemic circulatory state associated with pregnancy. A 35 years old 27 weeks pregnant patient weighing 90 kg presented in the emergency with severe chest pain. In the immediate post cardiopulmonary bypass period, the patient started bleeding profusely from the anastamotic sites irrespective of utilization of all the conventional methods of haemostasis including multiple units …


Course And Outcome Of Obstetric Patients Admitted To A University Hospital Intensive Care Unit, F. Githae, Vitalis Mung’ayi, William Stones 2011 Aga Khan University

Course And Outcome Of Obstetric Patients Admitted To A University Hospital Intensive Care Unit, F. Githae, Vitalis Mung’Ayi, William Stones

Anaesthesiology, East Africa

Background: Obstetric Critical Care is an important service in the reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality, but few developing country data are available.

Objectives: To review all maternity patients admitted to the ICU over a seven year period to determine the causes and outcomes of these admissions and the frequency and causes of maternal morbidity and mortality.

Design: Retrospective patient file and ICU chart review.

Subjects: ICU Charts and medical files of obstetric patients admitted to the ICU at The Aga Khan University Hospital between (November 2003 – November 2010) were reviewed.

Setting: The ICU at The Aga Khan University …


Midtrimester Dilation And Evacuation (D&E) Versus Prostaglandin Induction: A Comparison Of Composite Outcomes (Poster), Kari A. Whitley MD, Meredith L. Rochon MD, Kevin Trinchere, Wendy Prutsman MSN, CRNP 2011 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Midtrimester Dilation And Evacuation (D&E) Versus Prostaglandin Induction: A Comparison Of Composite Outcomes (Poster), Kari A. Whitley Md, Meredith L. Rochon Md, Kevin Trinchere, Wendy Prutsman Msn, Crnp

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Verbal Behavior In Older Adults, Amy Gross 2011 Western Michigan University

Evaluation Of Verbal Behavior In Older Adults, Amy Gross

Dissertations

Older adults make up a large and increasing portion of the population (U.S. apply those assessments to the evaluation of verbal behavior in older adults with and without dementia. The research addressed two questions. First, in what way do verbal behavior problems differ between older adults with and without dementia? Second, does language deteriorate in a pattern compatible with Skinner's analysis of functionally independent verbal operants? Thirty-one participants were categorized into Control (n=15) and Dementia (n=16) Groups based on their score on the Dementia Rating Scale-2. Verbal behavior assessments were administered to participants on two occasions, separated by one week. …


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