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Roles And Regulation Of Satellite Cells In Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Sydney M. Vlasman 2021 Portland State University

Roles And Regulation Of Satellite Cells In Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Sydney M. Vlasman

University Honors Theses

Skeletal muscle has an innate ability to self-regenerate in response to certain stimuli. In the case of trauma, muscle resident stem cells are required to meet the regenerative needs of the tissue. These resident stem cells, called satellite cells (SCs), are crucial in the regenerative process following injury; understanding the major factors which regulate satellite cell activity can provide valuable insight for regenerative medicine. The ability to implement and properly activate satellite cells has immense potential in the treatment of conditions including trauma, degenerative disorders, and age-related sarcopenia. This review will discuss the current understanding of satellite cell-mediated regeneration and ...


Evaluation Of Somatic Mutations In Solid Metastatic Pan-Cancer Patients, Moom Roosan, Isa Mambetsariev, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Joseph Chao, Chen Chen, Mohd W. Nasser, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Maneesh Jain, Lynette Smith, Susan E. Yost, Karen L. Reckamp, Raju Pillai, Leonidas Arvanitis, Michelle Afkhami, Edward W. Wang, Vincent Chung, Mihaela Cristea, Marwan Fakih, Marianna Koczywas, Erminia Massarelli, Joanne Mortimer, Yuan Yuan, Surinder K. Batra, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia 2021 Chapman University

Evaluation Of Somatic Mutations In Solid Metastatic Pan-Cancer Patients, Moom Roosan, Isa Mambetsariev, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Joseph Chao, Chen Chen, Mohd W. Nasser, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Maneesh Jain, Lynette Smith, Susan E. Yost, Karen L. Reckamp, Raju Pillai, Leonidas Arvanitis, Michelle Afkhami, Edward W. Wang, Vincent Chung, Mihaela Cristea, Marwan Fakih, Marianna Koczywas, Erminia Massarelli, Joanne Mortimer, Yuan Yuan, Surinder K. Batra, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Metastasis continues to be the primary cause of all cancer-related deaths despite the recent advancements in cancer treatments. To evaluate the role of mutations in overall survival (OS) and treatment outcomes, we analyzed 957 metastatic patients with seven major cancer types who had available molecular testing results with a FoundationOne CDx® panel. The most prevalent genes with somatic mutations were TP53, KRAS, APC, and LRP1B. In this analysis, these genes had mutation frequencies higher than in publicly available datasets. We identified that the somatic mutations were seven mutually exclusive gene pairs and an additional fifty-two co-occurring gene pairs. Mutations in ...


Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell 2021 Bellarmine University

Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell

Undergraduate Theses

This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...


Affilia􀆟Ve Social Interac􀆟Ons Ac􀆟Vate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood 2021 Rowan University

Affilia􀆟Ve Social Interac􀆟Ons Ac􀆟Vate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood

Stratford Campus Research Day

Social behavior is inextricably linked to human health, shaping both our susceptibility and resilience to disease and stress. Positive interactions as simple as maternal contact or friendships among children and adults can protect against emotional distress and improve treatment outcomes, whereas negative interactions such as abuse, social isolation, or bullying can increase aggression and precipitate mood disorders. Discovering the structure and function of neural circuits underlying social behavior is critical to understanding the link between social interaction and health. The neuropeptide vasopressin has been implicated in the regulation of multiple social interactions including social memory, aggression, mating, pair-bonding, and parental ...


Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates III, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell‐derived membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular space. EVs encapsulate key proteins and mediate intercellular signalling pathways. Recently, primary cilia have been shown to release EVs under fluid‐shear flow, but many proteins encapsulated in these vesicles have never been identified. Primary cilia are ubiquitous mechanosensory organelles that protrude from the apical surface of almost all human cells. Primary cilia also serve as compartments for signalling pathways, and their defects have been associated with a wide range of human genetic diseases called ciliopathies. To better understand the mechanism of ciliopathies, it is imperative ...


Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ 2021 Chapman University

Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Despite extensive efforts to repurpose approved drugs, discover new small molecules, and develop vaccines, COVID-19 pandemic is still claiming victims around the world. The current arsenal of antiviral compounds did not perform well in the past viral infections (e.g., SARS), which casts a shadow of doubt for use against the new SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines should offer the ultimate protection; however, there is limited information about the longevity of the generated immunity and the protection against possible mutations. This study uses Human Coronavirus 229E as a model coronavirus to test the hypothesis that effective delivery of virus-specific siRNAs to infected cells ...


Impaired 26s Proteasome Assembly Precedes Neuronal Loss In Mutant Ubqln2 Rats., Wenjuan Zhang, Bo Huang, Limo Gao, Cao Huang 2021 Department of Pathology, Anatomy & Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA

Impaired 26s Proteasome Assembly Precedes Neuronal Loss In Mutant Ubqln2 Rats., Wenjuan Zhang, Bo Huang, Limo Gao, Cao Huang

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Proteasomal dysfunction is known to be associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal degeneration (ALS/FTD). Our previous reports have shown that a mutant form of ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2) linked to ALS/FTD leads to neurodegeneration accompanied by accumulations of the proteasome subunit Rpt1 in transgenic rats, but the precise pathogenic mechanisms of how this mutation impairs the proteasome remains to be elucidated. Here, we reveal that this UBQLN2 mutation in rats disrupted the proteasome integrity prior to neurodegeneration, that it dissociated the 26S proteasome in vitro, and that its depletion did not affect 26S proteasome assembly. During both disease progression ...


Implications Of The Quantum Dna Model For Information Sciences, F. Matthew Mihelic 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Implications Of The Quantum Dna Model For Information Sciences, F. Matthew Mihelic

Faculty Publications

The DNA molecule can be modeled as a quantum logic processor, and this model has been supported by pilot research that experimentally demonstrated non-local communication between cells in separated cell cultures. This modeling and pilot research have important implications for information sciences, providing a potential architecture for quantum computing that operates at room temperature and is scalable to millions of qubits, and including the potential for an entanglement communication system based upon the quantum DNA architecture. Such a system could be used to provide non-local quantum key distribution that could not be blocked by any shielding or water depth, would ...


Resident Immune Cells Of The Avascular Lens: Mediators Of The Injury And Fibrotic Response Of The Lens., A. Menko, JodiRae DeDreu, Caitlin M. Logan, Heather Paulson, Alex V Levin, Janice L Walker 2021 Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Resident Immune Cells Of The Avascular Lens: Mediators Of The Injury And Fibrotic Response Of The Lens., A. Menko, Jodirae Dedreu, Caitlin M. Logan, Heather Paulson, Alex V Levin, Janice L Walker

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Tissues typically harbor subpopulations of resident immune cells that function as rapid responders to injury and whose activation leads to induction of an adaptive immune response, playing important roles in repair and protection. Since the lens is an avascular tissue, it was presumed that it was absent of resident immune cells. Our studies now show that resident immune cells are a shared feature of the human, mouse, and chicken lens epithelium. These resident immune cells function as immediate responders to injury and rapidly populate the wound edge following mock cataract surgery to function as leader cells. Many of these resident ...


Characterization And Clinical Significance Of Eif1ax Mutations And Co-Mutations In Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis., Stacey Gargano, Nitika Badjatia, Yanina Nikolaus, Stephen C Peiper, Zi-Xuan Wang, PhD 2021 Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, United States of America

Characterization And Clinical Significance Of Eif1ax Mutations And Co-Mutations In Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis., Stacey Gargano, Nitika Badjatia, Yanina Nikolaus, Stephen C Peiper, Zi-Xuan Wang, Phd

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the EIF1AX gene have been recently detected in a small percentage of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. We sought to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of EIF1AX mutations and co-mutations in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules at our institution.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 5-year retrospective analysis was performed on thyroid nodules with a cytologic diagnosis of Bethesda category III or IV, which had undergone testing by our in-house next generation sequencing panel. Surgically resected nodules with EIF1AX mutations were identified, and mutation type and presence of co-mutations were correlated with histopathologic diagnosis.

RESULTS: 41/904 (4.5 ...


The Heme-Regulated Inhibitor Pathway Modulates Susceptibility Of Poor Prognosis B-Lineage Acute Leukemia To Bh3-Mimetics, Kaitlyn Hill Smith 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Heme-Regulated Inhibitor Pathway Modulates Susceptibility Of Poor Prognosis B-Lineage Acute Leukemia To Bh3-Mimetics, Kaitlyn Hill Smith

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Anti-apoptotic MCL1 is one of the most frequently amplified genes in human cancers and its elevated expression confers resistance to many therapeutics including the BH3-mimetic agents ABT-199 and ABT-263. The anti-malarial, dihydroartemisinin (DHA) translationally represses MCL-1 and synergizes with BH3-mimetics. To explore how DHA represses MCL-1, a genome-wide CRISPR screen identified that loss of genes in the heme synthesis pathway renders mouse BCR-ABL+ B-ALL cells resistant to DHA-induced death. Mechanistically, DHA disrupts the interaction between heme and the eIF2α kinase heme regulated inhibitor (HRI) triggering the integrated stress response. Genetic ablation of Eif2ak1, which encodes HRI, blocks MCL-1 repression in ...


Therapeutic Potential Of Trp Channels In The Targeting Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts, Brittany Isabella Schwam 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Therapeutic Potential Of Trp Channels In The Targeting Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts, Brittany Isabella Schwam

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the synovium, articular cartilage, and bone within a joint, but it is a unique form of arthritis wherein effects are systemic. The cause of this autoimmune disease remains unknown, but there are many environmental and genetic factors that play into susceptibility. Research is still far from drug-free remission despite great advancements over the past few decades. The majority of therapies developed rely on immunosuppressant or immunomodulator molecules and come with risk of infection, high costs, and toxic, uncontrolled side effects. Those diagnosed maintain a significant unmet need for targeted therapies.

There ...


Measuring Mitochondrial Respiration In Vivo: From Mouse To Human, Arthur Orchanian, Brennan Schilling, Bruce Berkowitz PhD 2021 Wayne State University

Measuring Mitochondrial Respiration In Vivo: From Mouse To Human, Arthur Orchanian, Brennan Schilling, Bruce Berkowitz Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: The mitochondrial energy ecosystem can be non-invasively interrogated in photoreceptors by combing a clinical tool, optical coherence tomography (OCT), with a mitochondrial protonophore (2,4 dinitrophenol, DNP). It remains unclear if only supra-clinical doses of DNP will be useful for mouse studies or if lower but clinically relevant doses of DNP would facilitate translation from mice to humans.

Methods: The experiment was a paired longitudinal design that took place over 2 days. On day 1, C57BL/6J mice were overnight dark adapted, then light-adapted for 5 h before OCT examination before regaining consciousness; a similar procedure was followed on ...


Characterization Of Abin-1 In The Traumatically Injured Brain, Aaron Orellana, Alana C. Conti 2021 Wayne State University

Characterization Of Abin-1 In The Traumatically Injured Brain, Aaron Orellana, Alana C. Conti

Medical Student Research Symposium

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with chronic pain and persistent neuroinflammation. Opioids are often prescribed in order to relieve pain symptoms, but recent evidence suggests that their use negatively impacts the neuropathology of TBI leading to behavioral impairments and exacerbated neuroinflammation. The de-ubiquinating enzyme tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein (TNFAIP)3 or A20, inhibits the inflammatory signaling transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kB leading to attenuation of the inflammatory response. A20-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor kB (ABIN-1), which physically interacts with A20, also plays a role in the inhibition of NF-kB and is poorly researched in the central nervous ...


Clinical Performance Of The Point-Of-Care Cobas Liat For Detection Of Sars-Cov-2 In 20 Minutes: A Multicenter Study., Glen Hansen, Jamie Marino, Zi-Xuan Wang, Kathleen G Beavis, John Rodrigo, Kylie Labog, Lars F Westblade, Run Jin, Nedra Love, Karen Ding, Sachin Garg, Alan Huang, Joanna Sickler, Nam K Tran 2021 University of Minnesota, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis

Clinical Performance Of The Point-Of-Care Cobas Liat For Detection Of Sars-Cov-2 In 20 Minutes: A Multicenter Study., Glen Hansen, Jamie Marino, Zi-Xuan Wang, Kathleen G Beavis, John Rodrigo, Kylie Labog, Lars F Westblade, Run Jin, Nedra Love, Karen Ding, Sachin Garg, Alan Huang, Joanna Sickler, Nam K Tran

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Highly accurate testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the point of care (POC) is an unmet diagnostic need in emergency care and time-sensitive outpatient care settings. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technology is the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. We performed a multisite U.S. study comparing the clinical performance of the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized POC RT-PCR for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in 20 min, the cobas Liat SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A/B nucleic acid test, to the most widely used RT-PCR laboratory test, the cobas 68/8800 SARS-CoV-2 test. Clinical nasopharyngeal swab ...


'Educated' Osteoblasts Reduce Osteoclastogenesis In A Bone-Tumor Mimetic Microenvironment., Alexus D. Kolb, Jinlu Dai, Evan T. Keller, Karen M. Bussard 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

'Educated' Osteoblasts Reduce Osteoclastogenesis In A Bone-Tumor Mimetic Microenvironment., Alexus D. Kolb, Jinlu Dai, Evan T. Keller, Karen M. Bussard

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Breast cancer (BC) metastases to bone disrupt the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, leading to excessive bone resorption. We identified a novel subpopulation of osteoblasts with tumor-inhibitory properties, called educated osteoblasts (EOs). Here we sought to examine the effect of EOs on osteoclastogenesis during tumor progression. We hypothesized that EOs affect osteoclast development in the bone-tumor niche, leading to suppressed pre-osteoclast fusion and bone resorption. Conditioned media (CM) was analyzed for protein expression of osteoclast factors receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) via ELISA. EOs were co-cultured with pre-osteoclasts on ...


The Role Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Leukemia Trafficking, Shaw Powell 2021 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Leukemia Trafficking, Shaw Powell

Theses and Dissertations--Medical Sciences

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signaling protein involved in inducing and regulating endothelial cell proliferation and function (Duffy et al 2000). VEGF is also involved in cancer progression, as it induces vascular permeability and promotes angiogenesis to tumor laden areas, giving cancer cells critical oxygen and nutrients (Hoeppner et al.,2012. Studies indicate VEGF prevents lymphoblast apoptosis, which may contribute to leukemia formation and enable the proliferation of leukemic cells (Duffy et al 2000). Ongoing research seeks to further examine VEGF in leukemia, using a rag2:GFP-Myc expressing transgenic zebrafish as the animal model of T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic ...


Il-15/Il-15rα Heterodimeric Complex As Cancer Immunotherapy In Murine Breast Cancer Models, Siqi Guo, Ronald B. Smeltz, Anthony Nanajian, Richard Heller 2021 Old Dominion University

Il-15/Il-15rα Heterodimeric Complex As Cancer Immunotherapy In Murine Breast Cancer Models, Siqi Guo, Ronald B. Smeltz, Anthony Nanajian, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has been evaluated as a potential treatment for solid tumors in clinical trials, but the effectiveness of systemic IL-15 administration as a monotherapy has not been realized. IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα) can stabilize IL-15 and enhance its bioactivity. The goal of this study was to examine the activity of IL-15/IL-15Rα complex (IL-15cx) to CD8(+) T cells and evaluate its potential efficacy in murine breast cancer models. The antitumor efficacy was studied in mouse mammary carcinoma models (Her2/neu transgenic and 4T1-luc mammary cancers) treated with systemic recombinant protein with/without the depletion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells ...


Epigenetic States Regulate Tumor Aggressiveness And Response To Targeted Therapies In Lung Adenocarcinoma, Fan Chen 2021 University of Kentucky

Epigenetic States Regulate Tumor Aggressiveness And Response To Targeted Therapies In Lung Adenocarcinoma, Fan Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, 85% of which are lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD). Although molecular studies of NSCLC identified targetable mutations of some oncogenes including BRAF, EGFR and ALK, no targeted therapies exist for most cases. Cancer epigenetics is the study of epigenetic modifications, including histone modifications, that control gene expression in cancer. Recent advances have revealed numerous epigenetic abnormalities in human cancers, and targeting epigenetic regulators could be effective at reversing dysregulated epigenetic programs or driving sensitivity to other targeted therapies.

Inhibitors of the histone methyltransferase EZH2 have recently been approved as ...


Goblet Cell Carcinoma Of The Appendix: A Case Report On Goblet Cell Carcinoid, Sheliza Kabani, Aubtin Saedi, Austin Lehr, Lina O'Brien 2020 Menorah Medical Center

Goblet Cell Carcinoma Of The Appendix: A Case Report On Goblet Cell Carcinoid, Sheliza Kabani, Aubtin Saedi, Austin Lehr, Lina O'Brien

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is a rare neoplasm with histological features of both neuroendocrine and adenocarcinomas. The combination of its aggressive behavior, infrequent occurrence, and variable clinical presentation convolutes the management of this tumor. We report the case of a 75-year-old female presenting with acute appendicitis. A laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. The pathology report showed goblet cell carcinoid at the base of the appendix with involvement of the proximal surgical margins. At her postoperative visit, the patient’s pathology report and options for management were reviewed, and the patient agreed to proceed with a right hemicolectomy 8-10 weeks ...


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