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Reliability Of Hand-Held Dynamometry For Measuring Force Production In People With Parkinson’S Disease, Matthew Boom, Elisabeth Preston, Renee Salmon, Louise Ada, Allyson Flynn 2023 University of Canberra

Reliability Of Hand-Held Dynamometry For Measuring Force Production In People With Parkinson’S Disease, Matthew Boom, Elisabeth Preston, Renee Salmon, Louise Ada, Allyson Flynn

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: People with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have impaired force production, which is associated with decreased mobility and falls risk. Reliable measurement of force production is important. Design: A repeated-measures, intra- and inter-rater reliability study was undertaken. Participants: 24 people with mild PD were measured by one or two raters. Outcome measures: Isometric force of the major upper and lower limb muscle groups was measured using hand-held dynamometry. Results: Fourteen participants were measured by the same rater on two occasions to determine intra-rater reliability. Ten participants were measured on two occasions by two different raters to determine …


Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge …


The Uncertainty And Psychological Health Of Family Caregivers Of Patients With Delirium In Intensive Care Units, Amal Shokri Haji Assa 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Uncertainty And Psychological Health Of Family Caregivers Of Patients With Delirium In Intensive Care Units, Amal Shokri Haji Assa

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Each year, more than 5 million patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in the United States, and up to 80 % of these patients develop delirium. Delirium is a common indicator of acute brain dysfunction in the ICU and a predictor of mortality, longer ICU/hospital stay, and long-term cognitive impairment. Family caregivers are a valuable resource in preventing, detecting, and managing delirium in the ICU. However, witnessing delirium episodes can generate adverse psychological symptoms in family caregivers that may compromise their health and well-being. Research in this area has demonstrated a gap in the literature regarding how …


Understanding Parkinson’S Disease Through Gait Initiation And Center Of Pressure, Mira Ananthanarayanan, Kiara Salceda, Michael Shiraishi, Rahul Soangra 2022 Chapman University

Understanding Parkinson’S Disease Through Gait Initiation And Center Of Pressure, Mira Ananthanarayanan, Kiara Salceda, Michael Shiraishi, Rahul Soangra

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Parkinson's disease is a neurological disorder that causes tremors and freezing of gait in diagnosed patients. Freezing of gait can be difficult to identify and intervene without laboratory based instruments data collection. Force plates have been proven to show viable results in identifying gait events such as heel contact and toe off. The complete gait cycle consists of a right-heel strike, right heel-to-toe shift, simultaneous right-toe off/left heel strike, left heel-to-toe shift, and a simultaneous left-toe off/right heel strike. This study will investigate center of pressure trajectories when initiating gait between healthy and Parkinson's participants. It is predicted that the …


Delta Oscillation Coupled Propagating Fast Ripples Precede Epileptiform Discharges In Patients With Focal Epilepsy, Shennan A. Weiss, Laurent Sheybani, Nitish Seenarine, Itzhak Fried, Chengyuan Wu, Ashwini Sharan, Jerome Engel Jr., Michael R. Sperling, Yuval Nir, Richard J. Staba 2022 State University of New York Downstate

Delta Oscillation Coupled Propagating Fast Ripples Precede Epileptiform Discharges In Patients With Focal Epilepsy, Shennan A. Weiss, Laurent Sheybani, Nitish Seenarine, Itzhak Fried, Chengyuan Wu, Ashwini Sharan, Jerome Engel Jr., Michael R. Sperling, Yuval Nir, Richard J. Staba

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Epileptiform spikes are used to localize epileptogenic brain tissue. The mechanisms that spontaneously trigger epileptiform discharges are not yet elucidated. Pathological fast ripple (FR, 200–600 Hz) are biomarkers of epileptogenic brain, and we postulated that FR network interactions are involved in generating epileptiform spikes. Using macroelectrode stereo intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings from a cohort of 46 patients we found that, in the seizure onset zone (SOZ), propagating FR were more often followed by an epileptiform spike, as compared with non-propagating FR (p < 0.05). Propagating FR had a distinct frequency and larger power (p < 1e-10) and were more strongly phase coupled to the peak of iEEG delta oscillation, which likely correspond with the DOWN states during non-REM sleep (p < 1e-8), than non-propagating FR. While FR propagation was rare, all FR occurred with the highest probability within +/− 400 msec of epileptiform spikes with superimposed high-frequency oscillations (p < 0.05). Thus, a sub-population of epileptiform spikes in the SOZ, are preceded by propagating FR that are coordinated by the DOWN state during non-REM sleep.


Individualised Prediction Of Drug Resistance And Seizure Recurrence After Medication Withdrawal In People With Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy: A Systematic Review And Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis, Remi Stevelink, Dania Al-Toma, Floor E. Jansen, Herm J. Lamberink, Ali A. Asadi-Pooya, Mohsen Farazdaghi, Gonçalo Cação, Sita Jayalakshmi, Anuja Patil, Çiğdem Özkara, Şenay Aydın, Joanna Gesche, Christoph P. Beier, Linda J. Stephen, Martin J. Brodie, Gopeekrishnan Unnithan, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Julia Höfler, Eugen Trinka, Roland Krause, Emanuele Cerulli Irelli, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Jerzy P. Szaflarski, Laura E. Hernández-Vanegas, Monica L. Moya-Alfaro, Yingying Zhang, Dong Zhou, Nicola Pietrafusa, Nicola Specchio, Giorgi Japaridze, Sándor Beniczky, Mubeen Janmohamed, Patrick Kwan, Marte Syvertsen, Kaja K. Selmer, Bernd J. Vorderwülbecke, Martin Holtkamp, Lakshminarayanapuram G. Viswanathan, Sanjib Sinha, Betül Baykan, Ebru Altindag, Felix von Podewils, Juliane Schulz, Udaya Seneviratne, Alejandro Viloria-Alebesque, Ioannis Karakis, Wendyl J. D'Souza, Josemir W. Sander, Bobby P. C. Koeleman, Willem M. Otte, Kees P. J. Braun 2022 University Medical Center Utrecht

Individualised Prediction Of Drug Resistance And Seizure Recurrence After Medication Withdrawal In People With Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy: A Systematic Review And Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis, Remi Stevelink, Dania Al-Toma, Floor E. Jansen, Herm J. Lamberink, Ali A. Asadi-Pooya, Mohsen Farazdaghi, Gonçalo Cação, Sita Jayalakshmi, Anuja Patil, Çiğdem Özkara, Şenay Aydın, Joanna Gesche, Christoph P. Beier, Linda J. Stephen, Martin J. Brodie, Gopeekrishnan Unnithan, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Julia Höfler, Eugen Trinka, Roland Krause, Emanuele Cerulli Irelli, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Jerzy P. Szaflarski, Laura E. Hernández-Vanegas, Monica L. Moya-Alfaro, Yingying Zhang, Dong Zhou, Nicola Pietrafusa, Nicola Specchio, Giorgi Japaridze, Sándor Beniczky, Mubeen Janmohamed, Patrick Kwan, Marte Syvertsen, Kaja K. Selmer, Bernd J. Vorderwülbecke, Martin Holtkamp, Lakshminarayanapuram G. Viswanathan, Sanjib Sinha, Betül Baykan, Ebru Altindag, Felix Von Podewils, Juliane Schulz, Udaya Seneviratne, Alejandro Viloria-Alebesque, Ioannis Karakis, Wendyl J. D'Souza, Josemir W. Sander, Bobby P. C. Koeleman, Willem M. Otte, Kees P. J. Braun

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: A third of people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are drug-resistant. Three-quarters have a seizure relapse when attempting to withdraw anti-seizure medication (ASM) after achieving seizure-freedom. It is currently impossible to predict who is likely to become drug-resistant and safely withdraw treatment. We aimed to identify predictors of drug resistance and seizure recurrence to allow for individualised prediction of treatment outcomes in people with JME.

METHODS: We performed an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis based on a systematic search in EMBASE and PubMed - last updated on March 11, 2021 - including prospective and retrospective observational studies reporting on …


Living With Multiple Sclerosis As A Former Marathon Runner: Impact Of Attitude And Past Behaviour On Self-Care Maintenance And Perseverance, Michael Stephanou 2022 University of Oxford

Living With Multiple Sclerosis As A Former Marathon Runner: Impact Of Attitude And Past Behaviour On Self-Care Maintenance And Perseverance, Michael Stephanou

Patient Experience Journal

As healthcare professionals, we have a duty to promote the wellbeing of individuals living with chronic diseases and this could be accomplished through the establishment of self-care strategies that are both collaborative and self-directed. Insight into the complex behaviours and backgrounds of individuals who show initiative in dealing with chronic disease could help achieve this by revealing drivers of health-seeking and engaging behaviours. Therefore, by deducing the complex interactions between attitude, past experiences and disease outlook, broader patient welfare could be championed through the implementation of targeted interventions which promote self-care in chronic disease. This article aims to explore these …


Living With Brain Cancer: From Researcher To Patient, Stephen P. Chelko, Daniel L. Fay Ph.D. 2022 Florida State University College of Medicine

Living With Brain Cancer: From Researcher To Patient, Stephen P. Chelko, Daniel L. Fay Ph.D.

Patient Experience Journal

As an academic researcher, my work-life revolves around testing the efficaciousness of pharmaceutical drugs on the prevention of cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death in animal models of heart disease. I never thought I would go from someone studying a life-threatening disease to a patient living with one in twenty-four hours. Yet, that transformation occurred October 8, 2019. I was just appointed to Assistant Professor at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), yet after sitting for my professional headshot I had a grand mal seizure. I cannot recall this event, but I bit the tip of my tongue …


Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Rare Complication Of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated Diffuse Lung Disease, Emma I. Sherfinski, Mark H. Cooper MD, PhD 2022 Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Rare Complication Of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated Diffuse Lung Disease, Emma I. Sherfinski, Mark H. Cooper Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The visually striking neurocutaneous findings of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are well recognized and have been well documented throughout scientific literature. While not uncommon, the pulmonary manifestations of NF1 are unknown to many physicians. Complications of NF1 associated diffuse lung disease (NF-DLD) include pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary artery stenosis, subpleural cysts, and spontaneous pneumothorax. We present a case of a 34-year-old male with NF-DLD found incidentally in adolescence with previous apical bleb repair, presenting nearly twenty years later with spontaneous pneumothorax. In NF1 patients with pulmonary complaints, NF-DLD should be assessed with computed tomography (CT) and physicians should be familiar with …


Efficacy And Safety Of A Brain-Penetrant Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitor In Aged App/Ps1 Mice, Weijun Ou, Yuu Ohno, Joshua Yang, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Tamara Abdullah, Jiahong Sun, Riley Murphy, Chuli Roules, Nataraj Jagadeesan, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria 2022 Chapman University

Efficacy And Safety Of A Brain-Penetrant Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitor In Aged App/Ps1 Mice, Weijun Ou, Yuu Ohno, Joshua Yang, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Tamara Abdullah, Jiahong Sun, Riley Murphy, Chuli Roules, Nataraj Jagadeesan, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a vital role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, and TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) modulate AD pathology. We fused the TNF-α receptor (TNFR), a biologic TNFI that sequesters TNF-α, to a transferrin receptor antibody (TfRMAb) to deliver the TNFI into the brain across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). TfRMAb-TNFR was protective in 6-month-old transgenic APP/PS1 mice in our previous work. However, the effects and safety following delayed chronic TfRMAb-TNFR treatment are unknown. Herein, we initiated the treatment when the male APP/PS1 mice were 10.7 months old (delayed treatment). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with saline, TfRMAb-TNFR, etanercept (non-BBB-penetrating …


Alzheimer's Disease, Dylan L. Weber 2022 Gettysburg College

Alzheimer's Disease, Dylan L. Weber

Student Publications

An overview of the background, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease.


Plasma High-Density Lipoprotein Cargo Is Altered In Alzheimer's Disease And Is Associated With Regional Brain Volume, Steve Pedrini, James D. Doecke, Eugene Hone, Penghao Wang, Rohith Thota, Ashley I. Bush, Christopher C. Rowe, Vincent Dore, Victor L. Villemagne, David Ames, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Giuseppe Verdile, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Manfred R. Raida, Kevin Taddei, Sam Gandy, Colin L. Masters, Pratishtha Chatterjee, Ralph N. Martins, AIBL Research Group 2022 Edith Cowan University

Plasma High-Density Lipoprotein Cargo Is Altered In Alzheimer's Disease And Is Associated With Regional Brain Volume, Steve Pedrini, James D. Doecke, Eugene Hone, Penghao Wang, Rohith Thota, Ashley I. Bush, Christopher C. Rowe, Vincent Dore, Victor L. Villemagne, David Ames, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Giuseppe Verdile, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Manfred R. Raida, Kevin Taddei, Sam Gandy, Colin L. Masters, Pratishtha Chatterjee, Ralph N. Martins, Aibl Research Group

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Cholesterol levels have been repeatedly linked to Alzheimer's Disease (AD), suggesting that high levels could be detrimental, but this effect is likely attributed to Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. On the other hand, High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol levels have been associated with reduced brain amyloidosis and improved cognitive function. However, recent findings have suggested that HDL-functionality, which depends upon the HDL-cargo proteins associated with HDL, rather than HDL levels, appears to be the key factor, suggesting a quality over quantity status. In this report, we have assessed the HDL-cargo (Cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoA-II, ApoC-I, ApoC-III, ApoD, ApoE, ApoH, ApoJ, CRP, and SAA) …


Modulation Of Hepatic Amyloid Precursor Protein And Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 By Chronic Alcohol Intake: Potential Link Between Liver Steatosis And Amyloid-Β, Jerome Garcia, Rudy Chang, Ross A. Steinberg, Aldo Arce, Joshua Yang, Peter Van Der Eb, Tamara Abdullah, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Syndey M. Eck, Pablo Meza, Zhang-Xu Liu, Enrique Cadenas, David H. Cribbs, Neil Kaplowitz, Rachita K. Sumbria, Derick Han 2022 University of La Verne

Modulation Of Hepatic Amyloid Precursor Protein And Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 By Chronic Alcohol Intake: Potential Link Between Liver Steatosis And Amyloid-Β, Jerome Garcia, Rudy Chang, Ross A. Steinberg, Aldo Arce, Joshua Yang, Peter Van Der Eb, Tamara Abdullah, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Syndey M. Eck, Pablo Meza, Zhang-Xu Liu, Enrique Cadenas, David H. Cribbs, Neil Kaplowitz, Rachita K. Sumbria, Derick Han

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Heavy alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for various forms of dementia and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this work, we investigated how intragastric alcohol feeding may alter the liver-to-brain axis to induce and/or promote AD pathology. Four weeks of intragastric alcohol feeding to mice, which causes significant fatty liver (steatosis) and liver injury, caused no changes in AD pathology markers in the brain [amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin], except for a decrease in microglial cell number in the cortex of the brain. Interestingly, the decline in microglial numbers correlated with serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, suggesting …


Latest Developments In Physical Fatigue Evaluation Methods In Patients With Stroke, Siqiang Ren, Zhang Qian, Yuxi Dai, Xicheng Zhen 2022 School of Kinesiology,Shenyang Sport University,Shenyang 110102,China

Latest Developments In Physical Fatigue Evaluation Methods In Patients With Stroke, Siqiang Ren, Zhang Qian, Yuxi Dai, Xicheng Zhen

General Practice in China

Physical fatigue is common in stroke patients,which adversely affects the functional recovery and longˇterm quality of life. Currently available studies about post-stroke fatigue,especially physical fatigue,are limited,and show a large degree of heterogeneity,with controversial results. We reviewed the latest developments in physical fatigue evaluation methods in stroke patients,with a view to assisting clinical selection of an appropriate physical fatigue evaluation method for such patients.


The Prevalence Of Cerebral Palsy In Children Aged 0-6 Years In China:A Meta-Analysis, Yuxia Feng, Wei Peng, Xin Li, Shunbo Yang, Shiyu Liu, Shuqing Lu 2022 1.Rehabilitation Medicine of Jiamusi University,Jiamusi 154003,China 2.Children Neural Rehabilitation Laboratory of Jiamusi University,Jiamusi 154003,China

The Prevalence Of Cerebral Palsy In Children Aged 0-6 Years In China:A Meta-Analysis, Yuxia Feng, Wei Peng, Xin Li, Shunbo Yang, Shiyu Liu, Shuqing Lu

General Practice in China

BackgroundAs one of the main causes of children's disability, cerebral palsy (hereinafter referred to as CP) affects the improvement of our population quality. At present, the results of researches on the prevalence of children suffering from CP in our country are quite different, and there is a lack of epidemiological studies based on larger sample sizes and the current prevalence of CP. ObjectiveTo learn about the prevalence of CP in children aged 0~6 years in China. MethodsLiteratures on the prevalence of CP in children aged 0~6 years in China were retrievaled through computer in PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane …


Analysis Of Prevalence Characteristics Of Post-Stroke Complications And Recommendations For Optimization Of Primary Management, Bin Jing 2022 1.Department of neuroepidemiology, Beijing neurosurgery Institute, Beijing, 100070,China 2.Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070,China 3.Beijing Key Laboratory of clinical epidemiology, Beijing, 100070,China

Analysis Of Prevalence Characteristics Of Post-Stroke Complications And Recommendations For Optimization Of Primary Management, Bin Jing

General Practice in China

Stroke is the leading cause of death among Chinese residents,with the improvement of hospital treatment level,the number of stroke survivors returning to the community is also increasing.This has greatly increased the demand for primary community health services,but also brought great challenges to the grassroots community health services.This article discusses the risk factors of stroke survivors in the community and the epidemiological characteristics of post-stroke complications,the grass-roots management plan after stroke recommended based on evidence or expert consensus,and how to establish and optimize the grass-roots management system after stroke,which aims to improve existing general medical services and provide suggestions and references …


Sex-Specific Correlations Of Fracture Risk With Nutritional Status, Body Composition And Balance Condition In Parkinson's Disease Patients, Xiaohui Xu, Junmei Tian, Weiwei Cai, Yongfei Zhao, Yupeng Wang, Chao Liu, Zhihui Duan 2022 Department of Neurology,Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University,Luoyang 471000,China

Sex-Specific Correlations Of Fracture Risk With Nutritional Status, Body Composition And Balance Condition In Parkinson's Disease Patients, Xiaohui Xu, Junmei Tian, Weiwei Cai, Yongfei Zhao, Yupeng Wang, Chao Liu, Zhihui Duan

General Practice in China

Background Sufficient attention has not been paid to malnutrition,one of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD),for a long time. Malnutrition,sarcopenia and balance disorders increase fracture risk in PD patients. Currently,the research in this field is relatively rare in China. Objective To examine sex-specific correlations of nutritional status,bodycomposition and balance condition with fracture risk in PD patients.Methods A total of 68 PD patients (37 males and 31 females)treated in Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from December 2018 to December 2020 were enrolled,and their general data were collected. Then,the 10-year risks for major osteoporotic fractures (MOF) and hip fractures …


Comprehensive Care To Improve Quality Of Life: A Case Of Childhood Adrenoleukodystrophy, Miraal S. Dharamsi, Adrian A. Mejia, Cecilia De Vargas 2022 Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso

Comprehensive Care To Improve Quality Of Life: A Case Of Childhood Adrenoleukodystrophy, Miraal S. Dharamsi, Adrian A. Mejia, Cecilia De Vargas

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

The childhood cerebral form of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) causes rapid demyelination of cerebral white matter and is clinically characterized by hyperactivity, emotional changes, and poor school performance, as well as progressive cognitive, visual, auditory, speech, and motor decline. While aggressive behavior is a known complication of ALD, treatment of the disease is limited. Moreover, behavioral management is not well described in the available literature, particularly from a psychiatric standpoint. In this case presentation, the patient’s parents reported significant agitation and aggression, which may have been secondary to verbal deficits, in addition to the general neuropathological implications of this disease. Although this …


Intracranial Eeg Patient Analysis: Seizure Reduction In Refractory Epilepsy Following Depth Electrode Insertion, Shreyashish Roy-Chowdhury 2022 Western University

Intracranial Eeg Patient Analysis: Seizure Reduction In Refractory Epilepsy Following Depth Electrode Insertion, Shreyashish Roy-Chowdhury

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Rationale: The implantation effect describes an immediate reduction in seizure frequency following the insertion of intracranial electrodes. There is limited information regarding which patients will experience a reduction of seizures and the reason for the implantation effect. This study focuses on describing predictor factors for the reduction in seizure frequency in patients with medically resistant epilepsy implanted with depth electrodes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 89 patients who underwent intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) monitoring with depth electrodes. Sixty-five of these patients had no subsequent therapeutic interventions and had a 3-6 month follow-up. Patients were grouped as either responders …


Myasthenia Gravis, Rebecca Wheeler 2022 Otterbein University

Myasthenia Gravis, Rebecca Wheeler

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Myasthenia gravis (MG), a neuromuscular and autoimmune disorder, is not completely understood by clinicians and scientists. The primary cause is thought to be anti-Acetylcholine receptor antibodies that attack the neuromuscular junction, causing destruction of post-synaptic junctional folds and blockade of the receptor. This causes frequent weakness and fatigability of voluntary muscles, making activities of daily living difficult for those living with MG. Although it is not an incredibly prevalent disease, the incidence is increasing in the United States due to better testing and diagnosis. Treatments are available, including cholinesterase inhibitors that raise the concentration of Acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction …


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