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The Comorbidity Of Drug And Alcohol Consumption In Relation To Mental Health Disorders, Sydney Dawson 2021 Brigham Young University

The Comorbidity Of Drug And Alcohol Consumption In Relation To Mental Health Disorders, Sydney Dawson

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

The constantly increasing use of drugs and alcohol in young adults has created great controversy in the medical community on the long-term effects of these substances. The average brain development of adolescence and young adults is not complete until the age of 25, though drug and alcohol intake occur across the United States at younger ages each year. Impulsive behavior and underdeveloped neural pathways create a strong pull for addiction formulations and the development of severe mental-health problems. This paper reviews the positive and negative effects of illicit drugs and alcohol intake and their comorbidity with mental health disorders. There ...


The Role Of A Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance Diagnosis In Healthcare Utilization, Maira A. Castaneda-Avila 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of A Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance Diagnosis In Healthcare Utilization, Maira A. Castaneda-Avila

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background

Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) is an understudied precursor of multiple myeloma (MM), the second most prevalent hematologic malignancy in the United States. This dissertation was designed to: (1) Describe the trajectories of serum biomarkers over time in patients with an MGUS diagnosis, (2) Determine if an MGUS diagnosis is associated with changes in healthcare service utilization, and (3) explore the patient- and provider-level drivers of healthcare utilization in patients with MGUS.

Methods

Data sources include health claims and electronic health records from a community-based population of patients seeking care in central Massachusetts and primary qualitative data collected ...


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel 2021 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways ...


Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

The eNOS pathway, found in the endothelium of blood vessels, is a key regulator of nitric oxide levels in the circulatory system. The pathway is controlled through several positive and negative feedback loops [2]. The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a major control point in this pathway and under conditions of stress can be reduced into the dihydrobiopterin (BH2) [2,6,7,8,9]. When the reduced form is predominant, the pathway produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than nitric oxide, causing stress and damage to the vessels [6,7,8,9]. In ...


Cancer Immune Evasion Through Loss Of Mhc Class I Antigen Presentation, Karthik Dhatchinamoorthy, Jeff D. Colbert, Kenneth L. Rock 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cancer Immune Evasion Through Loss Of Mhc Class I Antigen Presentation, Karthik Dhatchinamoorthy, Jeff D. Colbert, Kenneth L. Rock

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Major histocompatibility class I (MHC I) molecules bind peptides derived from a cell's expressed genes and then transport and display this antigenic information on the cell surface. This allows CD8 T cells to identify pathological cells that are synthesizing abnormal proteins, such as cancers that are expressing mutated proteins. In order for many cancers to arise and progress, they need to evolve mechanisms to avoid elimination by CD8 T cells. MHC I molecules are not essential for cell survival and therefore one mechanism by which cancers can evade immune control is by losing MHC I antigen presentation machinery (APM ...


Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study [Preprint], John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study [Preprint], John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. The K032 study is evaluating the effect ...


Differential Role Of Mlkl In Alcohol-Associated And Non-Alcohol-Associated Fatty Liver Diseases In Mice And Humans, Tatsunori Miyata, Bruce A. Barton, Laura E. Nagy 2021 Kumamoto University Hospital

Differential Role Of Mlkl In Alcohol-Associated And Non-Alcohol-Associated Fatty Liver Diseases In Mice And Humans, Tatsunori Miyata, Bruce A. Barton, Laura E. Nagy

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Hepatocellular death contributes to progression of alcohol-associated (ALD-associated) and non-alcohol-associated (NAFL/NASH) liver diseases. However, receptor-interaction protein kinase 3 (RIP3), an intermediate in necroptotic cell death, contributes to injury in murine models of ALD but not NAFL/NASH. We show here that a differential role for mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), the downstream effector of RIP3, in murine models of ALD versus NAFL/NASH and that RIP1-RIP3-MLKL can be used as biomarkers to distinguish alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH) from NASH. Phospho-MLKL was higher in livers of patients with NASH compared with AH or healthy controls (HCs). MLKL expression, phosphorylation, oligomerization, and ...


Mast Cell And Astrocyte Hemichannels And Their Role In Alzheimer's Disease, Als, And Harmful Stress Conditions, Paloma A. Harcha, Polett Garces, Cristian Arredondo, German Fernandez, Juan C. Saez, Brigitte van Zundert 2021 Institute of Neuroscience

Mast Cell And Astrocyte Hemichannels And Their Role In Alzheimer's Disease, Als, And Harmful Stress Conditions, Paloma A. Harcha, Polett Garces, Cristian Arredondo, German Fernandez, Juan C. Saez, Brigitte Van Zundert

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Considered relevant during allergy responses, numerous observations have also identified mast cells (MCs) as critical effectors during the progression and modulation of several neuroinflammatory conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). MC granules contain a plethora of constituents, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and mitogen factors. The release of these bioactive substances from MCs occurs through distinct pathways that are initiated by the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors/channels. Here, we focus on hemichannels (HCs) formed by connexins (Cxs) and pannexins (Panxs) proteins, and we described their contribution to MC degranulation in AD, ALS, and ...


Investigation Of A Monoclonal Antibody Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, Expressed As Secretory Iga1 And Iga2 In Plants, Audrey Y-H. Teh, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yue Hu, Ozan S. Kumru, Jian Xiong, David T. Bolick, Sangeeta B. Joshi, Clemens Grunwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Mark S. Klempner, Richard L. Guerrant, David B. Volkin, Yang Wang, Julian K-C. Ma 2021 St. George's University of London

Investigation Of A Monoclonal Antibody Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, Expressed As Secretory Iga1 And Iga2 In Plants, Audrey Y-H. Teh, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yue Hu, Ozan S. Kumru, Jian Xiong, David T. Bolick, Sangeeta B. Joshi, Clemens Grunwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Mark S. Klempner, Richard L. Guerrant, David B. Volkin, Yang Wang, Julian K-C. Ma

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Passive immunization with antibodies is a promising approach against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea, a prevalent disease in LMICs. The objective of this study was to investigate expression of a monoclonal anti-ETEC CfaE secretory IgA antibody in N. benthamiana plants, with a view to facilitating access to ETEC passive immunotherapy. SIgA1 and SIgA2 forms of mAb 68-81 were produced by co-expressing the light and engineered heavy chains with J chain and secretory component in N. benthamiana. Antibody expression and assembly were compared with CHO-derived antibodies by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, size-exclusion chromatography and LC-MS peptide mapping. N-linked glycosylation was assessed by rapid ...


Effect Of Hyperprolactinemia On Male Fertility, Ghazi Tadmori, Najwa Fakhal, Marwan Halabi 2020 Jinan University

Effect Of Hyperprolactinemia On Male Fertility, Ghazi Tadmori, Najwa Fakhal, Marwan Halabi

Al Jinan الجنان

This study aims at the investigation of the effect of prolactinemia on male fertility. The study group included 30 males with infertility problems and accompanied with high prolactin hormone levels in the blood. Hormone and seminal fluid analyses were performed before and after treatments with Cabergoline (DostinexTM), and results were comparable to those observed in a control group consisting of 14 healthy males. Results have shown that the increase in prolactin levels led to flaws in sexual hormone concentrations and to a decrease in sperm count and mobility compared to the control group. For this purpose, two groups were tested ...


Contraceptive Methods In The United States: The Question Of Abortive Mechanisms, Tara Ferenczy 2020 Liberty University

Contraceptive Methods In The United States: The Question Of Abortive Mechanisms, Tara Ferenczy

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis reviews the many methods of contraception available in the United States. Although society’s understanding of women’s health has become a major topic, there is still a significant deficit of information regarding how the accessible methods affect women’s bodies, specifically reproductive tissue. The thesis analyzes numerous contraceptive options focusing specifically on the mechanisms of action to determine whether options have abortifacient properties so that readers may develop educated opinions regarding medical and ethical uses. Information involving strengths and limitations of each technique and the effects on both the female body and the reproductive material assist in ...


Study Of Temperature Profile In Drying Process, Shaxnoza Abduvaxitovna Sultanova, Jasur Esirgapovich Safarov, Tojiniso Tursunboyevna Raxmanova 2020 Tashkent State Technical University, Address: 2 Universitetskaya st., 100095, Tashkent city, Republic of Uzbekistan E-mail: sh.sultanova@yahoo.com, Phone: +99893 506-22-00;

Study Of Temperature Profile In Drying Process, Shaxnoza Abduvaxitovna Sultanova, Jasur Esirgapovich Safarov, Tojiniso Tursunboyevna Raxmanova

Chemical Technology, Control and Management

The article describes the simulation of the temperature field in a wide range of structural and operational parameters of the drying process. A qualitatively new representation of the temperature field profile in the chamber is revealed. As a result of the experiments, criteria were found for the unevenness of the temperature profiles on the pallets of the dispersion of the temperature of the material and the slope of the approximating line at fixed values of the average temperature of the substance. In the course of the work, an interrelation between the criteria of unevenness was revealed, which is clearly manifested ...


Acidic Ph Triggers Lipid Mixing Mediated By Lassa Virus Gp, Uriel Bulow, Ramesh Govindan, James B. Munro 2020 Tufts University

Acidic Ph Triggers Lipid Mixing Mediated By Lassa Virus Gp, Uriel Bulow, Ramesh Govindan, James B. Munro

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever, a lethal disease endemic to Western Africa. LASV entry is mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (GP), a class I membrane fusogen and the sole viral surface antigen. Previous studies have identified components of the LASV entry pathway, including several cellular receptors and the requirement of endosomal acidification for infection. Here, we first demonstrate that incubation at a physiological temperature and pH consistent with the late endosome is sufficient to render pseudovirions, bearing LASV GP, non-infectious. Antibody binding indicates that this loss of infectivity is due to a conformational ...


Effects Of Tobacco Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, And Waterpipe Smoking On Endothelial Function And Clinical Outcomes, Thomas Munzel, Omar Hahad, Marin Kuntic, John F. Keaney Jr., John E. Deanfield, Andreas Daiber 2020 University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz

Effects Of Tobacco Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, And Waterpipe Smoking On Endothelial Function And Clinical Outcomes, Thomas Munzel, Omar Hahad, Marin Kuntic, John F. Keaney Jr., John E. Deanfield, Andreas Daiber

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of non-communicable disease globally and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung disease. Importantly, recent data by the World Health Organizations (WHO) indicate that in the last two decades global tobacco use has significantly dropped, which was largely driven by decreased numbers of female smokers. Despite such advances, the use of e-cigarettes and waterpipes (shisha, hookah, narghile) is an emerging trend, especially among younger generations. There is growing body of evidence that e-cigarettes are not a harm-free alternative to tobacco cigarettes and there is considerable debate as to whether e-cigarettes ...


Diagnostic And Prognostic Significance Of Complement In Patients With Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis, Xiude Fan, Rebecca L. McCullough, Emily Huang, Annette Bellar, Adam Kim, Kyle L. Poulsen, Craig J. McClain, Mack Mitchell, Arthur J. McCullough, Svetlana Radaeva, Bruce A. Barton, Gyongyi Szabo, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Daniel M. Rotroff, Laura E. Nagy 2020 Cleveland Clinic

Diagnostic And Prognostic Significance Of Complement In Patients With Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis, Xiude Fan, Rebecca L. Mccullough, Emily Huang, Annette Bellar, Adam Kim, Kyle L. Poulsen, Craig J. Mcclain, Mack Mitchell, Arthur J. Mccullough, Svetlana Radaeva, Bruce A. Barton, Gyongyi Szabo, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Daniel M. Rotroff, Laura E. Nagy

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Given the lack of effective therapies and high mortality in acute alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), it is important to develop rationally-designed biomarkers for effective disease management. Complement, a critical component of the innate immune system, contributes to uncontrolled inflammatory responses leading to liver injury, but is also involved in hepatic regeneration. Here we investigated if a panel of complement proteins and activation products would provide useful biomarkers for severity of AH and aid in predicting 90 days mortality.

APPROACH and RESULTS: Plasma samples collected at time of diagnosis from 254 patients with moderate and severe AH recruited from ...


Longitudinal Biomarkers In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Fen Huang, Yuda Zhu, Jennifer Hsiao-Nakamoto, Xinyan Tang, Jason C. Dugas, Miriam Moscovitch-Lopatin, Jonathan D. Glass, Robert H. Brown Jr., Shafeeq S. Ladha, David Lacomis, Jeffrey M. Harris, Kimberly Scearce-Levie, Carole Ho, Robert Bowser, James D. Berry 2020 Denali Therapeutics

Longitudinal Biomarkers In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Fen Huang, Yuda Zhu, Jennifer Hsiao-Nakamoto, Xinyan Tang, Jason C. Dugas, Miriam Moscovitch-Lopatin, Jonathan D. Glass, Robert H. Brown Jr., Shafeeq S. Ladha, David Lacomis, Jeffrey M. Harris, Kimberly Scearce-Levie, Carole Ho, Robert Bowser, James D. Berry

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

OBJECTIVE: To investigate neurodegenerative and inflammatory biomarkers in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (PALS), evaluate their predictive value for ALS progression rates, and assess their utility as pharmacodynamic biomarkers for monitoring treatment effects.

METHODS: De-identified, longitudinal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from PALS (n = 108; 85 with samples from > /=2 visits) and controls without neurological disease (n = 41) were obtained from the Northeast ALS Consortium (NEALS) Biofluid Repository. Seventeen of 108 PALS had familial ALS, of whom 10 had C9orf72 mutations. Additional healthy control CSF samples (n = 35) were obtained from multiple sources. We stratified PALS into fast- and ...


How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current 2020 St. John Fisher College

How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Cancer is a disease that humans have been struggling to combat for centuries. It originates from the accumulation of several mutations over the life of a cell that causes it to evade cell death and multiply rapidly. It can affect any tissue in the body and can spread to other parts of the body through metastasis. Cancer comes in numerous shapes and sizes with different levels of aggression, growth speeds, and health risks. Many treatments for cancer exist today, three of the most popular being surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, which can be used in combinations with other treatments to ...


Ctrp3 And Alcoholic Liver Disease In Female Mice, Callie Root 2020 East Tennessee State University

Ctrp3 And Alcoholic Liver Disease In Female Mice, Callie Root

Undergraduate Honors Theses

C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3), is a cytokine that is primarily secreted from adipose tissue, which classifies it as an adipokine. Our previous research has shown that CTRP3 prevents alcoholic fatty liver disease (ALD) in male mice. However, even when accounting for confounding factors such as absolute and relative alcohol intake, females are more sensitive to the effects of consumption compared to male mice. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine whether CTRP3 prevented ALD in female mice. Methods: Female wild type (WT) and female CTRP3 transgenic over expressing (Tg) mice were fed an ethanol containing liquid ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


When Treating Sick Joints Harms Lungs, Ixekizumab Induced Pleural Effusion, Rami Batarseh, Kyle Smith, Mohammed Al-Ourani, Amro K. Al-Astal 2020 Joan C Edwards School of Medicine / Marshall University

When Treating Sick Joints Harms Lungs, Ixekizumab Induced Pleural Effusion, Rami Batarseh, Kyle Smith, Mohammed Al-Ourani, Amro K. Al-Astal

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Immunological therapies have provided a multitude of new and effective treatment strategies for various disease states. While monoclonal antibody therapy benefits many patients, side effects are widely variable. here we present a case of pleural effusion complicating psoriatic arthritis treatment.


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