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Iowa Produced Amino Acid Fertilizers May Have Biostimulant Effect, Shane R. Brockhoff, Nick E. Christians, Paul Summer 2010 Iowa State University

Iowa Produced Amino Acid Fertilizers May Have Biostimulant Effect, Shane R. Brockhoff, Nick E. Christians, Paul Summer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Iowa State researchers are helping an Iowa company, Ajinomoto Heartland Lysine, LLC, study the effects of amino acid containing fertilizer on turfgrass growth and stress tolerance. The fertilizer, marketed as AJIFOL GreenNcrease, was found to increase shoot density of creeping bentgrass in an initial study conducted in late summer 2008. Several amino acid containing fertilizers were compared with urea and an untreated control as foliar applied nutrients to Penncross creeping bentgrass maintained at both green height (0.16 in.) and fairway height (0.40 in.).


Quantifying Species Interactions In Experimental Native Vs. Exotic Grassland Plant Communities, Forest I. Isbell, Brian J. Wilsey 2010 Iowa State University

Quantifying Species Interactions In Experimental Native Vs. Exotic Grassland Plant Communities, Forest I. Isbell, Brian J. Wilsey

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Native ecosystems are currently being replaced by novel, exotic-dominated ecosystems worldwide. Exotic ecosystems differ from native ecosystems in several important ways. For example, exotic ecosystems are often less diverse than native ecosystems, and often contain species without a shared evolutionary history. Previously we found that biodiversity rapidly declined in experimental exotic communities because the mechanisms that maintained diversity in experimental native communities were reduced. Further investigation is needed to explicitly quantify species interactions in native vs. exotic communities. Here we test the hypothesis that exotic species will exhibit more competition, or less facilitation, than ecologically similar native species.


Freezing Tolerance In Frontenac And Seyval Blanc Grapevines, Lee H. T. Goldsmith, Gail R. Nonnecke, Paul A. Domoto, Rajeev Arora 2010 Iowa State University

Freezing Tolerance In Frontenac And Seyval Blanc Grapevines, Lee H. T. Goldsmith, Gail R. Nonnecke, Paul A. Domoto, Rajeev Arora

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Grape cultivars that are grown in cold climates must be able to tolerate low winter temperatures that typically occur in a given region. Cold hardiness of grapevines is based on primary bud survival, however, many interspecific cultivars can produce a crop on secondary buds if primary buds are injured. Moreover, cane tissues, which are necessary for secondary crop production, can be as susceptible to freezing injury as secondary buds. There is relatively little information concerning the freezing tolerance of cane tissues during the overwintering period, although high freezing tolerance of cane tissues is important where severe freezing events can be ...


Soybean Plant Density Effect On Oil Composition In Low-Linolenic Soybean Cultivars, Palle Pedersen, Jason De Bruin, Jeff Butler 2010 Iowa State University

Soybean Plant Density Effect On Oil Composition In Low-Linolenic Soybean Cultivars, Palle Pedersen, Jason De Bruin, Jeff Butler

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Increased demand for soybean with modified oil composition has led to the development of new soybean cultivars with reduced levels of linolenic fatty acids. Plant density effects on soybean oil and protein content have been documented. However, little information is available for producers regarding management for growing low-linolenic soybean. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant density on linolenic acid of soybean bred to have reduced linolenic acid content (≤ 3%, low-linolenic) and of traditional soybean cultivars (≈ 7%, high-linolenic).


Dpx-Mat28 Formulations (2 Sl, 50 Sg, 0.05 Gf) And Combination Formulations For Dandelion And Clover Control, Christopher Blume, Nicholas J. Dunlap, Nick E. Christians 2010 Iowa State University

Dpx-Mat28 Formulations (2 Sl, 50 Sg, 0.05 Gf) And Combination Formulations For Dandelion And Clover Control, Christopher Blume, Nicholas J. Dunlap, Nick E. Christians

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The objectives of this study were to evaluate various application rates and formulations of DPX-MAT28 for control of dandelion and clover in cool-season turfgrass and to assess any phytotoxicity observed to the turfgrass and broadleaf weeds.


Update On Soybean Rust In Iowa, Daren S. Mueller 2010 Iowa State University

Update On Soybean Rust In Iowa, Daren S. Mueller

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Similar to the past several years, soybean rust was not a threat for Iowa soybean growers. This year did have a couple of interesting developments, neither affecting Iowa soybeans. First, soybean rust was found in nearly 575 counties, including most (or all) of the counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. Soybean rust was found in 16 states; the furthest north was in Illinois. This is the most counties with rust to date. As a comparison, soybean rust was found in 392 counties in 2008.


Southeast Research Farm Summary, Kevin Van Dee 2010 Iowa State University

Southeast Research Farm Summary, Kevin Van Dee

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Includes:

Farm and Weather Summary


Sugar Beet Demonstration Plantings, Vincent Lawson 2010 Iowa State University

Sugar Beet Demonstration Plantings, Vincent Lawson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

This project investigated field production of a potential biofuel crop–sugar beet. Objectives included becoming familiar with cultural methods for growing sugar beet and determining expected yield levels for southeast Iowa. To accomplish this, half-acre trial plots were planted at the Muscatine Island Research Farm (MIRF), Fruitland and at the Southeast Research Farm (SERF), Crawfordsville, in 2008 and 2009. The two sites provided different soil types and growing environments to investigate the crop. Results from both years and locations demonstrate that sugar beets can be grown in southeast Iowa, and with good management and weather conditions, yields should equal or ...


Twin Row Vs. Single Row Spacing At Variable Seeding Rates, Stephanie Marlay, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth 2010 Iowa State University

Twin Row Vs. Single Row Spacing At Variable Seeding Rates, Stephanie Marlay, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

As corn production practices improve, row widths decrease. Although most producers plant in 30-in. rows, more and more acres are being planted to narrower row widths (15 in. to 20 in.). In addition, plant populations continue to increase every year with the introduction of more stress-tolerant hybrids. Wider row widths force more plants into a concentrated area, whereas narrower rows allow more equidistant spacing of plants.


Western Research Farm Summary, Wayne B. Roush 2010 Iowa State University

Western Research Farm Summary, Wayne B. Roush

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Includes:

Farm Summary


Role Of Directly Connected Macropores On Pathogen Transport To Subsurface Drainage Water, Chi Kim Hoang, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Garey Fox 2010 Iowa State University

Role Of Directly Connected Macropores On Pathogen Transport To Subsurface Drainage Water, Chi Kim Hoang, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Garey Fox

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Pathogen contamination of water supplies is now considered one of the top water quality issues in the United States and worldwide. Continual application of livestock manure may contribute to nonpoint source pollution by releasing microbial pathogens including bacteria, virus, and protozoa, through runoff and subsurface drainage water to surface and ground water. Many studies have been conducted in the laboratories and fields to understand the preferential flow through macropores. But no experiments in the field have been conducted to examine the breakthrough curve of pathogen and/or Escherichia coliform (E.coli) with directly connected macropores. The objective of this research ...


Durability Of Corn Expressing Bacillus Thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins In Single And Stacked Events, Aaron J. Gassmann, Ryan Keweshan 2010 Iowa State University

Durability Of Corn Expressing Bacillus Thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins In Single And Stacked Events, Aaron J. Gassmann, Ryan Keweshan

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Western corn rootworm is an important agricultural pest of corn. Transgenic corn producing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt has been rapidly adopted by farmers. These Bt crops control many key agricultural pests such as corn rootworm. Thus, it is important to understand the durability of Bt crops. In order to delay pest resistance, farmers must plant a refuge (Box 1). Non-Bt corn is used with Bt corn as part of a refuge strategy (Figure 1). This study focuses on studying the durability of Bt corn as either a stacked event (SmartStax) or a single event (VTTriple Pro ...


Effect Of Boron Fertilizer On Sugar Beet Grown On Fruitfield Sand Soil, Vincent Lawson 2010 Iowa State University

Effect Of Boron Fertilizer On Sugar Beet Grown On Fruitfield Sand Soil, Vincent Lawson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Sugar beets were grown for the first time at the research farm in 2008 in a project exploring potential biofuel crops. The sugar beets grew fairly well but during the growing season nutrient deficiency symptoms were noted and at harvest yields were not as high as expected. The symptoms observed were similar to those reported for boron deficiency in sugar beet. The foliage became chlorotic (yellow) and the crown region developed dark necrotic areas resulting in cavities and abnormal crown growth. Thus, this study was initiated to investigate a possible boron deficiency by applying boron fertilizer treatments and observing effects ...


Apple Imprinting, Brandon H. Carpenter, Gail R. Nonnecke, Lynn R. Schroeder, Dennis N. Portz 2010 Iowa State University

Apple Imprinting, Brandon H. Carpenter, Gail R. Nonnecke, Lynn R. Schroeder, Dennis N. Portz

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Anthocyanin is the pigment that develops in the skin of apples and produces the red color associated with some apple cultivars. Apples are dependent on light to develop anthocyanins. This is the reason why some apples develop leaf-like shapes in their pigment on the skin; the leaf excludes the light in its shape and the red color pigment doesn’t develop. Apple imprinting is a lightmanipulation technique used to produce an intentional design on the skin of apples. This technique is used in Japan where fruit can be a prized gift, and apples imprinted with special logos can bring a ...


Permanent Genetic Resources Added To The Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010–31 March 2010, D. Aurelle, M. R. Pooler, T. A. Rinehart, B. E. Scheffler, MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES PRIMER DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIUM 2010 Aix-Marseille Université

Permanent Genetic Resources Added To The Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010–31 March 2010, D. Aurelle, M. R. Pooler, T. A. Rinehart, B. E. Scheffler, Molecular Ecology Resources Primer Development Consortium

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described).


Modeling Water Use In Nursery Crops, Amy Fulcher 2010 University of Kentucky

Modeling Water Use In Nursery Crops, Amy Fulcher

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Water use is an important topic in the global agriculture community and is a critical input in nursery crop production. Several plants in the genus Cornus are important nursery crops. Not only are they economically relevant, they are found in grafted and seedling forms and parents and their hybrid are readily available in the trade, facilitating an assessment of water requirements. Anecdotal information suggests that Cornus taxa have differing stress tolerance and water use requirements. Research was conducted to characterize and model water use among Cornus taxa. Scanning electron microscopy and anatomy‐based micromorphological studies as well as transpiration chamber ...


Eupatorium Capillifolium Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity, And Insecticidal Activity, Nurhayat Tabanca, Ulrich R. Bernier, Maia Tsikolia, James Becnel, Blair Sampson, Chris Werle, Betül Demirci, Kemal Hüsnü Can Başer, Eugene K. Blythe, Cecil Pounders, David E. Wedge 2010 USDA-ARS

Eupatorium Capillifolium Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity, And Insecticidal Activity, Nurhayat Tabanca, Ulrich R. Bernier, Maia Tsikolia, James Becnel, Blair Sampson, Chris Werle, Betül Demirci, Kemal Hüsnü Can Başer, Eugene K. Blythe, Cecil Pounders, David E. Wedge

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were determined to be thymol methyl ether (=methyl thymol) (36.3%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (20.8%) and myrcene (15.7%). Antifungal activity of the essential oil was weak against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides in direct bioautography assay. The E. capillifolium oil showed ...


A Quantitative Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool For Agricultural Fields, Michael J. White, Daniel E. Storm, Philip R. Busteed, Michael D. Smolen, Hailin Zhang, Garey A. Fox 2010 USDA-ARS

A Quantitative Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool For Agricultural Fields, Michael J. White, Daniel E. Storm, Philip R. Busteed, Michael D. Smolen, Hailin Zhang, Garey A. Fox

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

In the United States, government sponsored conservation programs are under increasing pressure to quantify the environmental benefits of practices they subsidize. To meet this objective, conservation planners need tools to accurately predict phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural lands. Existing P export coefficient based tools are easy to use, but do not adequately account for local conditions. Hydrologic and water quality models are more accurate, but are prohibitively complex for conservation planners to use. Pasture Phosphorus Management (PPM) was developed as a user-friendly P and sediment loss prediction tool based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a popular comprehensive ...


Phylloplanins: Novel Antifungal Proteins On Plant Leaf Surfaces, Ryan William Shepherd 2010 University of Kentucky

Phylloplanins: Novel Antifungal Proteins On Plant Leaf Surfaces, Ryan William Shepherd

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Secreted surface proteins are an innate immune defense component employed by animals to inhibit invading microbes. Surface proteins have not been documented in plants, even though the aerial leaf surface, or phylloplane, is a major site of pathogen ingress. We have discovered novel proteins, termed phylloplanins, which accumulate on leaf surfaces of Nicotiana tabacum, and we have isolated the gene Phylloplanin that is unique in gene databases. Natural and E. coli-expressed phylloplanins inhibit spore germination and limit leaf infection by the oomycete pathogen Peronospora tabacina.

We investigated the site of phylloplanin biosynthesis using biochemical techniques. These techniques included radiolabeling ...


Comparing Leaf Properties Of Inland And Coastal Malosma Laurina In The Santa Monica Mountains, Rosemary Busch Conn, Lauren Parker, Brittany Sawrey 2010 Pepperdine University

Comparing Leaf Properties Of Inland And Coastal Malosma Laurina In The Santa Monica Mountains, Rosemary Busch Conn, Lauren Parker, Brittany Sawrey

Featured Research

Our group chose Malosma laurina, commonly known as Laurel Sumac, to observe and test. We hypothesized that there would be difference in photosynthetic trade-offs and capabilities between coastal and inland populations, specifically with respect to leaves. This was based on the low freezing tolerance in Malosma laurina (Pratt et al. 2005), and hypothesized that based on this stress, resources would be allocated differently in inland leaves than in coastal leaves. This hypothesis was tested using the indices of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), the ratio of green to red reflectance, and Leaf Specific Area (LSA ...


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