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Challenges And Opportunities For Sustainable Livestock Production In The Context Of Socioeconomic And Food Security In Northern Areas Of Pakistan, Muhammad Tariq 2024 University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Challenges And Opportunities For Sustainable Livestock Production In The Context Of Socioeconomic And Food Security In Northern Areas Of Pakistan, Muhammad Tariq

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Due to a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic variables, food insecurity in Pakistan is noticeably higher in the mountainous areas than in the plains. In the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, the issue of food insecurity made worse by rapid socio-economic and environmental changes as well as topographical constraints. In northern areas of Pakistan livestock is raised for many purposes, including milk, meat, wool, leather, and draft. The livestock not only contributes significantly to the region's food security but also a sizable portion of what local families eat on a daily basis at their food table. Livestock are raised using nomadic and …


Yak (Bos Grunniens): The Mammal Of Socio-Economic Importance In Gilgit- Baltistan, Pakistan, Muhammad Tariq, Asif Hameed 2024 University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Yak (Bos Grunniens): The Mammal Of Socio-Economic Importance In Gilgit- Baltistan, Pakistan, Muhammad Tariq, Asif Hameed

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The yaks are long-haired humped bovid, a multipurpose animal that can survive in a low oxygen and cold environment at an elevation of 2000 to 6000 meters above sea level. The animal has the ability to graze diverse foliage from coarse shrubs to short grasses. The majority of yak population is still living in central Asian highlands, which include parts of Tibet, China, Indo-Pak. Yak rearing in Pakistan is bounded to higher elevations (3,500–4,500 meters a.s.l) of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and Chitral, where yak is important and places the only means of livelihood through theprovision of milk, meat, and wool, hairs …


Integrated Crop And Pasture Based Livestock Production System Success On Reclaimed Surface Coal Mined Land In South Africa, W. F. Truter, E. N. Cele 2024 University of Pretoria, South Africa

Integrated Crop And Pasture Based Livestock Production System Success On Reclaimed Surface Coal Mined Land In South Africa, W. F. Truter, E. N. Cele

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Coal mining is the largest surface mining operation in South Africa’s grassland biome. Surface mining is leaving large tracts of land revegetated to pasture species as mining companies attempt to reclaim the agricultural potential of mined areas. Top soil management remains the key challenge to ensure agricultural productivity. During the reclamation process, newly placed soils are very often chemically, physically and microbiologically degraded, and high soil ameliorant inputs are required to catalyse agroecosystem function. These revegetated landscapes can offer good grazing capacity; however, to date there are no livestock grazing these areas, resulting in the subsequent deterioration of these new …


Grazing And Animal Welfare Of Dairy Cows In Europe, What Do We Know?, A. Van den Pol-van Dasselaar, D. Hennessy, J. Isselstein 2024 Aeres University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands

Grazing And Animal Welfare Of Dairy Cows In Europe, What Do We Know?, A. Van Den Pol-Van Dasselaar, D. Hennessy, J. Isselstein

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Grazing systems are important components of the landscape in almost all European countries. Grazing is inherently close to the nature of herbivores, but no longer applied everywhere in Europe. This paper discusses the extent of dairy cow grazing in Europe and the effect of grazing on animal welfare. The study builds on results of surveys from the European Grassland Federation (EGF) Working Group “Grazing” (WGG) in the period 2010–2022 and a focus group meeting in 2022. Data on the extent of grazing of dairy cows in Europe are provided. Europe can be divided into six distinctive regions with respect to …


Diurnal Variation In Forage Nutrient Composition And Metabolic Parameters Of Horses Grazing Warm-Season, Perennial Grass-Legume Mixed Pastures, A. C. Vasco, J. Dubeux, L. Sollenberger, M. Wallau, E. Santos, J. Lance, L. Warren, C. Wickens 2024 Midway University

Diurnal Variation In Forage Nutrient Composition And Metabolic Parameters Of Horses Grazing Warm-Season, Perennial Grass-Legume Mixed Pastures, A. C. Vasco, J. Dubeux, L. Sollenberger, M. Wallau, E. Santos, J. Lance, L. Warren, C. Wickens

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Although warm-season, grass-legume mixed pastures have improved nutritive value and may reduce negative environmental impacts relative to nitrogen-fertilized grass monocultures, no study has been done to evaluate their effect on diurnal variation of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and other nutrients, and on the metabolic responses observed in horses’ blood and fecal samples. This 2-yr study aimed to investigate the circadian variation in nutrient composition and the fecal and blood metabolic responses in horses grazing these pastures. Forage, fecal, and blood samples were collected every 28 days at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 0000 h, in two years, for measurement of diurnal variation …


Herbage Responses And Performance Of Mature Horses Grazing Warm-Season Perennial Grass-Legume Mixed Pastures, A. C. Vasco, E. R. Santos, J. Lance, J. Dubeux, L. Sollenberger, M. Wallau, C. Wickens, L. Warren 2024 Midway University

Herbage Responses And Performance Of Mature Horses Grazing Warm-Season Perennial Grass-Legume Mixed Pastures, A. C. Vasco, E. R. Santos, J. Lance, J. Dubeux, L. Sollenberger, M. Wallau, C. Wickens, L. Warren

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Legume-grass mixtures may be a useful alternative to nitrogen-fertilized grass monocultures, but pasture and animal responses have not been assessed for pastures grazed by horses in Florida. This 2-yr study compared pasture and horse responses of continuously stocked, mixed pastures of rhizoma peanut (RP, Arachis glabrata Benth) and bahiagrass (BG, Paspalum notatum Flüggé) receiving 30 kg nitrogen (N)/ha (RP-BG) compared with BG pastures fertilized with 120 kg/N ha (BG-N) or with no N (BG-No N). Herbage mass was similar among treatments in 2020 and for most evaluation days in 2019. In 2019, stocking rate (AU/ha) was greater in …


Integrating Plant Secondary Metabolites And Foraging Behavior To Enhance Animal Health In Ruminant Production Systems, J. J. Villalba, J. W. MacAdam, S. Van Vliet, F. D. Provenza 2024 Utah State University

Integrating Plant Secondary Metabolites And Foraging Behavior To Enhance Animal Health In Ruminant Production Systems, J. J. Villalba, J. W. Macadam, S. Van Vliet, F. D. Provenza

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Legumes and forbs contain bioactives or plant secondary compounds (PSC) with potential to enhance animal health through their antibiotic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties that are evident even at small dietary concentrations. In turn, ruminants can regulate their ingestion of PSC through behavioral mechanisms that allow for the efficient achievement of homeostasis. High concentrations of PSC lead to food avoidance, whereas lower content of PSC in the diet achieved through regulatory mechanisms of ingestion could promote medicinal and/or prophylactic effects in the animal and concomitant health benefits to milk and meat products. Under this context, we discuss the restructuring of rangelands …


The Effect Of Spring Grass Availability On Dry Matter Intake Of Early Lactation Dairy Cows, S. Walsh, Z. C. McKay, M. Egan 2024 Teagasc, Ireland

The Effect Of Spring Grass Availability On Dry Matter Intake Of Early Lactation Dairy Cows, S. Walsh, Z. C. Mckay, M. Egan

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Spring grass availability has a major impact on dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy cows during early lactation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of opening farm cover (OFC) on DMI during early lactation. A twelve week experiment, which was split into two 6 week periods (Period 1 (Week 1 – 6) and period 2 (Week 7 – 12), was conducted over a two year period. A high and low OFC were established for two treatment groups; 1253 kg DM/ha (High grass = HG) and 887 kg DM/ha (Low grass = LG). Animals were randomly assigned …


Effects Of Stocking Rates On Water Use Efficiency Of Established Species In Stipa Breviflora Desert Steppe, M. Zhao, G. M. Yin, S. B. Liu, W. J. Meng 2024 Inner Mongolia Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, China

Effects Of Stocking Rates On Water Use Efficiency Of Established Species In Stipa Breviflora Desert Steppe, M. Zhao, G. M. Yin, S. B. Liu, W. J. Meng

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Plant water use efficiency reflects the survival adaptation strategies adopted by plants to obtain maximum carbon harvest. Understanding the water and resource utilization strategies of Stipa breviflora in desert steppe will help people understand its growth mechanism, and it is of great significance to analyze the ecological countermeasures of Stipa breviflora to cope with disturbance. In this study, the water use efficiency (WUE) of the established populations of Stipa breviflora in desert steppe was measured by stable carbon isotope method and photosynthometer method, and the adaptation mechanism of Stipa breviflora under different stocking rates was discussed based on the basic …


The Hindgut Microbiome Of Grazing Horses, J. R. Weinert, C. A. Williams 2024 Rutgers University

The Hindgut Microbiome Of Grazing Horses, J. R. Weinert, C. A. Williams

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The hindgut microbiome plays an essential role in horses consuming forage-based diets high in fiber, such as pasture. The equine hindgut harbors a large microbial community that ferments dietary fiber and produces by-products which provide a substantial portion of daily energy requirements. Despite the importance in nutrition and health, research evaluating the hindgut microbiome of grazing horses is relatively limited. Grazing horse microbiome research has primarily focused on inter-diet comparisons with mixed diets including concentrates as well as with other forms of forage. Recent research has begun to explore responses of the gut microbiome to different pasture forage species and …


Horse And Pasture Responses To Stocking Methods: Rotational Versus Continuous, C. A. Williams, J. R. Weinert-Nelson 2024 Rutgers

Horse And Pasture Responses To Stocking Methods: Rotational Versus Continuous, C. A. Williams, J. R. Weinert-Nelson

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Rotational grazing management offers potential advantages for economic and environmental sustainability, as well as for horse health. Rotational grazing has the potential to increase pasture yields and available forage for grazing, and therefore reduce supplemental feed costs. A rotational grazing management strategy can also prevent or mitigate negative effects of overgrazing, with implications for pasture productivity and the environment. Overgrazing can reduce vegetative cover over time, increasing the potential for erosion and nutrient run-off. Overgrazing may also result in long-term decreased forage stand persistence and weed invasion, necessitating more frequent pasture renovation. All of this can negatively impact the horse’s …


Seed Viability Testing Guide For Common Wetland Plant Species, Rae Robinson, Sandra E. Johnston, Elana Feldman, Maddie Houde, Samantha R. Kurkowski, Amanda Mast, Jes V. Braun, Karin M. Kettenring 2024 Utah State University

Seed Viability Testing Guide For Common Wetland Plant Species, Rae Robinson, Sandra E. Johnston, Elana Feldman, Maddie Houde, Samantha R. Kurkowski, Amanda Mast, Jes V. Braun, Karin M. Kettenring

All Current Publications

Seeds are used in many aspects of plant research as well as in applications such as ecosystem restoration. However, not all seeds are living (i.e., viable). To successfully work with seeds, it is essential to know how many seeds are viable. Seed viability can be assessed through a few different avenues, such as a basic cut test (i.e., is the embryo fully developed), germination assays, x-ray imaging, or the most common—a tetrazolium (TZ) test. This document focuses on best practices for TZ testing for a wide array of common wetland species that have been the focus of research and restoration …


Challenges Of Stray Cattle On Integrated Crop-Forage Resources In India, Pal Mahendra Singh 2024 G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, India

Challenges Of Stray Cattle On Integrated Crop-Forage Resources In India, Pal Mahendra Singh

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Field survey was conducted covering 1000 residents of district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand states of India in January 2022 including farmers, school teachers, students and residents of town and cities to study the ‘challenges and threats of stray animals on crop-forage resources in India. The survey indicated that 97.5, 75.6, 60.0, 77.8%, and 68.9 respondents had strong opinion that stray cattle were the serious threat to crops-forage resources, biodiversity, road accidents, transmitting harmful diseases and human-wildlife conflict, respectively, while 85.5, 67.7, 62.7,76.2 and 70.5% respondents gave their consent to solve stray cattle by opening of cowsheds, strict government policies, mass …


Optimizing Production Technology For Sustainable Organic Fodder Production And Soil Health In Indo-Gangetic Plains Of India, Pal Mahendra Singh 2024 G B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, India

Optimizing Production Technology For Sustainable Organic Fodder Production And Soil Health In Indo-Gangetic Plains Of India, Pal Mahendra Singh

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Field experiment was carried at Instructional Dairy Farm, G B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (India) during 2020-21 and 2021-22 to optimize the production technology for sustainable organic fodder production and soil health in Indo-Gangetic plains of India. Among the organic production systems, application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha gave the highest fodder yield, gross return and net return but the B:C ratio was derived highest from zero budget natural farming. Among the Kharif crops grown in different cropping systems, BN hybrid intercropped with cowpea gave the significant higher green and dry fodder yield, gross return, net return …


The Combined Role Of Microbes And Forages In Animal Productivity, K. Panke-Buisse 2024 USDA-ARS

The Combined Role Of Microbes And Forages In Animal Productivity, K. Panke-Buisse

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Agricultural systems, particularly ruminant systems, are underpinned by diverse, functional microbial communities—in the soil, forage, silo, and rumen. We have relied on the jobs they perform on our behalf, but only recently have we been able to look “under the hood” at the membership and mechanisms within these microbiomes and begin to think about optimization. Ensiling is a common method of forage preservation globally and represents a highly intensive intersection between forage and microbiology, which has been shown to have beneficial effects on forage quality and dairy animal performance. However, observations of enhanced productivity, especially in the context of inoculated …


Determining ‘Wether’ Social Behaviour Or Pasture Quality Drives Sheep Grazing Patterns Using Random Forest Modelling, D. J. Parnell, L. Ingram, J. Edwards 2024 University of Sydney, Australia

Determining ‘Wether’ Social Behaviour Or Pasture Quality Drives Sheep Grazing Patterns Using Random Forest Modelling, D. J. Parnell, L. Ingram, J. Edwards

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Monitoring livestock provides valuable insights into the spatial distribution, foraging patterns, and animal behaviour, which may lead to the improved management of livestock. This objective of study was to understand what variables were significant in determining where sheep spent the most time in paddocks of native (dominated by Poa spp., Stipa spp., and Hordeum leporinum), and improved (Phalaris aquatica, Festuca spp., and Trifolium subterraneum) pastures (~24 ha-1 in size). Castrated male sheep, wethers, were tracked using GPS collars on a property located in the Monaro region of Southern New South Wales, Australia. Trials were performed over …


Ruminant Agriculture: A Tool For Climate Change Mitigation, B. L. Peterson Munks, M. Rellaford, J. Shanahan, S. Urbanowitz, F. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Zhao, E. Bender 2024 Agoro Carbon Alliance

Ruminant Agriculture: A Tool For Climate Change Mitigation, B. L. Peterson Munks, M. Rellaford, J. Shanahan, S. Urbanowitz, F. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Zhao, E. Bender

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The quest to address and mitigate climate change has been dubbed a “wicked problem” as it involves many interconnected processes requiring a multifaceted, comprehensive approach. Animal agriculture contributes roughly 15% to CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions; as a result, a concerted effort is being made to develop and promote more climate-friendly production practices. These practices include species diversification in grasslands, improving grazing rotation, adding nitrogen amendments, and the use of feed additives to reduce enteric fermentation. Successful inter-seeding of legumes and deep-rooted native grasses increases soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in many systems by increasing the biological carbon inputs to the …


Economics And Other Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Novel Endophyte Technology, M. H. Poore, J. Horner 2024 North Carolina State University, Raleigh

Economics And Other Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Novel Endophyte Technology, M. H. Poore, J. Horner

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Endophyte infected tall fescue impacts cattle and other livestock across vast regions of the world. Toxicosis from wild type endophyte is widespread in regions where toxic tall fescue is the base perennial forage. The Alliance for Grassland Renewal was founded to address this complex issue and to facilitate appropriate adoption of Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue, the only potentially 100% effective remedy for fescue toxicosis. A poor understanding of the Cost/Benefit ratio of renovating pasture is one of the main reason farmers give for not renovating tall fescue pastures. An Excel-based spreadsheet tool was developed by University of Missouri Extension to …


Physiological And Behavioral Responses Of Heifers That Graze Tall Fescue Infected By Wild-Type Or Novel Endophytes, S. Poudel, A. Halili, L. Wright, G. Pent, J. Fike 2024 Virginia Tech

Physiological And Behavioral Responses Of Heifers That Graze Tall Fescue Infected By Wild-Type Or Novel Endophytes, S. Poudel, A. Halili, L. Wright, G. Pent, J. Fike

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Fescue toxicosis presents serious challenges and huge economic losses to the beef industry in the U.S. Replacing tall fescue (TF) infected by wild-type endophyte (WE) with TF infected by novel endophyte can eliminate this problem but adoption of this technology has been limited. We aimed at demonstrating the physiological and behavioral responses of heifers that grazed either WE or NE TF using relatively non-invasive techniques. Angus or Angus cross heifers (n = 24) were assigned to either WE or NE pastures for a 56-d grazing period during the summers of 2020 and 2021. Heifer ADG and hair retention scores were …


Smallholder Zebu And Forage Production Development In Central Madagascar, L. Randriamanalina, M. S. Vorontsova, M. T. Rajaonah, O. P. Nanjarisoa, C. E. R. Lehmann, D. Miharinjanahary, H. N. S. Ratovoarinjaka, A. Bendrainy, C. Rijaniaina, A. M. Rabendrina, D. Rabeharison, B. F. Rakotozafy, F. Rakotoarison, D. Tahirinirainy, T. Randriamboavonjy, H. Ralimanana, J. Raharimampionona, C. Birkinshaw, W. Truter 2024 Kew Madagascar Conservation Centre, Madagascar

Smallholder Zebu And Forage Production Development In Central Madagascar, L. Randriamanalina, M. S. Vorontsova, M. T. Rajaonah, O. P. Nanjarisoa, C. E. R. Lehmann, D. Miharinjanahary, H. N. S. Ratovoarinjaka, A. Bendrainy, C. Rijaniaina, A. M. Rabendrina, D. Rabeharison, B. F. Rakotozafy, F. Rakotoarison, D. Tahirinirainy, T. Randriamboavonjy, H. Ralimanana, J. Raharimampionona, C. Birkinshaw, W. Truter

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Poverty in the Central Highlands of Madagascar is partly driven by inefficient exploitation of native forages and poor livestock nutrition. Zebus are of importance as cultural symbols, but this tradition has grown disconnected from agricultural policy. This project is working with three central highland communities near the protected areas of Itremo, Ibity and Ankafobe, to boost rangeland productivity and trial management methods which will support key forage grasses and improve livestock nutrition. A severe nitrogen deficiency compounded by extremely acidic soil conditions and low phosphorus is observed across the three sites. The lowest grazing capacity of an estimated 0.7 livestock …


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