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Food Security & Urban Agriculture - Considerations For Soil Improvements And Crop Planning, Aaron Sedivy 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Food Security & Urban Agriculture - Considerations For Soil Improvements And Crop Planning, Aaron Sedivy

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Urban agriculture provides many benefits, such as energy conservation, rainwater remediation, increased aesthetic and property value, and therapeutic use for physical, cognitive, and emotional wellbeing. Urban agriculture can also provide critical integrity to each pillar of food security: availability, access, utilization, and stability. As urban agricultural activities increase, social interactions will follow in concert. This will provide opportunities for building trust through the two-way communication of contrasting perspectives, cultures, and beliefs using impartial narratives. Growers can use knowledge and understanding gained from these positive social interactions to formulate their personal paradigms for practice and better meet the needs of each …


Callery Pear Allelopathy Study, Michaela J. Woods, Jonathan T. Bauer, Dena Schaeffer, Ryan W. McEwan 2022 University of Dayton

Callery Pear Allelopathy Study, Michaela J. Woods, Jonathan T. Bauer, Dena Schaeffer, Ryan W. Mcewan

Five Rivers MetroParks Collaboration Data Archive

No abstract provided.


Arkansas Soybean Research Studies 2021, Jeremy Ross 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Soybean Research Studies 2021, Jeremy Ross

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Arkansas is the leading soybean-producing state in the mid-southern United States. Arkansas ranked 11th in soybean production in 2021 compared to the other soybean-producing states in the U.S. The state represented 3.49% of the total U.S. soybean production and 3.49% of the total acres planted in soybean in 2021. The 2021 state soybean average yield was 52.0 bushels per acre, setting a new state record and surpassing the previous yield record of 51.5 bushels per acre set in 2020. The top five soybean-producing counties in 2021 were Mississippi, Phillips, Crittenden, Poinsett, and Arkansas (Table 1). These five counties accounted for …


A Glass Bead Semi-Hydroponic System For Intact Maize Root Exudate Analysis And Phenotyping, Martha G. Lopez-Guerrero, Peng Wang, Felicia Phares, Daniel P. Schachtman, Sophie Alvarez, Karin V. van Dijk 2022 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

A Glass Bead Semi-Hydroponic System For Intact Maize Root Exudate Analysis And Phenotyping, Martha G. Lopez-Guerrero, Peng Wang, Felicia Phares, Daniel P. Schachtman, Sophie Alvarez, Karin V. Van Dijk

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Although there have been numerous studies describing plant growth systems for root exudate collection, a common limitation is that these systems require disruption of the plant root system to facilitate exudate collection. Here, we present a newly designed semi-hydroponic system that uses glass beads as solid support to simulate soil impedance, which combined with drip irrigation, facilitates growth of healthy maize plants, collection and analysis of root exudates, and phenotyping of the roots with minimal growth disturbance or root damage. Results: This system was used to collect root exudates from seven maize genotypes using water or 1 mM CaCl2, …


Comparative Genome Analysis Of Plant Ascomycete Fungal Pathogens With Different Lifestyles Reveals Distinctive Virulence Strategies, Yansu Wang, Jie Wu, Jiacheng Yan, Ming Guo, Lei Xu, Liping Hou, Quan Zou 2022 Shenzhen Polytechnic

Comparative Genome Analysis Of Plant Ascomycete Fungal Pathogens With Different Lifestyles Reveals Distinctive Virulence Strategies, Yansu Wang, Jie Wu, Jiacheng Yan, Ming Guo, Lei Xu, Liping Hou, Quan Zou

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Pathogens have evolved diverse lifestyles and adopted pivotal new roles in both natural ecosystems and human environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their adaptation to new lifestyles are obscure. Comparative genomics was adopted to determine distinct strategies of plant ascomycete fungal pathogens with different lifestyles and to elucidate their distinctive virulence strategies. Results: We found that plant ascomycete biotrophs exhibited lower gene gain and loss events and loss of CAZyme-encoding genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and biosynthesis gene clusters for the production of secondary metabolites in the genome. Comparison with the candidate effectome detected distinctive variations between …


Native Seed Scoop, 2022 End Of Year Edition, University of Northern Iowa. Tallgrass Prairie Center. 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Native Seed Scoop, 2022 End Of Year Edition, University Of Northern Iowa. Tallgrass Prairie Center.

Native Seed Scoop

In this Issue:

--- ‘Tis (still) the season for seed cleaning at the Tallgrass Prairie Center
--- Iowa Prairie Network Winter Seminar
--- Native Seed Stakeholder Meeting
--- National Native Seed Conference
--- North American Prairie Conference
--- Iowa Source-Identified stock seed for native seed growers
--- New Ecotypes Available
--- Progress in Refreshing Existing Ecotypes
--- Iowa Native Seed Stakeholders in the News
--- A Scoop of Science


An Overview Of The Potential Effect Of Climate Change On American Pine Marten, Jordyn Morel 2022 University of Maine

An Overview Of The Potential Effect Of Climate Change On American Pine Marten, Jordyn Morel

Honors College

The impacts of climate change are only increasing, and yet not all those impacts have been studied on certain species. The American pine marten Martes americana (Turton, 1806) is one of the species potentially vulnerable to climate change. They are an important component of biodiversity as they hunt a variety of small mammals and feed on numerous plants. Martens are also important prey to many winged and terrestrial species. In Maine, they are an umbrella species that co-occur with eleven other species and their presence is also a good indicator of a healthy forest environment. I conducted a literature review …


The Impact Of Glycine Betaine Applications On Drought Response In Wild Blueberries, Abigail Fisher 2022 University of Maine

The Impact Of Glycine Betaine Applications On Drought Response In Wild Blueberries, Abigail Fisher

Honors College

Wild blueberries are an economically important crop for Maine, and with warming temperatures leading to increased periods of drought and increased soil moisture deficits, it is important to find new ways to combat the effects of drought. In this study, we aimed to look at the effect of foliar-applied glycine betaine applications on wild lowbush blueberries in both field and greenhouse experiments. The product being tested was Bluestim, a foliar-applied product containing >96% pure glycine betaine sold by Biobest. The product is claimed to work as an osmoprotectant allowing the plant to maintain turgor pressure and protect enzymes and macromolecules …


Characterization And Management Of Auxin-Resistant Palmer Amaranth In Tennessee, Delaney C. Foster 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization And Management Of Auxin-Resistant Palmer Amaranth In Tennessee, Delaney C. Foster

Doctoral Dissertations

Palmer amaranth has a long history of evolving resistance to herbicides to the point it has become a significant row crop production obstacle. Cotton and soybean growers were offered new technologies in 2016, expanding in-crop herbicide options to include dicamba or 2,4-D. Within three years of commercialization, dicamba use in these crops increased ten-fold and growers began to report Palmer amaranth escapes in west Tennessee auxin-tolerant production systems. A survey of Palmer amaranth escapes in dicamba and 2,4-D-tolerant cotton and soybean fields in Tennessee was conducted in the fall of 2021 with the objective of determining if poor control was …


Functional Analysis Of Soybean Proteinase Inhibitor Genes And Cyst Nematode-Inducible Synthetic Promoters For Insects And Nematode-Resistance In Plants, Mst Shamira Sultana 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Functional Analysis Of Soybean Proteinase Inhibitor Genes And Cyst Nematode-Inducible Synthetic Promoters For Insects And Nematode-Resistance In Plants, Mst Shamira Sultana

Doctoral Dissertations

Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from legumes have the potential for use as protectants in response to pests and pathogens. Soybean (Glycine max) contains two trypsin inhibitors (TIs): Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). In this study, the possible role of soybean TIs in plant defense against insects and nematodes was investigated. In addition to the three known TIs (KTI1, KTI2 and KTI3), novel inhibitors KTI5, KTI7, and BBI5 were identified in soybean. Their functional role was further examined by overexpression in soybean and Arabidopsis. In vitro enzyme inhibitory assays showed significant increase in trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory …


Characterization Of Colletotrichum Nymphaeae Isolates From Apple With Reduced Sensitivity To Fluazinam And Tebuconazole, Rulyu Meng 2022 Clemson University

Characterization Of Colletotrichum Nymphaeae Isolates From Apple With Reduced Sensitivity To Fluazinam And Tebuconazole, Rulyu Meng

All Theses

Apple bitter rot is caused by Colletotrichum nymphaeae and other Colletotrichum species and management relies primarily on synthetic pesticides. Very few fungicides are effective against the disease and resistance has further limited their usefulness. A recent study indicated relatively low EC50 values (the concentration required to inhibit 50% of mycelial growth in vitro) of C. nymphaeae isolates from Brazilian apples to fluazinam and tebuconazole, two fungicides that are not routinely used for bitter rot control. Isolates on opposite sides of the sensitivity range were designated either sensitive (lowest EC50 values) and reduced-sensitive (highest EC50 values). The objective …


In Vitro Rooting Techniques In Prunus Spp. For Propagation And Disease Screening For Armillaria Root Rot (Arr) Resistance, John Lawson 2022 Clemson University

In Vitro Rooting Techniques In Prunus Spp. For Propagation And Disease Screening For Armillaria Root Rot (Arr) Resistance, John Lawson

All Theses

Prunus is a genus widely cultivated to produce edible fruit including almond (P. amygdalus), peach (P. persica (L.) Batsch), cherries (P. avium and P. cerasus), among others. The cultivation of Prunus is economically important for several regions of the United States and relies on appropriate cultivars and rootstocks that are adapted to a growing region. Encroaching plant pathogens are forcing breeders to use sexually compatible germplasm from related species for introgression of novel alleles that confer tolerance or resistance. This is especially true in the rootstock breeding where interspecific hybridization is often used …


Dust Deposition Changes Production, Chlorophyll-A And Community Composition In Mountain Lakes, Jiahao Wen 2022 Utah State University

Dust Deposition Changes Production, Chlorophyll-A And Community Composition In Mountain Lakes, Jiahao Wen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increasing quantities of dust emitted from semi-arid soils, agricultural soils, and urban regions are blown to remote mountain lakes in the American West. Remote mountain lakes lacking local nutrient inputs and presenting simple food webs that are easily affected by climate changes. Dust can carry nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus) to mountain lakes and potentially enhance algae growth and change algal communities. However, experimental tests of this hypothesis are lacking. Using in situ experiments, we investigated the effects of dust enrichment on the production, biomass, and primary algal species in three mountain lakes in the American West. We found that …


Unmanned Ground Vehicle Proximal Sensing For Forage Biomass Production Estimations, Curtis Erwin 2022 Clemson University

Unmanned Ground Vehicle Proximal Sensing For Forage Biomass Production Estimations, Curtis Erwin

All Theses

A large increase in productivity could be realized by small increases in efficiency and utilization on grasslands due to their large area. Pre-harvest biomass estimations can help forage producers make better informed management decisions. Producers of dry hay and hay silage can better identify plant growth stages and the optimal time to harvest. Grazers can better determine the most efficient number of animals and stocking density. The goal of this study was to create a novel pre-harvest biomass estimation method utilizing compressed height combined with an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). A compression plate named a “compression ski” was constructed and …


Insights On The Behavior Of Nano-Copper In The Agroecosystem: Mycorrhizal Associations With Spearmint (Mentha Spicata), Suzanne Annette Apodaca 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Insights On The Behavior Of Nano-Copper In The Agroecosystem: Mycorrhizal Associations With Spearmint (Mentha Spicata), Suzanne Annette Apodaca

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Nanotechnology offers significant potential benefits to our society, including the agriculture sector. With the advancement of nano-enabled agrochemicals towards sustainable and efficient agricultural practices, it is essential to address environmental issues associated with the use of nanoscale materials. The same properties that give promise to applications of nanotechnology in modern agriculture could have unintended consequences on ecosystem dynamics. A point of concern for risk management is the impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to beneficial microbial communities, which support a variety of ecosystem services.

Use of copper (Cu) products in agriculture are based on their abundance, role as a micronutrient, and …


Etiology And Epidemiology Of Mini-Ring In Ultradwarf Bermudagrass Putting Greens, Lukas Dant 2022 Clemson University

Etiology And Epidemiology Of Mini-Ring In Ultradwarf Bermudagrass Putting Greens, Lukas Dant

All Dissertations

Mini-ring is a disease in ultradwarf bermudagrass (UDBG) [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis (Burtt-Davy)] putting greens caused by Waitea zeae (Voorhees) J.A. Crouch & Cubeta, (formerly Rhizoctonia zeae). Symptoms typically resemble frog-eye patches that are 10 to 40 cm in diameter with a bronze to orange outer ring and green center. In the southeastern United States, mini-ring symptoms appear in late-summer and generally persist until UDBG dormancy in late-fall. Mini-ring is often problematic in UDBG when nitrogen (N) fertility is reduced to manage organic matter production and improve putting green performance and perceived green speed. While …


Unveiling The Potential Of Calcium And Natamycin For Botrytis Blight Management On Cut Roses, Melissa Munoz 2022 Clemson University

Unveiling The Potential Of Calcium And Natamycin For Botrytis Blight Management On Cut Roses, Melissa Munoz

All Dissertations

Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botritys cinerea is the most devastating disease of cut roses. The extensive use of fungicides used for Botrytis blight management during cut rose production and postharvest represents a severe threat in terms of fungicide resistance development as has been previously reported. Additionally, health concerns for growers and the environment are growing in recent years making consumers more aware of the fungicides in the products that they consume including ornamentals. This scenario highlights the importance of searching for alternative products to synthetic fungicides. During this research, the use of calcium as an alternative management strategy …


Approaches To Supplementing Silicon In Soilless Media And The Value Of Silicon In The Mitigation Of Drought Stress, Mackenzie Grace Dey 2022 Utah State University

Approaches To Supplementing Silicon In Soilless Media And The Value Of Silicon In The Mitigation Of Drought Stress, Mackenzie Grace Dey

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Silicon (Si) is not considered an essential element for plants to complete their lifecycle, but is known to be beneficial for plants under environmental stress such as drought. Unlike natural soils, Si is minimally bioavailable in soilless media. With indoor agriculture and greenhouse production increasing, the benefits of Si have been seen and Si should be supplemented. This work aimed to characterize and quantify the dissolution of Si from media substrates and additives to achieve a steady-state release of Si in soilless media. Typical media components such as coconut coir, peat moss, perlite, rock wool, sand, and vermiculite minimally released …


Evaluating Strategies For Anemone And Ranunculus Cut Flower Production In The Us Intermountain West, Shannon Rauter 2022 Utah State University

Evaluating Strategies For Anemone And Ranunculus Cut Flower Production In The Us Intermountain West, Shannon Rauter

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

National growth in small-scale, specialty cut flower farms is reflected in Utah, where 145 members have joined the Utah Cut Flower Farm Association since its 2019 founding. Cool season cut flower production is limited in Utah and the Intermountain West by a narrow harvest window and elevated soil salinity. The objective of this research was to optimize production systems for anemone (Anemone coronaria L.) and ranunculus (Ranunculus asiaticus L.) in the Intermountain West by evaluating season advancement methods within a high tunnel and field production system, as well as the salinity sensitivity of each species. Fall planting dates, …


The Effects Of Deleting Lrb E3 Ligase Region 2 On Red Light Responses In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Sabina Liskey 2022 Grand Valley State University

The Effects Of Deleting Lrb E3 Ligase Region 2 On Red Light Responses In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Sabina Liskey

Masters Theses

The ability of plants to absorb light through photoreceptors is essential for successful plant development. Phytochromes are important plant photoreceptors that detect and absorb red and far-red light and must function properly for plant survival. The Light Response BTB proteins (LRB) play an important role in a plant’s response to red light by degrading phytochrome B (PhyB) via the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Although there has been a successful investigation into understanding the function of the LRBs, the function of a few regions within LRB proteins remains unknown, including a portion located on the N-terminal end of the protein, termed …


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