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Nitrogen And Fiber Digestion In Sheep Fed Fresh-Frozen And Field-Dried High And Low Tannin Sericea Lespedeza, T H. Terrill, W R. Windham, C S. Hoveland, H E. Amos, B Kouakou, S Gelaye 2024 Fort Valley State University

Nitrogen And Fiber Digestion In Sheep Fed Fresh-Frozen And Field-Dried High And Low Tannin Sericea Lespedeza, T H. Terrill, W R. Windham, C S. Hoveland, H E. Amos, B Kouakou, S Gelaye

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Field-drying reduces extractable condensed tannin (CT) of sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours) G. Don], but effects on specific bound and unbound forms of CT and the relationship to protein and fiber digestion in ruminants are unclear. Intake and digestibility of fresh-frozen and field-dried high- and low-tannin sericea were investigated in a feeding trial with sheep (Ovis spp.). Field-drying had no effect on crude protein (CP) and fiber content of sericea, but shifted CT from extractable to bound forms. Digestion coefficients for CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were lower for high-tannin sericea than the low-tannin …


Alteration Of Condensed Tannin Sythesis In Transgenic Forage Legumes, F Paolocci, G Tanner, S Arcioni, F Damiani 2024 Istituto Miglioramento Genetico Piante Foraggere CNR

Alteration Of Condensed Tannin Sythesis In Transgenic Forage Legumes, F Paolocci, G Tanner, S Arcioni, F Damiani

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The transformation of Lotus corniculatus plants with the maize gene Sn, reorganizes the tissue specificity of condensed tannins accumulation. In particular the transformed plants show an increase of tannin content in roots and a decrease in leaves. Molecular and enzymatic analyses suggest that the transgene can functionally substitute an endogenous unknown gene not expressed in roots and induces its silencing when it is expressed. These findings could have applications for reducing tannin content in unpalatable plants and for cloning genes involved in tannin synthesis.


Comparison Of The In Vitro Fermentation Characteristic Of Fractionated Alfalfa And Sainfoin, L R. McMahon, M Goto, T A. McAllister, G A. Jones, K J. Cheng 2024 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre

Comparison Of The In Vitro Fermentation Characteristic Of Fractionated Alfalfa And Sainfoin, L R. Mcmahon, M Goto, T A. Mcallister, G A. Jones, K J. Cheng

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Alfalfa and sainfoin leaves were lyophilized and ground (A, S, respectively) or were fractionated into soluble (ASOL, SSOL) and insoluble (AINS, SINS)components and lyophilized and incubated in vitro with diluted ruminal fluid for 24h. Whole leaf and soluble fractions were also incubated with polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG). Gas production (GP), ammonia concentration [NH3] and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production were lower (P< 0.05) from S and SSOL than from A and ASOL Insoluble fractions differed only in [NH3] (SINS < AINS, P < 0.05). Inclusion of PEG increased (P < 0.05) GP, [NH3] and VFA production from whole leaf and soluble fractions of sainfoin, but not alfalfa. Inactivating the condensed tannins in sainfoin with PEG overcame differences in degradability between these two forages.


Differences In Chemical Composition Among Provenances Of Tree Fodder Species In A Subhumid Environment: Relation To Use As Supplements, B H. Dzowela, L Hove, P L. Mafongoya 2024 SADC-ICRAF

Differences In Chemical Composition Among Provenances Of Tree Fodder Species In A Subhumid Environment: Relation To Use As Supplements, B H. Dzowela, L Hove, P L. Mafongoya

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Studies were initiated in a subhumid Southern African environment to assess the chemical composition and nutritive value of Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze, Calliandra calothyrsus Meiss. and Leucaena species. The objective was to determine variability in crude protein (CP) concentration, acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and soluble and insoluble proanthocyanidins from fodder samples of species, subspecies and provenances. A wide range was found in these parameters. The implications of these chemical composition factors, especially proanthocyanidins, on the use of these browse fodders in livestock feeding systems are discussed.


Nutritional Implications Of Bound Proanthocyanidins, H P.S Makkar, K Becker 2024 University of Hohenheim

Nutritional Implications Of Bound Proanthocyanidins, H P.S Makkar, K Becker

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The correlation between protein binding capacity of proanthocyanidin-rich neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and their proanthocyanidin (PAs) content was very low (r = -0.21; n = 6). These PAs-rich NDF did not affect growth of a tannin-sensitive strain of Clostridium perfringens. A substantial amount of bound PAs (75 to 92 %) disappeared from the NDF in 24 h of fermentation in an in vitro incubation medium containing rumen microbes. Addition of a tannin-binding agent, polyethylene glycol to the incubation medium containing rumen microbes and browses made free of extractable tannins or NDF rich in bound PAs increased the gas production up …


Environmental Effect On New Released Genotypes Of Graminaceous And Leguminous Forage Perennial Crops, P Martiniello, G Genier, R Allerit 2024 Instituto Sperimentale Colture Foraggere

Environmental Effect On New Released Genotypes Of Graminaceous And Leguminous Forage Perennial Crops, P Martiniello, G Genier, R Allerit

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Genotypes of perennial leguminous (alfalfa) and graminaceous (cocksfoot and tall fescue) were evaluated for adaptability in a typical Mediterranean environment (Foggia, southern Italy). The species were field evaluated to detect biomass yield potential under different types of watering. Irrigations were applied considering rainfall and FAO cultural growth coefficient for reintegrating the 75% of the evaporated water from Class A water pan. The forage harvest was applied when the shoots of the varieties reached the 10 and 50% of flowering and heading stage for leguminous and graminaceous, respectively. A split-plot experimental design, with irrigation in the main plot, was adopted. The …


Plant Tannins- Their Role In Forage Legume Quality, J A. Alokan, V A. Aletor 2024 Federal University of Technology Yola, Nigeria

Plant Tannins- Their Role In Forage Legume Quality, J A. Alokan, V A. Aletor

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Forage legumes, especially browse plants, are important in the maintenance and survival of ruminant animals. However many browse species contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds including tannins. The effects of tannins on the quality of forages are reviewed. These include reduction in palatability and intake of feeds, growth rate, digestion of fibre fractions and nitrogen utilization by animals.


Genetic Manipulation Of Sainfoin Leaf Tannins, M Y. Gruber, P Auser, G Lees, A D. Muir, M Wood 2024 Agriculture & AgriFood Canada

Genetic Manipulation Of Sainfoin Leaf Tannins, M Y. Gruber, P Auser, G Lees, A D. Muir, M Wood

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

An isogenic population of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) plants was developed by two methods; regeneration after long term tissue culture and plant transformation with an antisense chalcone synthase gene. Tannin (proanthocyanidin) content could be dramatically increased in untransformed callus by long term culture, but was not significantly altered in regenerating plantlets. Some of the mature transgenic plants had dramatically reduced levels of leaf tannin. The antisense gene was eliminated from all transgenic plants later in development.


Induction Of Mutants With Ectopic Expression Of Condensed Tannins, M Y. Gruber, B Skadhauge, P Auser, A D. Muir, K K. Thomsen, J Stougaard, B Coulman, D von Wettstein 2024 Agriculture & Agrifood Canada

Induction Of Mutants With Ectopic Expression Of Condensed Tannins, M Y. Gruber, B Skadhauge, P Auser, A D. Muir, K K. Thomsen, J Stougaard, B Coulman, D Von Wettstein

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Leaves of 47,000 Lotus japonicus plants were screened using a butanol:HCl histochemical test to select “gain of function” mutants. These plants were progeny from L. japonicus lines which were transformed with T-DNA constructs containing either the maize Ds or Ac transposon (Thykjaer et al., 1995). Among 21 putative leaf tannin mutants, five (tan1-5) were characterized for synthesis of condensed tannins, leucocyanidin reductase activity and the presence of Ac and the selectable marker gene, nptII . A range of leaf tannin content among other Lotus species was also characterized.


A Revised Method Of Condensed Tannin Analysis In Leucaena Spp., S A. Dalzell, G L. Kerven 2024 The University of Queensland, Australia

A Revised Method Of Condensed Tannin Analysis In Leucaena Spp., S A. Dalzell, G L. Kerven

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The proanthocyanidin (butanol-HCl) assay was used to measure condensed tannin (CT) in extracts from Leucaena spp. at the University of Queensland. Inconsistent results were found to be caused by the iron catalyst in the butanol/HCl reagent and the presence of ascorbic acid in the sample matrix which enhanced anthocyanidin development. In addition, preparation of sample extracts by back extraction with organic solvents reduced CT recoveries. An accurate and rapid technique was developed that measures CT directly in 70% aqueous acetone 0.1% (w/v) sodium metabisulphite plant extracts.


The Effect Of Condensed Tannins In Lotus Spp. On The Lesser Migratory Grasshopper, C F. Hinks, G L. Lees, M Y. Gruber, A D. Muir, J Soroka 2024 Agriculture & Agrifood Canada

The Effect Of Condensed Tannins In Lotus Spp. On The Lesser Migratory Grasshopper, C F. Hinks, G L. Lees, M Y. Gruber, A D. Muir, J Soroka

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Hatchling grasshoppers (Melanoplus sanguinipes Fab.) fed one accession of field grown big trefoil (Lotus uliginosis Schkuhr) containing a tannin content of 56 mg. g-1 FW, had a significantly lower mean weight than hatchlings fed field grown Lotus species and accessions with lower tannin content. Adult female grasshoppers fed L. uliginosis foliage with 32.3 mg.g-1 FW tannin also ate more feed and had a 2-fold higher gut trypsin and chymotrypsin activity than adults fed low tannin L. corniculatus foliage (0.13 mg.g-1 FW tannin). In more controlled experiments, growth at 20o C or 30o C was used to increase tannin …


Utah Hydroponic Solutions, Bruce Bugbee, Noah Langenfeld 2024 Utah State University

Utah Hydroponic Solutions, Bruce Bugbee, Noah Langenfeld

Nutrients

The Utah Hydroponic solutions for monocots and dicots have been developed and refined using mass balance principles coupled with tissue analysis from studies in 25-cm deep, continuously aerated, liquid hydroponics where there is no absorption or desorption with media.

These solutions provide guidelines for irrigation of soilless substrates, but adjustments may need to be made to account for the significant cation exchange capacity and thus nutrient absorption and desorption with the substrates.

These recipes were developed for greenhouse conditions with ambient CO2 and about 40% humidity. This results in a water use efficiency of about 3 grams per Liter. …


Foraging Culture In Iceland: Understanding The Transfer Of Plant Knowledge And Personal Views On Foraging, Ella Jane Maurer 2024 Whittier College

Foraging Culture In Iceland: Understanding The Transfer Of Plant Knowledge And Personal Views On Foraging, Ella Jane Maurer

Whittier Scholars Program

Foraging is a broad topic, practiced in different locations throughout history. This study looks into the specific practices, values, and views of foraging in Iceland. There is little previous research that has been done, working with Icelanders, and hearing their stories. Through conducting several interviews of local Icelanders with different backgrounds and a brief six-question survey via the Inaturalist application, this study looks into exactly that. By compiling stories from the interview and survey data, themes were highlighted collecting similar and contrasting statements on ways plants are foraged, opinions on Icelandic foraging culture as a whole, and ways knowledge is …


Developmental Characteristics And Renovating Pattern Of Reed Canarygrass Shoots In A Sward, M Ito, S Mizuno, T Otani, S Kobayashi 2024 Niigata University

Developmental Characteristics And Renovating Pattern Of Reed Canarygrass Shoots In A Sward, M Ito, S Mizuno, T Otani, S Kobayashi

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Developmental and renovating traits of shoots were investigated ecomorphologically in a reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., cv. Palaton) sward harvested 3 times per year. Reed canarygrass shoots exhibited notably high growth rates both in the 1st and 2nd crops together with rapid leaf formation (around 7 days/leaf) and active internode elongation. Vigorously growing shoots, which regenerated soon after the 1st cutting and dominated in the 2nd crop canopy, mainly originated from the stubble formed with 3 to 4 phytomers that developed after the beginning of spring growth, thus resulting in higher shoot density than that of the 1st crop. …


Canopy Changes In Healthlands (Erica-Ulex) Grazed By Sheep Or Goats, R Celaya, K Osoro 2024 CIATA, Spain

Canopy Changes In Healthlands (Erica-Ulex) Grazed By Sheep Or Goats, R Celaya, K Osoro

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The grazing effects of sheep and goats on vegetation dominated by heaths (Erica spp) and gorse (Ulex gallii) were studied for two years. Two plots were grazed from May to October 1992 by 7 ewes or 7 does and in the following year each plot was subdivided into two subplots subsequently grazed either by sheep or by goats in a factorial design. During the first grazing season both sheep and goats reduced similarly the cover percentage of shrubs since the herbaceous content was scarce, although goats reduced more the height of the shrubs than sheep. The cover …


Effect Of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium And Cutting On The Regrowth And Insect Infestation Of A Sorghum And Berseem Clover In Egypt, M B. Attia 2024 Menoufia University

Effect Of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium And Cutting On The Regrowth And Insect Infestation Of A Sorghum And Berseem Clover In Egypt, M B. Attia

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The objective of this study was to determine the minimum quantities of phosphorus and potassium which must be applied with varying amounts of nitrogen in order to maintain maximum hay production and minimum level of insect infestation. This was more pronounced at the higher N rates and caused a significant N x K interaction during each of these years. There was no yield response to applied phosphorus at any N rate. Relation between levels of nitrogen and infestation percentage was positive but infestation rate decreased with the increase of potassium levels while there was no relation between levels of phosphorus …


An Overview Of The Physiology And Biochemistry Of N Reserves Mobilization In Forage Species, F Le Dily, A Ourry, J Boucaud 2024 Universite de Caen, France

An Overview Of The Physiology And Biochemistry Of N Reserves Mobilization In Forage Species, F Le Dily, A Ourry, J Boucaud

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Recent works focusing on the physiological and biochemical events associated to perennial forages sustainability (re-growth after defoliation, winter survival), provided evidence that vegetative storage proteins (VSPs, ca proteins stored in remaining organs and specifically mobilized) were key organic compounds for shoot regrowth. Attempts to elucidate environmental conditions involved in VSPs deposit ability of different species are under progress today. In contrast, mechanisms of spring- or cut-induced proteolysis are investigated at a lesser extend. This contribution is an opportunity to summarize our knowledge of N-reserves mobilization and to set the question of VSPs breakdown regulation.


Intraspecific Competition In Lucerne And Relationships With Reserve Availability, Jean Christophe Avice, Alain Ourry, Gilles Lemaire, Jeffrey J. Volenec, Jean Boucaud 2024 INRA, I.R.B.A, France

Intraspecific Competition In Lucerne And Relationships With Reserve Availability, Jean Christophe Avice, Alain Ourry, Gilles Lemaire, Jeffrey J. Volenec, Jean Boucaud

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Below-ground reserves are thought to provide an indication of a forage potential for shoot regrowth after defoliation. The aim of this work was to re-evaluate the causal relationships existing between organic reserves (non-structural carbohydrates and N reserves) and shoot regrowth of alfalfa. The variations brought about by cultivar differences (cv Lodi or Europe), length of the previous regrowth period (30 or 45 d), or by intraspecific competition for light within a dense canopy, were studied. Field grown plants were harvested at weekly intervals, and separated as dominant, intermediate and suppressed plants. Shoot regrowth yield was determined and taproot were analyzed …


Seasonal Fluctuations Of Vegetative Storage Proteins And Starch Concentrations In Stolons Of Trifolium Repens L., V Bouchart, A Ourry, J C. Simon, J Boucaud 2024 Universite Caen cedex, France

Seasonal Fluctuations Of Vegetative Storage Proteins And Starch Concentrations In Stolons Of Trifolium Repens L., V Bouchart, A Ourry, J C. Simon, J Boucaud

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The seasonal pattern of nitrogen, starch and vegetative storage protein (VSP) concentrations was studied in the stolons of two Trifolium repens L. genotypes (cv Aran and Rivendel). Maximum concentrations of starch were found in summer months; its hydrolysis occurred in winter, at the time, where VSP and nitrogen were accumulated. The decrease of nitrogen and VSP concentrations occurred during spring, and an inverse relationship was found between VSP concentrations in stolons and mean temperatures. The causal implications of starch and VSP availability on spring regrowth potential are discussed in relation with regulatory mechanism inducing VSP synthesis.


Cynodon Dactylon Control In Conservation Tillage Systems, A Rios, J M. Sanz 2024 INIA La Estanzuela

Cynodon Dactylon Control In Conservation Tillage Systems, A Rios, J M. Sanz

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. PERS.) is the most important weed in Uruguay. With the development of conservation tillage systems, chemical control of bermudagrass becomes essential. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in a long term integrated program, bermudagrass chemical control during the first year of a pasture. Application of glyphosate and no-tillage seeding of the pasture took place during fall. A 70% reduction of underground part of the weed was detected. The chemical control, together with a conservation tillage system and an adequate pasture management allowed an important reduction in bermudagrass level for the first year pasture. …


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