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Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon 2023 East Tennessee State University

Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plants species interactions via pollinators are a model system to understand the mechanisms that generate plant diversity in nature. However, most studies have focused on plant-plant interactions via pollinator attraction while ignoring the role of plant-plant interactions via pollen transfer. Heterospecific pollen transfer (henceforth HP) can be common and have negative fitness effects. Negative HP fitness effects may prompt the evolution of adaptive strategies to minimize them. However, the extent of spatial variation in HP load size within and among populations, a tenet for natural selection, remains unexplored. Such knowledge would hence constitute a first step in advancing our understanding ...


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


My Summer Working With Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Renée A. Smith 2022 Western University

My Summer Working With Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Renée A. Smith

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Two-spotted spider mites are a polyphagous pest, capable of eating a magnitude of food crops which causes a large problem for Canadian agriculture. Their ability to consume various crops stems from their ability to adapt to various chemical defence mechanisms. This ability allows them to acquire resistance to many commonly used pesticides. This has resulted in large infections in Canadian farms with few options to prevent the pests from affecting crop yields. Take a look at my project if you'd like to see how the Grbic lab is working to combat this issue using genetic engineering techniques!


Fungal Co-Pathogenicity On Panax Quinquefolius, Andrea Ong 2022 Western University

Fungal Co-Pathogenicity On Panax Quinquefolius, Andrea Ong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a perennial crop commonly grown for its medicinal properties. Ginseng replant disease (GRD) is a condition that prevents the re-cultivation of ginseng in previous ginseng gardens and is normally associated with extensive root rot caused by the fungus Ilyonectria mors-panacis. My project aims to investigate the relationship common GRD fungal pathogens and their pathogenicity on 1 year old ginseng seedlings.


A Bacterial Microbiome Analysis Of Solarized Ginseng Garden Soils, Anka Colo 2022 Western University

A Bacterial Microbiome Analysis Of Solarized Ginseng Garden Soils, Anka Colo

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a highly valued perennial crop grown for its roots during a four-year cultivation cycle. American ginseng is subject to ginseng replant disease (GRD) in which severe root rot develops in newly planted ginseng grown in a former ginseng garden. A common strategy to mitigating GRD is not available and techniques such as fumigation, fungicides, and biocontrol are ineffective, banned, or are slowly being phased out. Alternatively, soil solarization is a pre-plant technique used to treat soil to reduce disease inoculum and alter soil microbiomes. In summer 2019, a six-week soil solarization experiment was conducted in ...


Attitudes Toward Transgenic Corn Usage Among Amish & Conservative Mennonite Farmers In Ohio, Scot Long 2022 The University of Akron

Attitudes Toward Transgenic Corn Usage Among Amish & Conservative Mennonite Farmers In Ohio, Scot Long

Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies

Mass adoption and planting of genetically modified corn are part of the larger industrialized agricultural production system in the United States. Amish and conservative Mennonite farmers in the Holmes County settlement region offer an alternative production system often characterized by lower usage of chemical inputs, greater implementation of crop rotation, and significantly higher usage of hybrid versus GMO field corn. Moreover, the rationale among Amish/Mennonite farmers toward adoption of GMO (based on “convenience”) or rejection of GMO (based on “too many unknowns”) stems both from cultural diffusion of neighboring farms as well as variable need for nonfarm income. This ...


An Analysis Of Decolonization Efforts In Urban Agriculture: A Pathway To Indigenous Food Sovereignty And Cultural Revitalization, Sarah Fisher 2022 Ursinus College

An Analysis Of Decolonization Efforts In Urban Agriculture: A Pathway To Indigenous Food Sovereignty And Cultural Revitalization, Sarah Fisher

Environmental Studies Summer Fellows

My research focuses on applications of urban agriculture, relationships between Indigenous peoples and community-based agriculture projects, and decolonizing food systems. I provide insight on colonialist tendencies, or ways in which the marginalization of Indigenous peoples is deeply entrenched within government, educational, and other leadership settings, as a way to evaluate and restructure urban agriculture projects to serve, represent and heal Native communities. Conventional urban agriculture has many known benefits, including its capacity for food production; however, the extent to which Indigenous communities participate in and benefit from urban agriculture has not been widely studied. Ongoing exclusion of Indigenous peoples from ...


Phenotypic Evaluation Of Energycane (Saccharum Spp.) Genotypes In Northcentral Mississippi, Wyatt Armistead Eason 2022 Mississippi State University

Phenotypic Evaluation Of Energycane (Saccharum Spp.) Genotypes In Northcentral Mississippi, Wyatt Armistead Eason

Theses and Dissertations

As fossil fuel supplies decrease and concerns of climate change increase, the search for alternative sources of fuel has pushed biomass crops to the forefront of discussion. Saccharum spontaneum readily hybridizes with commercial sugarcane and lends cold tolerance and greater yields to the hybrid progeny, called energycane. Twenty genotypes were tested against an energycane variety (Ho 02-113) as a control. Two locations were tested: the HH Leveck Animal Research Center (planted in 2019), and the Bearden Dairy Research Center (planted in 2020). The Bearden Dairy Research Center yielded significantly higher than the HH Leveck Animal Research Center regarding dry matter ...


Effect Of Cover Crops, Grazing And Tillage Practices On Soil Microbial Community Composition, Function, And Soil Health In East Central Mississippi Soybean Production System., Namita Sinha 2022 Mississippi State University

Effect Of Cover Crops, Grazing And Tillage Practices On Soil Microbial Community Composition, Function, And Soil Health In East Central Mississippi Soybean Production System., Namita Sinha

Theses and Dissertations

Integrating crop and livestock is being considered to improve soil health by carbon sequestration. A two-year study (2019-2021) at CPBES in Newton, MS was aimed to evaluate soil microbial diversity in the warm, humid regions, specifically southeastern USA. Amplicons targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS2 regions were sequenced. Taxonomic assignment and microbial diversity characterization were performed using QIIME2®. Soil fungal diversity showed significant differences (alpha diversity, p = 0.031 in yr. 2020 and beta diversity, p = 0.037 in yr. 2021). Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test showed significant influence on fungal diversity due to carbon (r ...


Classification Models For 2,4-D Formulations In Damaged Enlist Crops Through The Application Of Ftir Spectroscopy And Machine Learning Algorithms, Benjamin Blackburn 2022 Mississippi State University

Classification Models For 2,4-D Formulations In Damaged Enlist Crops Through The Application Of Ftir Spectroscopy And Machine Learning Algorithms, Benjamin Blackburn

Theses and Dissertations

With new 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) tolerant crops, increases in off-target movement events are expected. New formulations may mitigate these events, but standard lab techniques are ineffective in identifying these 2,4-D formulations. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and machine learning algorithms, research was conducted to classify 2,4-D formulations in treated herbicide-tolerant soybeans and cotton and observe the influence of leaf treatment status and collection timing on classification accuracy. Pooled Classification models using k-nearest neighbor classified 2,4-D formulations with over 65% accuracy in cotton and soybean. Tissue collected 14 DAT and 21 DAT for cotton and soybean respectively ...


Assessing The Flood Tolerance, Physiological Mechanism, And Nutrient Mitigation Potential Of Short Rotation Woody Crops Planted On Seasonally Flooded Marginal Land Of The Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Thu Ya Kyaw 2022 Mississippi State University

Assessing The Flood Tolerance, Physiological Mechanism, And Nutrient Mitigation Potential Of Short Rotation Woody Crops Planted On Seasonally Flooded Marginal Land Of The Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Thu Ya Kyaw

Theses and Dissertations

In 2019, the Mississippi River watershed had a record-long flooding, which was comparable with the 1927 Great Mississippi River Flood. This study leveraged this flooded condition to assess the flood tolerance of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and black willow (Salix nigra) planted as short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on seasonally flooded marginal land of the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) in 2018. The survival/mortality prediction models developed by using hydrologic and environmental variables suggested that only high flood depth affected the survival of black willow. However, eastern cottonwood was threatened by flood depth, flood duration, and cumulative flooding temperature ...


The Effects Of Drought And Shade On Bottomland Hardwood Regeneration, Charles Joseph Pell 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Effects Of Drought And Shade On Bottomland Hardwood Regeneration, Charles Joseph Pell

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Floodplain forests support a high diversity of tree species adapted to regenerate under fluctuating water and light availability. Regeneration regulates species composition, and shade and flood tolerance influence the likelihood of regeneration. Regeneration failure of shade-intolerant and flood-tolerant tree species commonly occurs in southcentral and southeastern floodplain forests of the United States, also known as bottomland hardwoods (BLHs). In many BLHs reduced flooding has resulted in a dryer floodplain. These changes in flooding are linked to recent shifts in species composition. The mechanisms controlling regeneration in BLHs and these composition shifts are poorly understood. In a controlled germination experiment, I ...


B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Arkansas is the leading rice producer in the United States. The state represents 47.5% of total U.S. rice production and 47.8% of the total acres planted to rice in 2021. Rice cultural practices vary across the state and across the U.S. However, these practices are also dynamic and continue to evolve in response to changing political, environmental, and economic times. This survey was initiated in 2002 to monitor and record changes in the way Arkansas rice producers approach their livelihood. The survey was conducted by polling county extension agents in each of the counties in Arkansas ...


Mycorrhizae In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cropping Systems Respond Differently To Nitrogen Fertilization Under Increasing Crop Rotational Diversity, Morgan McPherson 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mycorrhizae In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cropping Systems Respond Differently To Nitrogen Fertilization Under Increasing Crop Rotational Diversity, Morgan Mcpherson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) remain a vital obligate symbiont of nearly all plants. It is well established that the symbiosis between AMF and host plant improves plant nutrient acquisition, alleviates abiotic and biotic environmental stressors, defends against plant pathogens, and contributes to overall plant fitness and productivity through modification of the soil habitat. Modifications include increased soil aggregation and stability, carbon sequestration through provision of fungal wall precursors to soil organic matter (SOM) formation, and enhanced nutrient cycling in the mycorrhizosphere. The goal of this dissertation was to assess how AMF respond to nitrogen (N) fertilization regimes in maize cropping ...


Flora Of Doe Mountain Recreation Area, Johnson County, Tennessee, Benjamin McCullough 2022 East Tennessee State University

Flora Of Doe Mountain Recreation Area, Johnson County, Tennessee, Benjamin Mccullough

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A botanical inventory of Doe Mountain Recreation Area (DMRA) in northeastern Tennessee was conducted to help guide conservation-based management. A total of 484 species were found in DMRA, comprising 94 families, and 285 genera, 10 species listed in the state rare plant list, and 76 exotic species. Two species, Liatris virgata and Lycopodiella inundata, were new state records. Water in the Lycopodiella seep was an order of magnitude more acid than at other sites. An analysis of the wildland-urban interface showed that only 13% of the area was classified as uninhabited. The inventory-invasion index, introduced to quantify the relative degree ...


Dairy Breed, Grass-Birdsfoot Trefoil Mixture, And Pasture Nutrition Effects On Intake, Feed Efficiency, And Grazing Adaptation, Michael Greenland 2022 Utah State University

Dairy Breed, Grass-Birdsfoot Trefoil Mixture, And Pasture Nutrition Effects On Intake, Feed Efficiency, And Grazing Adaptation, Michael Greenland

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dairy cattle have lower dry matter intake (DMI) on pastures thus leading to less weight gain and milk production than feedlot cows. This study was conducted to determine whether different dairy breeds are better adapted to lower or higher quality pastures as measured in DMI and feed efficiency. The eight treatments consisted of Jersey, Holstein, Holstein-Jersey crossbreds, and 3-breed crossbreds (Montbéliarde-Swedish Red-Holstein) heifers on grass monocultures and grass-BFT mixtures. We observed greater DMI on grass-BFT mixtures. Among breeds, Holstein had the greatest DMI, then the two crossbreds, and Jersey had the least. Feed efficiency was most favorable for Jersey, less ...


Soil Genesis Across A Climo-Lithosequence Of Western Haleakalā, Maui, Ryan C. Hodges 2022 Utah State University

Soil Genesis Across A Climo-Lithosequence Of Western Haleakalā, Maui, Ryan C. Hodges

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The soils of western Haleakalā are incredibly diverse due to two primary reasons: 1) they receive varying levels of rainfall based on location relative to Haleakalā, and 2) volcanic vents upwind of the area indicate that volcanic ash has blanketed much of western Haleakalā in the past. Ash can weather to form short-range-order materials, which contribute to the classification of andic soil properties. Due to their structure, short-range-order materials impart soil behavior that creates benefits and challenges in land management. Therefore, an understanding of how these soils formed and differ, and where andic soils occur is crucial.

The objectives of ...


Management Of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria Petiolata), Sahara Mustard (Brassica Tournefortii), And Elongated Mustard (Brassica Elongata) In Utah, Natalie Layne Fronk 2022 Utah State University

Management Of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria Petiolata), Sahara Mustard (Brassica Tournefortii), And Elongated Mustard (Brassica Elongata) In Utah, Natalie Layne Fronk

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The invasive mustard species Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii), garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and elongated mustard (Brassica elongata) negatively impact a variety of ecological systems across the state of Utah. The distribution of these species in Utah is relatively limited at the current time. If prompt action is taken, it may be possible to contain and manage these species before irreparable ecological and agricultural damage occurs. For this reason, all three mustards are listed by the State of Utah as weeds of high priority for management.

This project tested multiple strategies to determine effective species-specific methods for invasive mustard management. Field ...


Development Of Late-Heading Orchardgrass Germplasm, Megan Marie Getz 2022 Utah State University

Development Of Late-Heading Orchardgrass Germplasm, Megan Marie Getz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dactylis glomerata L., orchardgrass, is commonly grown with perennial forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). However, commercial orchardgrass cultivars currently grown in the Intermountain West generally flower earlier than alfalfa. This results in a reduction in grass nutritional value if harvested to maximize the alfalfa yield, because the two species mature at different rates. Thus, there is a need to better understand the genetic basis of flowering time in orchardgrass and develop late-flowering populations. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the ability to identify and use molecular markers to identify and select late-heading orchardgrass; and to select ...


Landscape Tree Irrigation Calculator, Shital Poudyal 2022 Utah State University

Landscape Tree Irrigation Calculator, Shital Poudyal

All Current Publications

Trees, undoubtedly, are the most valuable plant in a landscape and must be prioritized for irrigation in drought conditions. Grass easily recovers from a period of long drought; hence, it must be placed last on the priority list for irrigation. Many resources are available online that explain ways to irrigate landscape trees. However, growers and homeowners in Utah are still confused about quantifying and applying the appropriate amount of water a landscape tree needs. This Excel spreadsheet is an irrigation calculator designed to determine the amount of water a landscape tree needs in Utah’s hot and dry summer months ...


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