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Aging Effects On Acute Lung Inflammation After Burn Injury, Vanessa Nomellini 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Aging Effects On Acute Lung Inflammation After Burn Injury, Vanessa Nomellini

Dissertations

The risk of complications and death after a moderate sized burn injury is significantly higher in persons over the age of 65, while almost non-existant in young, healthy individuals. The studies outlined below use a murine model to determine the mechanisms behind the development of pulmonary complications that frequently occur in aged individuals following burn injury. We hypothesized that, since aged mice maintain an elevated proinflammatory state prior to injury, they are at an even greater risk of pulmonary inflammation than young mice given a comparable sized wound. We found that neutrophils continue to accumulate in the lungs of aged …


Involvement Of The Nmda Receptor In Moderate Ethanol Preconditioning-Dependent Neuroprotection From Amyloid-Beta In Vitro, Robert Matthew Mitchell 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Involvement Of The Nmda Receptor In Moderate Ethanol Preconditioning-Dependent Neuroprotection From Amyloid-Beta In Vitro, Robert Matthew Mitchell

Dissertations

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, mentally crippling, and eventually fatal form of dementia with growing prevalence in aging populations. In 2009 it was estimated that 5.3 million Americans have AD, with 5.1 million older than age 65 and 200,000 under 65. That accounts for 1 in 8 adults over 65. Furthermore, AD costs Americans 148 billion dollars in direct expenses, and is the leading cause of dementia and the 6th leading cause of death. Since improved medical care in general is increasing average life span and age is the primary risk factor for AD, there is need for basic …


Ethanol Impairs Mechanisms Of Macrophage Phagocytosis And Cytokine Production, John Karavitis 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Ethanol Impairs Mechanisms Of Macrophage Phagocytosis And Cytokine Production, John Karavitis

Dissertations

Extensive evidence indicates that alcohol (ethanol) consumption affects human health by altering normal physiological functions of the immune system. This study investigated the effect of a single in vivo exposure of macrophages to clinically relevant levels of ethanol (1.2 and 2.2 g/kg). Following 3 hour exposure, both doses of ethanol decreased ex vivo TNFα production by splenic and alveolar macrophages (AMs). Interestingly, the higher dose of ethanol resulted in sustained suppression of LPS-induced TNFα production at 3 and 6 hours post ethanol administration, as well as decreased IL-6 and IL-12 production after 6 hours, compared control treated groups. LPS or …


Hypervirulent Clostridium Difficile Strains: Adherence, Toxin Production And Sporulation, Michelle Marie Merrigan 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Hypervirulent Clostridium Difficile Strains: Adherence, Toxin Production And Sporulation, Michelle Marie Merrigan

Dissertations

Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, and recently emerged "hypervirulent" C. difficile strains have caused epidemics worldwide. We hypothesized that multiple factors were responsible for this phenotype, particularly the interaction of C. difficile with the epithelial cell, as well as toxin production and sporulation.

To test if host interaction varied in HV strains, we developed a quantitative host-cell adherence assay, and found that while C. difficile strains varied in adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells, hypervirulent strains were not significantly more adherent than other strains. The bacterial surface protein SlpA varied in both size and amount between …


Hindbrain Serotonin Neurons Activate 5-Ht1a Receptors In The Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (Nts) To Modulate Sympathetic And Ventilatory Recovery Following Hypotensive Hemorrhage, Ling-Hsuan Kung 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Hindbrain Serotonin Neurons Activate 5-Ht1a Receptors In The Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (Nts) To Modulate Sympathetic And Ventilatory Recovery Following Hypotensive Hemorrhage, Ling-Hsuan Kung

Dissertations

Trauma is the leading cause of death of young people in the United States. Most such deaths result either from the initial blood loss or from secondary reperfusion injury following resuscitation.

Currently, the standard treatments for hypovolemic shock include volume resuscitation and using of vasoconstrictors to raise pressure. However, these treatments can exacerbate reperfusion injury, and require technical care when apply to patients. Therefore, novel therapies that can safely restore perfusion pressure are needed.

Our lab has found that 5-HT1A-receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, increases perfusion pressure and improves acid-base balance in hypovolemic rats by stimulation of sympathetic-mediated increases in venous tone. …


Forced-Exercise Alleviates Neuropathic Pain In Experimental Diabetes: Effects On Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels, Sahadev A. Shankarappa 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Forced-Exercise Alleviates Neuropathic Pain In Experimental Diabetes: Effects On Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels, Sahadev A. Shankarappa

Dissertations

Exercise is now established as an integral adjunct to the management of diabetes. Diabetic polyneuropathy, a painful complication of diabetes, remains untreatable, emphasizing a critical need for improved therapeutic strategies. Recent evidence suggests that exercise may facilitate recovery of peripheral nerve function in diabetes. However, the mechanism by which exercise protects against diabetes-induced nerve dysfunction is unknown. In this dissertation we hypothesized that forced-exercise protects against experimental DPN by preventing glucose-associated alterations of voltage-gated calcium currents (VGCC) in small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Using behavioral, nerve-electrophysiology and patch-clamp methodology we examined the functional consequences of forced-exercise (treadmill, 5.4 …


Camkii-Mediated Phosphorylation Of The Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor At Serine-150 Results In Decreased Channel Activity, Joshua Thomas Maxwell 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Camkii-Mediated Phosphorylation Of The Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor At Serine-150 Results In Decreased Channel Activity, Joshua Thomas Maxwell

Dissertations

One mechanism by which calcium is mobilized from intracellular stores is via the activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) by the second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3). InsP3 is produced when certain factors bind to G protein-coupled receptors on the plasma membrane, causing activation of phospholipase C which cleaves InsP3 from its membrane tether, allowing InsP3 to diffuse through the cytoplasm to bind to its receptor. Activation of InsP3Rs leads to release of calcium into the cytoplasm of the cell, where it can activate a multitude of signal transduction cascades and a variety of local and global cellular events. One such …


Coronavirus Replicase Proteins: Multifunctional Mediators Of Replication And Innate Immunity Evasion, Mark Anthony Clementz 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Coronavirus Replicase Proteins: Multifunctional Mediators Of Replication And Innate Immunity Evasion, Mark Anthony Clementz

Dissertations

Coronaviruses are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. The majority of the RNA encodes non-structural proteins (nsps) that are translated as a large polyprotein, which is cleaved by the papain-like (PLP) and picornavirus 3C-like (3CLpro) proteases. The nsps modify host membranes to produce double membrane vesicles (DMVs) upon which the replicase-transcriptase assembles and synthesizes viral RNA. nsp3, nsp4, and nsp6 are integral membrane proteins believed to be involved in DMV formation. Work presented here demonstrates that nsp4 is subjected to N-linked glycosylation and mutation of N258 to threonine in nsp4 confers a temperature sensitive phenotype to MHV-A59 infectious clone virus. This virus …


Fish Assemblage Structure In Natural, Channelized, And Restored Sections Of Nippersink Creek, Mchenry County, Illinois, Sarah Ann Zack 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Fish Assemblage Structure In Natural, Channelized, And Restored Sections Of Nippersink Creek, Mchenry County, Illinois, Sarah Ann Zack

Master's Theses

Degradation of aquatic habitats and loss of biodiversity are growing concerns of natural resource managers and the general public. Channelization, the common historical practice of straightening streams and rivers for agricultural interests, has had profound detrimental effects on the biodiversity of lotic fish assemblages. Nippersink Creek, McHenry County, IL is a twenty-three mile stream that flows through an area valued for its fish, wildlife, and invertebrate biodiversity. Although a portion of the stream was channelized in the 1950's, restoration efforts by the McHenry County Conservation District have recently restored historical meanders. Nevertheless, efforts to restore streams and rivers to their …


Temporal Variability Of Bioassessment Indices Used To Evaluate Three Midwestern Streams, Nia M. Haller 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Temporal Variability Of Bioassessment Indices Used To Evaluate Three Midwestern Streams, Nia M. Haller

Master's Theses

Population, community and functional measures or metrics in rapid bioassessment programs aid in establishing biological criteria for streams and rivers. Each metric measures different aspects of community structure and is important in detecting changes in macroinvertebrate community structure that are influenced by changes in water quality. In this study, temporal variation of nine commonly used bioassessment indices was examined in three midwestern streams. The indices were calculated for each of nine replicate benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected monthly for one year from Cowpie Creek (CC), Nippersink Creek (NC) and Lawrence Creek (LC), McHenry County, Illinois. In practice, the habitat sampled for …


Diet Overlap And Competition Among Native And Non-Native Small-Bodied Fishes In The Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, Sarah Ellen Zahn Seegert 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Diet Overlap And Competition Among Native And Non-Native Small-Bodied Fishes In The Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, Sarah Ellen Zahn Seegert

Master's Theses

Introductions of non-native fishes are threatening native fish communities in streams and rivers across the United States. The Colorado River especially has experienced numerous species invasions, and native fish populations throughout the basin are in decline. The native fish community in the Grand Canyon has been particularly affected, with half of the native fishes extirpated from the canyon. Many scientists blame interactions with non-native fishes for these declines. However, to date no one has conducted a thorough diet analysis of small-bodied fishes in the system to assess overlap between native and non-native fish diets. I analyzed the diets of native …


Resource Composition And Macroinvertebrate Resource Consumption In The Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam, Holly Ann Alfreda Wellard Kelly 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Resource Composition And Macroinvertebrate Resource Consumption In The Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam, Holly Ann Alfreda Wellard Kelly

Master's Theses

Physical and biological changes to rivers induced by large dams can significantly alter downstream communities, decreasing the biotic integrity of these rivers. For example, completion of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in 1963 has altered the downstream ecosystem and contributed to the decline of native fish populations and dramatic changes in the macroinvertebrate communities. Physical changes associated with the dam may also influence the food resources supporting macroinvertebrate production, but this has not been previously measured. For example, autochthonous production is high in the clear tailwaters of the dam, but downstream tributary allochthonous carbon inputs are substantial and …


Structure-Function Relationship Studies Of The Udp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From Escherichia Coli, Agnieszka Maria Orlof 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Structure-Function Relationship Studies Of The Udp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From Escherichia Coli, Agnieszka Maria Orlof

Master's Theses

UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase (UDP-Glc PPase) is a key enzyme of the carbohydrate metabolic pathway widely used among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, UDP-Glc PPase is necessary for sucrose synthesis while mammals utilize this enzyme for the production of glycogen. A bacterium such as Escherichia coli uses UDP-Glc PPase for biosynthesis of the lipopolysscharide core which forms a cell wall.

This study focused on UDP-Glc PPase from Escherichia coli which is encoded by both galU and galF genes. The first part of this project investigated amino acids that could play an important role in the function of UDP Glc PPase (GalU). Based …


Functional And Phenotypical Analysis Of The Effects Of Aging On B Cells And Their Bone Marrow Microenvironment, Nicole May Ziegler 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Functional And Phenotypical Analysis Of The Effects Of Aging On B Cells And Their Bone Marrow Microenvironment, Nicole May Ziegler

Master's Theses

Aging impacts multiple organ systems, and specifically causes the immune system to lose its ability to efficiently fight off infections. Regarding immunity, aging research predominantly focuses on the adaptive immune system. B cells, which mediate the humoral arm of the adaptive immune system, develop throughout life in the bone marrow where microenvironmental `niches' are important. The bone marrow does not exactly `atrophy' with age; however, studies comparing young and old mice demonstrate an age-related change in the bone marrow B cell subpopulations.

The overall goal was to determine if femoral and sternum bone marrow have different plasma cell composition and …


The Distribution Of Gnrh And Erbeta In Pre- And Post-Pubertal Male Rats, Maysaa Nageeb 2010 Loyola University Chicago

The Distribution Of Gnrh And Erbeta In Pre- And Post-Pubertal Male Rats, Maysaa Nageeb

Master's Theses

The hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal axis is intrinsic in regulating reproductive function. Each part orchestrates the synthesis and release of a key hormone. At the level of the hypothalamus, Gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH) is released and it is the

most upstream regulator of sexual maturation. GnRH neurons express a type of estrogen receptor, ERbeta, which suggests that estradiol (E2) plays a direct role in modulating GnRH function (Herbison and Pape 2001). The objective of this study was to determine if gonadal steroid hormones regulate the expression of ERbeta and GnRH mRNA in the male brain during pubertal development. In-situ hybridization was used …


The Use Of Student–Athlete Likenesses In Collegiate Sport Video Games: An Application Of The Right Of Publicity, Beth Cianfrone, Thomas Alexander Baker III 2010 Georgia State University

The Use Of Student–Athlete Likenesses In Collegiate Sport Video Games: An Application Of The Right Of Publicity, Beth Cianfrone, Thomas Alexander Baker Iii

Kinesiology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Candida Albicans Cellwall Components And Farnesol Stimulate The Expression Of Both Inflammatory And Regulatory Cytokines In The Murine Raw264.7 Macrophage Cell Line, Suman Ghosh, Nina Howe, Katie Volk, Swetha Tati, Kenneth W. Nickerson, Thomas M. Petro 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Candida Albicans Cellwall Components And Farnesol Stimulate The Expression Of Both Inflammatory And Regulatory Cytokines In The Murine Raw264.7 Macrophage Cell Line, Suman Ghosh, Nina Howe, Katie Volk, Swetha Tati, Kenneth W. Nickerson, Thomas M. Petro

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Candida albicans causes candidiasis, secretes farnesol, and switches from yeast to hyphae to escape from macrophages after phagocytosis. However, before escape, macrophages may respond to C. albicans’ pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dectin-1 receptors by expressing cytokines involved in adaptive immunity, inflammation, and immune regulation. Therefore, macrophages and the RAW264.7 macrophage line were challenged with C. albicans preparations of live wild-type cells, heat-killed cells, a live mutant defective in hyphae formation, a live mutant producing less farnesol, or an isolate producing farnesoic acid instead of farnesol. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1b, IL- 10, and tumor …


No Interaction Between Competition And Herbivory In Limiting Introduced Cirsium Vulgare Rosette Growth And Reproduction, Tomomi Suwa, Svata M. Louda, F. Leland Russell 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

No Interaction Between Competition And Herbivory In Limiting Introduced Cirsium Vulgare Rosette Growth And Reproduction, Tomomi Suwa, Svata M. Louda, F. Leland Russell

Svata M. Louda Publications

Both competition and herbivory have been shown to reduce plant survival, growth, and reproduction. Much less is known about whether competition and herbivory interact in determining plant performance, especially for introduced, weedy plant species in the invaded habitat. We simultaneously evaluated both the main and interactive effects of plant neighbors and insect herbivory on rosette growth and seed reproduction in the year of flowering for Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle, spear thistle), an introduced Eurasian species, in tallgrass prairie in 2 years. Effects of insect herbivory were strong and consistent in both years, causing reduced plant growth and seed production, whereas …


A Signal-Substrate Match In The Substrate-Borne Component Of A Multimodal Courtship Display, Damian O. Elias, Andrew C. Mason, Eileen Hebets 2010 University of California, Berkeley

A Signal-Substrate Match In The Substrate-Borne Component Of A Multimodal Courtship Display, Damian O. Elias, Andrew C. Mason, Eileen Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

The environment can impose strong limitations on the efficacy of signal transmission. In particular, for vibratory communication, the signaling environment is often extremely heterogeneous at small scales. Nevertheless, natural selection is expected to select for signals well-suited for effective transmission. Here, we test for substrate-dependent signal efficacy in the wolf spider Schizocosa stridulans Stratton 1991. We first explore the transmission characteristics of this important signaling modality by playing recorded substrate-borne signals through three different substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and red clay) and measuring the propagated signal. We found that the substrate-borne signal of S. stridulans attenuates the least on …


Mate Choice And Learning, Eileen Hebets, Laura Sullivan-Beckers 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mate Choice And Learning, Eileen Hebets, Laura Sullivan-Beckers

Eileen Hebets Publications

While an individual’s genetic framework is a major contributor in determining its eventual mate choice, the role of the environment in further influencing mating decisions has long been recognized. Animals gather information from the environment throughout life, and in some cases, may apply this information to increase their odds of obtaining a high-quality mate. In short, these individuals learn. Moreover, such learning can have a social component. “Social learning” is a general term that describes any learning based on observing, interacting with, and/or imitating others in a social context. Social learning can transmit information vertically, generation to generation (e.g., parent …


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