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Changes In Distribution Patterns Of Soil Penetration Resistance Within A Silage-Corn Field Following The Use Of Heavy Harvesting Equipments, EKREM LÜTFİ AKSAKAL, TAŞKIN ÖZTAŞ 2010 TÜBİTAK

Changes In Distribution Patterns Of Soil Penetration Resistance Within A Silage-Corn Field Following The Use Of Heavy Harvesting Equipments, Ekrem Lütfi̇ Aksakal, Taşkin Öztaş

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

Soil compaction caused by heavy wheeling reduces water infiltration, root development, and yield, and increases bulk density and soil strength. The objective of this study was to determine changes in spatial variability patterns of soil penetration resistance before and after using the silage machine in a corn-growing field. Soil penetration resistance was measured in a 100 × 400 m field with 10 m intervals just before and after harvesting. Measurements were taken from the 20 cm top layer on rows and inter-rows throughout each transect. The mean penetration resistance of 1353 measurements before and after harvesting was 2097 and 3116 …


Tolerance Of Brown-Rot And Dry-Rot Fungi To Cca And Acq Wood Preservatives, COŞKUN KÖSE, SAİP NAMİ KARTAL 2010 TÜBİTAK

Tolerance Of Brown-Rot And Dry-Rot Fungi To Cca And Acq Wood Preservatives, Coşkun Köse, Sai̇p Nami̇ Kartal

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

Copper remains the primary biocide component used today to protect wood. Increased interest in the use of non-arsenic copper-based wood preservatives has also led to increased studies on copper-tolerant decay fungi. Oxalic acid production by brown-rot fungi is proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. This study evaluated oxalic acid production and copper losses from ACQ- and CCA-treated Pinus sylvestris L. and Populus × euramericana I 214 wood by brown-rot fungi: Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Tyromyces palustris, and 2 strains of Serpula lacrymans. There was no clear linear correlation among mass losses, oxalic acid production, or copper losses in most …


Certain Physical And Mechanical Properties Of Medium Density Fiberboards Manufactured From Blends Of Corn (Zea Mays Indurata Sturt.) Stalks And Pine (Pinus Nigra) Wood, MEHMET AKGÜL, CENGİZ GÜLER, YALÇIN ÇÖPÜR 2010 TÜBİTAK

Certain Physical And Mechanical Properties Of Medium Density Fiberboards Manufactured From Blends Of Corn (Zea Mays Indurata Sturt.) Stalks And Pine (Pinus Nigra) Wood, Mehmet Akgül, Cengi̇z Güler, Yalçin Çöpür

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

Corn stalk is a renewable natural resource that currently has limited industrial utilization. The objective of this study was to examine some chemical properties of corn stalk (holocellulose, \alpha-cellulose, lignin and ash content, alcohol-benzene, hot and cold water solubility, and solubility in dilute alkali [1% NaOH]) and to evaluate its suitability for medium-density fiberboard (MDF) production. Panels were produced using mixtures of corn stalk (Zea mays indurata Sturt.) and pine (Turkish Pinus nigra) fibers in various proportions (from 0% to 100%). The panels produced had density levels of 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 g cm^{-3}. The physical and mechanical properties of …


Effects Of Self-Incompatibility Control Substance And Blossom Thinner On Fruit Set And Quality Of Apple (Malus Domestica), TAE KWON SON, JUNG HEE KIM, CYREN RICO, SANG CHUL LEE, IL KYUNG CHUNG 2010 TÜBİTAK

Effects Of Self-Incompatibility Control Substance And Blossom Thinner On Fruit Set And Quality Of Apple (Malus Domestica), Tae Kwon Son, Jung Hee Kim, Cyren Rico, Sang Chul Lee, Il Kyung Chung

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

Effects of calcium nitrate (CN) and sodium sulfate (SS) blossom thinning agents applied after self-incompatibility control substance (SICS) treatment on the fruit set rate and quality of apple were investigated for 2 cropping seasons. CN and SS at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations were applied once (3 or 4 days after SICS treatment) or twice (3 and 5 or 4 and 6 days after SICS treatment). Commercial Japanese flower thinning agent (FTA: Ekoruki) treated and untreated apple trees were used as treated and untreated controls. SICS was sprayed 7 days before full bloom. Both agents showed a fertilizing effect in 'Hongno', …


Pathogen Reduction Effects Of Solar Drying And Soil Application In Sewage Sludge, NURTAÇ ÖĞLENİ, SAİM ÖZDEMİR 2010 TÜBİTAK

Pathogen Reduction Effects Of Solar Drying And Soil Application In Sewage Sludge, Nurtaç Öğleni̇, Sai̇m Özdemi̇r

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

The responses of sludge faecal coliforms, Salmonella, and Ascaris lumbricoides to heat drying, solar dehydration, and inactivation in soil are examined in this study. The presence of Salmonella in raw sludge cake after treatment was low, and absent for most of the cases. Likewise, the viable Ascaris eggs were not determined because of absent or low prevalence. Faecal coliforms, on the other hand, drastically decreased from 4.2 × 10^7 MPN g^{-1} Dry Solid (DS) to absence by heat drying. Faecal coliform numbers in solar and non-solar drying treatments were not declined below 1.0 × 10^3 MPN g^{-1} after drying to …


Cordyceps Mushroom: A Potent Anticancer Nutraceutical, Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Mousumi Tania, Dianzheng Zhang, Hanchun Chen 2010 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Cordyceps Mushroom: A Potent Anticancer Nutraceutical, Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Mousumi Tania, Dianzheng Zhang, Hanchun Chen

PCOM Scholarly Papers

The Cordyceps mushrooms have a long history as medicinal fungi. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Cordyceps have been used to treat several conditions including cancers for thousand of years. Extracts from both mycelium and fruiting bodies of C. sinensis, C. militaris and other Cordyceps species showed significant anticancer activities by various mechanisms such as, modulating immune system and inducing cell apoptosis. Some polysaccharide components and cordycepin (3' -deoxyadenosine) have been isolated from C. sinensis and C. militaris, which acted as potent anticancer components. This review article aims to further elucidate the importance of Cordyceps mushrooms by summarizing the findings of some …


Arthropod Biodiversity In Response To The Restoration Of Former Pine Plantations, John Curtis Burkhalter 2010 University of North Florida

Arthropod Biodiversity In Response To The Restoration Of Former Pine Plantations, John Curtis Burkhalter

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of ecological restoration is to return degraded or altered ecosystems to their pre-disturbed state with respect to ecosystem structure, function, and composition. In the current study the research objective was to reestablish high levels of biodiversity on two restored pine plantations as well as restore a native pine flatwoods ecosystem. Managed, even-aged pine flatwoods are now the most extensive ecosystem in North Florida, comprising approximately 70% of the forested landscape. Slash pine trees were thinned in the experimental plots to restore the natural slash pine density of native ecosystems. In addition to the thinning treatments, experimental plots have …


Seeking Generalities In Salt Stress Effects On Herbivores: A Multi-Species Approach, Christy Marie Foust 2010 University of North Florida

Seeking Generalities In Salt Stress Effects On Herbivores: A Multi-Species Approach, Christy Marie Foust

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stress has been identified as one of the primary factors influencing the structure of food webs, but few conclusions about the effects of stress on community dynamics have emerged. This study examined generalities that exist between salt stress and insect herbivore responses. Ambient salinity was artificially increased by adding 1.3 kg/m2 of salt to six different plant species: Avicennia germinans, Baccharis halimifolia, Batis maritima, Borrichia frutescens, Iva frutescens, and Spartina alterniflora. By performing a multiple species examination, stress responses were examined to determine if consistencies within and between plant type, ambient salinity conditions, and host plant species (among other criteria) …


Site Use Of European Starlings Captured And Radio-Tagged At Texas Feedlots During Winter, H. Jeffrey Homan, A.A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, George M. Linz, Michael J. Bodenchuk, Rickey L. Gilliland 2010 USDA/APHIS/Wildlife Services’ National Wildlife Research Center

Site Use Of European Starlings Captured And Radio-Tagged At Texas Feedlots During Winter, H. Jeffrey Homan, A.A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, George M. Linz, Michael J. Bodenchuk, Rickey L. Gilliland

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

We radio tagged and tracked 50 European starlings between December 2008 and January 2009 at 3 feedlots in the northern Texas Panhandle. Daily fidelity to sites of capture (home feedlots) was different among the 3 radio-tagged cohorts. Cohorts from Sites A and C were recorded at home feedlots on 48 and 59% of tracking days, respectively. The Site B cohort was at its home feedlot 95% of days. There were qualitative differences in use of home feedlots between cohorts A and C. The former were nearly obligate in their use of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO), whereas the latter tended …


Comparative Toxicity Of Diphacinone To Northern Bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus) And American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, Daniel D. Day, John J. Johnston 2010 U.S. Geological Survey

Comparative Toxicity Of Diphacinone To Northern Bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus) And American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, Daniel D. Day, John J. Johnston

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be about 20 times greater to American kestrels (LD50=97 mg/kg) than to northern bobwhite (LD50=2,014 mg/kg). Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell’s Viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in these species, and this combination of assays is recommended to detect effects of diphacinone and other rodenticides on coagulation. Oral administration of diphacinone over a range of doses (sublethal to the extrapolated LD15) prolonged prothrombin time and Russell’s Viper venom time within 24 to 48 hrs …


Acute Toxicity Of Diphacinone In Northern Bobwhite: Effects On Survival And Blood Clotting, Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, John J. Johnston 2010 Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

Acute Toxicity Of Diphacinone In Northern Bobwhite: Effects On Survival And Blood Clotting, Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, John J. Johnston

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

The anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was slightly toxic (acuteoralLD50 2014 mg/kg) to Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in a 14-day acute toxicity trial. Precise and sensitive assays of blood clotting (prothrombin time, Russell’s Viper venom time, and thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in quail, and this combination of assays is recommended to measure the effects of anticoagulant rodenticides. A single oral sub lethal dose of diphacinone (434mg/kg body weight) prolonged clotting time at 48 h post-dose compared to controls. At 783 mg/kg (approximate LD02), clotting time was prolonged at both 24 and 48 h post-dose. …


Promiscuous Mating In Feral Pigs (Sus Scrofa) From Texas, Usa, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, David B. Long 2010 Texas A&M University-Kingsville

Promiscuous Mating In Feral Pigs (Sus Scrofa) From Texas, Usa, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. Deyoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, David B. Long

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Context. Feral pigs represent a significant threat to agriculture and ecosystems and are disease reservoirs for pathogens affecting humans, livestock and other wildlife. Information on the behavioural ecology of feral pigs might increase the efficiency and effectiveness of management strategies.

Aims. We assessed the frequency of promiscuous mating in relation to oestrous synchrony in feral pigs from southern Texas, USA, an agroecosystem with a widespread and well established population of feral pigs. An association between multiple paternity of single litters and synchrony of oestrous may indicate alternative mating strategies, such as mateguarding.

Methods. We collected gravid sows at …


Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Movements And Dispersal Associated With Ridges And Valleys Of Pennsylvania: Implications For Rabies Management, Robert B. Puskas, Justin W. Fischer, Craig B. Swope, Mike R. Dunbar, Robert G. McLean, J. Jeffrey Root 2010 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Movements And Dispersal Associated With Ridges And Valleys Of Pennsylvania: Implications For Rabies Management, Robert B. Puskas, Justin W. Fischer, Craig B. Swope, Mike R. Dunbar, Robert G. Mclean, J. Jeffrey Root

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

The raccoon (Procyon lotor) continues to be a prominent terrestrial rabies reservoir in the eastern United States. Describing the dispersal and movements of these animals and determining geographic features that are natural hindrances or corridors to movements could be used to assist oral rabies vaccination efforts. The landscape of the ridge-and-valley system in Pennsylvania exhibits characteristics of both natural potential hindrances and travel corridors to the movements of wildlife. The movements of 49 raccoons were monitored throughout a ridge and two adjacent valley sites to assess their movements related to these landscape features. Results suggest that few raccoons …


Modeling The Economic Impact Of Feral Swine-Transmitted Foot-And- Mouth Disease: A Case Study From Missouri, Tyler Cozzens, Karen Gebhardt, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Mark W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, Seth Swafford 2010 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Modeling The Economic Impact Of Feral Swine-Transmitted Foot-And- Mouth Disease: A Case Study From Missouri, Tyler Cozzens, Karen Gebhardt, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Mark W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, Seth Swafford

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Invasive feral swine combine a number of characteristics (e.g., high mobility, high fecundity, destructive behavior, reservoir of diseases, etc.) that make them one of the most serious wildlife threats to American agriculture. Additionally, feral swine are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infection and could play a significant role in spreading and maintaining FMD if it was introduced to the U.S. Outbreaks of FMD also have devastating economic impacts and cause the loss of billions of dollars to the agricultural economy. Problems associated with spread and control would be exacerbated if FMD was contracted and spread by feral swine, threatening the …


Response Of Deer To Containment By A Poly-Mesh Fence For Mitigating Disease Outbreaks, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Joshua J. White, Aaron M. Hildreth, Gregory E. Phillips, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Response Of Deer To Containment By A Poly-Mesh Fence For Mitigating Disease Outbreaks, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Joshua J. White, Aaron M. Hildreth, Gregory E. Phillips, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rapidly deployable and effective methods are needed to contain free-ranging deer (Odocoileus spp.) during acute disease outbreaks. We evaluated efficacy of a 2.1-m-tall polypropylene mesh (poly-mesh) fence for containing ≥15 free-ranging white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) within a 42-ha area in eastern Nebraska, USA. We observed a 99% decrease in deer leaving the enclosure area after we installed fencing (1 deer jumped; 0.02 deer/hr) compared with prefence rates (5.26 deer/hr). However, 8 deer (53% of censused population) escaped the enclosure during a census drive after our study. Poly-mesh fencing may be effective in temporarily containing free-ranging deer during …


Exclusion Fencing For Feral Hogs At White-Tailed Deer Feeders, Justin M. Rattan, Billy J. Higginbotham, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell 2010 Texas A&M University-Kingsville

Exclusion Fencing For Feral Hogs At White-Tailed Deer Feeders, Justin M. Rattan, Billy J. Higginbotham, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Management programs aimed at white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) production often include the use of feeders, either to deliver supplemental feed or bait. However, much of the feed placed into deer feeders is consumed by non-target species, such as feral hogs (Sus scrofa). Our objectives were to compare three exclusion fence designs at deer feeders for their ability to restrict feral hog visitation and enable white-tailed deer visitation. Our high fence design consisted of 86 cm high graduated paneling. Our medium fence design consisted of 76 cm high, 10´10 cm paneling. Our low height design consisted of …


Reporting Difference For Colored Patagial Tags On Ring-Billed Gulls, Thomas W. Seamans, Scott F. Beckerman, John W. Hartmann, James A. Rader, Bradley F. Blackwell 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Reporting Difference For Colored Patagial Tags On Ring-Billed Gulls, Thomas W. Seamans, Scott F. Beckerman, John W. Hartmann, James A. Rader, Bradley F. Blackwell

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

The possible role of tag color in mediating behaviors that could bias resighting rate has not been examined. In a study that began in 2007, we marked 725 ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) with Bondcote royal blue, green, yellow, or orange patagial tags. Reports we gathered over 2 years indicated approximately a 3.4:1 bias in resighting rate toward yellow or orange tags. The observed bias is inconsistent with color-associated visibility bias or differential mortality among color-tagged breeding adults. Potential behavioral effects of tag color on individuals and conspecifics should be considered by biologists when planning marking studies.


Assessment Of Abilities Of White-Tailed Deer To Jump Fences, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Timothy R. Vandeelen, Michael J. Lavelle, Wayne Hall 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Assessment Of Abilities Of White-Tailed Deer To Jump Fences, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Timothy R. Vandeelen, Michael J. Lavelle, Wayne Hall

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

There is a need for insight into fence heights required for impeding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We evaluated the ability of wild-caught deer to jump progressively taller fences and documented deterrence rates of 0% for fences ≤1.5 m followed by increasing deterrence rates of 14% at 1.8 m, 85% at 2.1 m, and 100% at 2.4 m. We documented 100% deterrence rates during 5 additional experiments with different deer and the test fence at 2.4 m, a common height of fences at captive deer facilities. Our results will be valuable to those managing spread of wildlife diseases, deer–vehicle …


Management Of Damage By Elk (Cervus Elaphus) In North America: A Review, W. David Walter, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Therese L. Johnson, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2010 National Wildlife Research Center

Management Of Damage By Elk (Cervus Elaphus) In North America: A Review, W. David Walter, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Therese L. Johnson, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Abundant populations of elk (Cervus elaphus) are cherished game in many regions of the world and also cause considerable human–wildlife conflicts through depredation on agriculture and specialty crops, lack of regeneration to native ecosystems, collisions with vehicles and transmission of disease between free-ranging and farmed hoofstock. Management of elk varies, depending on current and historical agency objectives, configuration of the landscapes elk occupy, public perception, population density and behaviour of elk. Selection of the method to manage elk often requires knowledge of timing of impacts, duration relief from elk damage is desired, cost-effectiveness of management activities, tolerance of …


Impact Of Soil Drought Stress On Photochemical Efficiency Of Photosystem Ii And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Of Phaseolus Vulgaris Cultivars, RABİYE TERZİ, AYKUT SAĞLAM, NİHAL KUTLU, HATİCE NAR, ASIM KADIOĞLU 2010 TÜBİTAK

Impact Of Soil Drought Stress On Photochemical Efficiency Of Photosystem Ii And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Of Phaseolus Vulgaris Cultivars, Rabi̇ye Terzi̇, Aykut Sağlam, Ni̇hal Kutlu, Hati̇ce Nar, Asim Kadioğlu

Turkish Journal of Botany

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars (cvs) (Göynük 98, Karacaşehir 90, Şehirali 90, ES 855, and Yunus 90) were subjected to drought stress in order to assess the levels of drought tolerance through the analysis of growth parameters, leaf water potential (\psi_{leaf}), stomatal conductance (g_s), chlorophyll (chl) content, and lipid peroxidation. Significant differences were recorded among cultivars in most traits. Yunus 90 was identified as the most tolerant, and Karacaşehir 90 was the most sensitive. Furthermore, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, H_2O_2 content, and Photosystem II were investigated under drought stress, where Antioxidant enzyme activities increased while H_2O_2 contents …


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