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250,076 full-text articles. Page 7 of 7693.

Condensed Tannins In Tropical Legumes: Concentration, Astringency And Effects On The Nutrition Of Ruminants, R Barahona, C E. Lascano, R C. Cochran, J L. Morrill, E C. Titgemeyer 2024 Kansas State University

Condensed Tannins In Tropical Legumes: Concentration, Astringency And Effects On The Nutrition Of Ruminants, R Barahona, C E. Lascano, R C. Cochran, J L. Morrill, E C. Titgemeyer

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of extractable condensed tannins (ECT) concentration and tannin astringency in tropical legumes on nitrogen (N) digestion by sheep. Test legumes were Desmodium ovalifolium (Do) and Flemingia macrophylla (Fm) which had similar concentrations of Extractable CT (9% DM) but tannins with different degree of astringency (Do, 0.6 and Fm, 0.3 g protein bound/g of ECT). Chopped sun-dried forage of each legume was sprayed with either water (control) or polyethylene glycol (PEG, 3.5% DM) to reduce ECT and fed to 8 sheep with ruminal and duodenal canulas arranged in a replicated 4 …


Effect Of Condensed Tannin In Lotus Corniculatus And Lotus Pedunculatus On Digestion Of Rubisco In The Rumen, W C. McNabb, R J. Aerts, A Brand, J S. Peters, Y L. Foo, G C. Waghorn 2024 Grassland Research Centre, NZ

Effect Of Condensed Tannin In Lotus Corniculatus And Lotus Pedunculatus On Digestion Of Rubisco In The Rumen, W C. Mcnabb, R J. Aerts, A Brand, J S. Peters, Y L. Foo, G C. Waghorn

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The in vitro precipitation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by condensed tannin (CT) extracted from Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus and the effect of these CT on the in vitro rumen degradation of Rubisco was used to compare the reactivity of these CT. The chemical structure of CT from Lotus corniculatus was homogenous with epicatechin stereochemistry and mostly procyanidin units. The CT from Lotus pedunculatus was heterogenous with mostly prodelphinidin units. The amount of CT required to precipitate all the Rubisco when total soluble leaf protein was incubated with CT from Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus was similar. Although CT from …


Nitrogen And Fiber Digestion In Sheep Fed Fresh-Frozen And Field-Dried High And Low Tannin Sericea Lespedeza, T H. Terrill, W R. Windham, C S. Hoveland, H E. Amos, B Kouakou, S Gelaye 2024 Fort Valley State University

Nitrogen And Fiber Digestion In Sheep Fed Fresh-Frozen And Field-Dried High And Low Tannin Sericea Lespedeza, T H. Terrill, W R. Windham, C S. Hoveland, H E. Amos, B Kouakou, S Gelaye

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Field-drying reduces extractable condensed tannin (CT) of sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours) G. Don], but effects on specific bound and unbound forms of CT and the relationship to protein and fiber digestion in ruminants are unclear. Intake and digestibility of fresh-frozen and field-dried high- and low-tannin sericea were investigated in a feeding trial with sheep (Ovis spp.). Field-drying had no effect on crude protein (CP) and fiber content of sericea, but shifted CT from extractable to bound forms. Digestion coefficients for CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were lower for high-tannin sericea than the low-tannin …


Alteration Of Condensed Tannin Sythesis In Transgenic Forage Legumes, F Paolocci, G Tanner, S Arcioni, F Damiani 2024 Istituto Miglioramento Genetico Piante Foraggere CNR

Alteration Of Condensed Tannin Sythesis In Transgenic Forage Legumes, F Paolocci, G Tanner, S Arcioni, F Damiani

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The transformation of Lotus corniculatus plants with the maize gene Sn, reorganizes the tissue specificity of condensed tannins accumulation. In particular the transformed plants show an increase of tannin content in roots and a decrease in leaves. Molecular and enzymatic analyses suggest that the transgene can functionally substitute an endogenous unknown gene not expressed in roots and induces its silencing when it is expressed. These findings could have applications for reducing tannin content in unpalatable plants and for cloning genes involved in tannin synthesis.


Comparison Of The In Vitro Fermentation Characteristic Of Fractionated Alfalfa And Sainfoin, L R. McMahon, M Goto, T A. McAllister, G A. Jones, K J. Cheng 2024 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre

Comparison Of The In Vitro Fermentation Characteristic Of Fractionated Alfalfa And Sainfoin, L R. Mcmahon, M Goto, T A. Mcallister, G A. Jones, K J. Cheng

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Alfalfa and sainfoin leaves were lyophilized and ground (A, S, respectively) or were fractionated into soluble (ASOL, SSOL) and insoluble (AINS, SINS)components and lyophilized and incubated in vitro with diluted ruminal fluid for 24h. Whole leaf and soluble fractions were also incubated with polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG). Gas production (GP), ammonia concentration [NH3] and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production were lower (P< 0.05) from S and SSOL than from A and ASOL Insoluble fractions differed only in [NH3] (SINS < AINS, P < 0.05). Inclusion of PEG increased (P < 0.05) GP, [NH3] and VFA production from whole leaf and soluble fractions of sainfoin, but not alfalfa. Inactivating the condensed tannins in sainfoin with PEG overcame differences in degradability between these two forages.


Differences In Chemical Composition Among Provenances Of Tree Fodder Species In A Subhumid Environment: Relation To Use As Supplements, B H. Dzowela, L Hove, P L. Mafongoya 2024 SADC-ICRAF

Differences In Chemical Composition Among Provenances Of Tree Fodder Species In A Subhumid Environment: Relation To Use As Supplements, B H. Dzowela, L Hove, P L. Mafongoya

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Studies were initiated in a subhumid Southern African environment to assess the chemical composition and nutritive value of Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze, Calliandra calothyrsus Meiss. and Leucaena species. The objective was to determine variability in crude protein (CP) concentration, acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and soluble and insoluble proanthocyanidins from fodder samples of species, subspecies and provenances. A wide range was found in these parameters. The implications of these chemical composition factors, especially proanthocyanidins, on the use of these browse fodders in livestock feeding systems are discussed.


Nutritional Implications Of Bound Proanthocyanidins, H P.S Makkar, K Becker 2024 University of Hohenheim

Nutritional Implications Of Bound Proanthocyanidins, H P.S Makkar, K Becker

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The correlation between protein binding capacity of proanthocyanidin-rich neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and their proanthocyanidin (PAs) content was very low (r = -0.21; n = 6). These PAs-rich NDF did not affect growth of a tannin-sensitive strain of Clostridium perfringens. A substantial amount of bound PAs (75 to 92 %) disappeared from the NDF in 24 h of fermentation in an in vitro incubation medium containing rumen microbes. Addition of a tannin-binding agent, polyethylene glycol to the incubation medium containing rumen microbes and browses made free of extractable tannins or NDF rich in bound PAs increased the gas production up …


Environmental Effect On New Released Genotypes Of Graminaceous And Leguminous Forage Perennial Crops, P Martiniello, G Genier, R Allerit 2024 Instituto Sperimentale Colture Foraggere

Environmental Effect On New Released Genotypes Of Graminaceous And Leguminous Forage Perennial Crops, P Martiniello, G Genier, R Allerit

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Genotypes of perennial leguminous (alfalfa) and graminaceous (cocksfoot and tall fescue) were evaluated for adaptability in a typical Mediterranean environment (Foggia, southern Italy). The species were field evaluated to detect biomass yield potential under different types of watering. Irrigations were applied considering rainfall and FAO cultural growth coefficient for reintegrating the 75% of the evaporated water from Class A water pan. The forage harvest was applied when the shoots of the varieties reached the 10 and 50% of flowering and heading stage for leguminous and graminaceous, respectively. A split-plot experimental design, with irrigation in the main plot, was adopted. The …


Plant Tannins- Their Role In Forage Legume Quality, J A. Alokan, V A. Aletor 2024 Federal University of Technology Yola, Nigeria

Plant Tannins- Their Role In Forage Legume Quality, J A. Alokan, V A. Aletor

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Forage legumes, especially browse plants, are important in the maintenance and survival of ruminant animals. However many browse species contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds including tannins. The effects of tannins on the quality of forages are reviewed. These include reduction in palatability and intake of feeds, growth rate, digestion of fibre fractions and nitrogen utilization by animals.


Genetic Manipulation Of Sainfoin Leaf Tannins, M Y. Gruber, P Auser, G Lees, A D. Muir, M Wood 2024 Agriculture & AgriFood Canada

Genetic Manipulation Of Sainfoin Leaf Tannins, M Y. Gruber, P Auser, G Lees, A D. Muir, M Wood

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

An isogenic population of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) plants was developed by two methods; regeneration after long term tissue culture and plant transformation with an antisense chalcone synthase gene. Tannin (proanthocyanidin) content could be dramatically increased in untransformed callus by long term culture, but was not significantly altered in regenerating plantlets. Some of the mature transgenic plants had dramatically reduced levels of leaf tannin. The antisense gene was eliminated from all transgenic plants later in development.


Induction Of Mutants With Ectopic Expression Of Condensed Tannins, M Y. Gruber, B Skadhauge, P Auser, A D. Muir, K K. Thomsen, J Stougaard, B Coulman, D von Wettstein 2024 Agriculture & Agrifood Canada

Induction Of Mutants With Ectopic Expression Of Condensed Tannins, M Y. Gruber, B Skadhauge, P Auser, A D. Muir, K K. Thomsen, J Stougaard, B Coulman, D Von Wettstein

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Leaves of 47,000 Lotus japonicus plants were screened using a butanol:HCl histochemical test to select “gain of function” mutants. These plants were progeny from L. japonicus lines which were transformed with T-DNA constructs containing either the maize Ds or Ac transposon (Thykjaer et al., 1995). Among 21 putative leaf tannin mutants, five (tan1-5) were characterized for synthesis of condensed tannins, leucocyanidin reductase activity and the presence of Ac and the selectable marker gene, nptII . A range of leaf tannin content among other Lotus species was also characterized.


A Revised Method Of Condensed Tannin Analysis In Leucaena Spp., S A. Dalzell, G L. Kerven 2024 The University of Queensland, Australia

A Revised Method Of Condensed Tannin Analysis In Leucaena Spp., S A. Dalzell, G L. Kerven

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The proanthocyanidin (butanol-HCl) assay was used to measure condensed tannin (CT) in extracts from Leucaena spp. at the University of Queensland. Inconsistent results were found to be caused by the iron catalyst in the butanol/HCl reagent and the presence of ascorbic acid in the sample matrix which enhanced anthocyanidin development. In addition, preparation of sample extracts by back extraction with organic solvents reduced CT recoveries. An accurate and rapid technique was developed that measures CT directly in 70% aqueous acetone 0.1% (w/v) sodium metabisulphite plant extracts.


The Effect Of Condensed Tannins In Lotus Spp. On The Lesser Migratory Grasshopper, C F. Hinks, G L. Lees, M Y. Gruber, A D. Muir, J Soroka 2024 Agriculture & Agrifood Canada

The Effect Of Condensed Tannins In Lotus Spp. On The Lesser Migratory Grasshopper, C F. Hinks, G L. Lees, M Y. Gruber, A D. Muir, J Soroka

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Hatchling grasshoppers (Melanoplus sanguinipes Fab.) fed one accession of field grown big trefoil (Lotus uliginosis Schkuhr) containing a tannin content of 56 mg. g-1 FW, had a significantly lower mean weight than hatchlings fed field grown Lotus species and accessions with lower tannin content. Adult female grasshoppers fed L. uliginosis foliage with 32.3 mg.g-1 FW tannin also ate more feed and had a 2-fold higher gut trypsin and chymotrypsin activity than adults fed low tannin L. corniculatus foliage (0.13 mg.g-1 FW tannin). In more controlled experiments, growth at 20o C or 30o C was used to increase tannin …


Unravelling The Genetic Basis Of Schizophrenia, Clara Casey, John F. Fullard, Roy D. Sleator 2024 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland; Center for Disease Neurogenomics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, United States;

Unravelling The Genetic Basis Of Schizophrenia, Clara Casey, John F. Fullard, Roy D. Sleator

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Neuronal development is a highly regulated mechanism that is central to organismal function in animals. In humans, disruptions to this process can lead to a range of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including Schizophrenia (SCZ). SCZ has a significant genetic component, whereby an individual with an SCZ affected family member is eight times more likely to develop the disease than someone with no family history of SCZ. By examining a combination of genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets, large-scale ‘omics’ studies aim to delineate the relationship between genetic variation and abnormal cellular activity in the SCZ brain. Herein, we provide a brief overview of …


Grazing On The Arizona Strip: Catchment History And Repair, Melanie Heaton 2024 Utah State University

Grazing On The Arizona Strip: Catchment History And Repair, Melanie Heaton

All Current Publications

Water, not forage, is the limiting factor for wildlife and livestock grazing the Arizona Strip, a nearly 3-million-acre piece of land located north of the Grand Canyon and south of the Utah border. Since springs and groundwater are rare or absent, harvesting of natural precipitation is the main source of water for animals. Catchment systems, which capture precipitation on a sloped rubber apron and contain it in a large tank or lined pond, are used by government agencies and grazing permittees to efficiently provide water for wildlife and livestock. As catchments reach the end of their useful lives, tank replacement …


Utah Hydroponic Solutions, Bruce Bugbee, Noah Langenfeld 2024 Utah State University

Utah Hydroponic Solutions, Bruce Bugbee, Noah Langenfeld

Nutrients

The Utah Hydroponic solutions for monocots and dicots have been developed and refined using mass balance principles coupled with tissue analysis from studies in 25-cm deep, continuously aerated, liquid hydroponics where there is no absorption or desorption with media.

These solutions provide guidelines for irrigation of soilless substrates, but adjustments may need to be made to account for the significant cation exchange capacity and thus nutrient absorption and desorption with the substrates.

These recipes were developed for greenhouse conditions with ambient CO2 and about 40% humidity. This results in a water use efficiency of about 3 grams per Liter. …


Comparative Genomics Of Selected Lactobacillus Helveticus Strains, Cain Petty 2024 Mississippi University for Women

Comparative Genomics Of Selected Lactobacillus Helveticus Strains, Cain Petty

Undergraduate Research Conference

My research is to compare two strains (D76 and H10) of Lactobacillus helveticus and a shared gene between them. I would want to experiment with overexpression to test for any difference in the regulatory function of genes associated with CggR - the central glycolytic genes regulator. The poster I am presenting would outline this and provide a clearer understanding of genes and potential overexpression.


Doxorubicin-Induced Nuclear Localization Of Scube3 Essential For Cell Survival In Tnbc, Ayooluwa Ilesanmi 2024 Mississippi University for Women

Doxorubicin-Induced Nuclear Localization Of Scube3 Essential For Cell Survival In Tnbc, Ayooluwa Ilesanmi

Undergraduate Research Conference

Mediation of Doxorubicin-Induced SCUBE3 Nuclear Localization by A Functional NLS Involved in Pro-Tumorigenic Actions in Breast Cancer.

Signal peptide-CUB-EGF-like domain-containing protein 3 (SCUBE3) is a glycosylated secreted and cell membrane-associated protein considered a signature gene in cancers and known to mediate its actions in the cytoplasm where its localizes prior to its secretion. However, our study observed that SCUBE3 protein localized to the nucleus following doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. In this study, we investigated SCUBE3 nuclear localization in triple-negative breast cancer, intending to dissect the mechanism of its nuclear trafficking induced by DOX treatment. Bioinformatic analysis of the SCUBE3 protein sequence …


Upregulation Of The Predominant Cystic Fibrosis Causing Mutation Df508-Cftr By Triazole Compounds In Epithelial Cells, Maggie Taylor 2024 Mississippi University for Women

Upregulation Of The Predominant Cystic Fibrosis Causing Mutation Df508-Cftr By Triazole Compounds In Epithelial Cells, Maggie Taylor

Undergraduate Research Conference

Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic disease that is caused by a mutation in the plasma membrane protein CFTR, which stands for Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane-conductance Regulator. When this membrane protein is mutated, it impairs its chloride ion channel function, blocking the movement of chloride ions that travel in and out of the cell. Previous studies have demonstrated that the most prevalent CFTR mutation, ∆F508-CFTR, can be partially reversed using small molecules (Heda and Marino, BBRC, 271:659-664, 2000). In this study, I have investigated the effects of several triazole compounds known to bind and transport chloride ions in cultured cells, on …


Bec-1 Survey Of Parasites In Ictalurus Punctatus (Channel Catfish) Of The Savannah River Basin At Little River In Mccormick, South Carolina, Savannah Cade, Jason Lee 2024 Lander University

Bec-1 Survey Of Parasites In Ictalurus Punctatus (Channel Catfish) Of The Savannah River Basin At Little River In Mccormick, South Carolina, Savannah Cade, Jason Lee

SC Upstate Research Symposium

Ictalurus punctatus, more commonly known as the Channel Catfish, is common throughout the Savannah River Basin. Fifteen specimens were captured by hook and line from the Little River in McCormick County, South Carolina. The gills and viscera were examined for metazoan parasites and prevalence and mean intensity were computed. The monogenean Ligictaluridus pricei and the copepod Ergasilus arthrosis were recovered from the gills. Two digenetic trematodes (Megalonia ictaluri and Alloglossidium corti), one tapeworm (Corallobothrium fimbriatum), two nematodes (Camallanus oxycephalus and Spinitectus carolini) and one acanthocephalan (Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus) were recovered from the …


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