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The Status Of Virginia's Public Oyster Resource 2009, Melissa Southworth, Juliana Harding, Roger L. Mann 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Status Of Virginia's Public Oyster Resource 2009, Melissa Southworth, Juliana Harding, Roger L. Mann

Reports

This report summarizes data collected during 2009 in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay. The report is composed of two parts, part one, oyster recruitment (shell string) in Virginia and part two, dredge survey of selected oyster bars in Virginia.


Using Traps For Catfish In Virginia Tidal Rivers, James Bristow 2010 William & Mary

Using Traps For Catfish In Virginia Tidal Rivers, James Bristow

Reports

The project tested a different way to commercially fish for catfish in the tidal rivers, while allowing by-catch and smaller catfish to escape. Ten traps were constructed of coated wire mesh and steel rod, equipped with an entry funnel, and fished alongside three strings of trot-lines in the same area and times. The test period covered September and October 2010 over a period of warm weather when salinity changed dramatically from 10 ppt to zero and water temperatures eased downward from 68 degrees to 60 degrees.

The trap design and all boat modifications operated as designed with only a few …


Hybrid Fish Capturing Device "Fcd" For Capturing Live Flounder: Final Report, Jeffrey Hammer 2010 William & Mary

Hybrid Fish Capturing Device "Fcd" For Capturing Live Flounder: Final Report, Jeffrey Hammer

Reports

The purpose of this project was to determine if a device to capture live flounder could be designed and built, to catch effectively. Six FDC's were constructed, two each, of three different funnel designs. The three types of FCD,s were then placed in the water, on april I st 20 I 0, at three different locations. The FCD,s were fished, once per day , for 60 days. The locations were rotated, to give each type of funnel an equal chance. The type of funnels are as follows, # I and 2 were horizontal 2" x 12", # 3 and 4 …


Shallow Water Dredging, Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science 2010 William & Mary

Shallow Water Dredging, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2009, John A. Lucy, Lewis Gillingham 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2009, John A. Lucy, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2009, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program has maintained a 15-year database for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission/VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under VIMS Sea Grant Marine Extension Program).


Male Territoriality In A Social Sciurid, Cynomys Gunnisoni: What Do Patterns Of Paternity Tell Us?, J. L. Verdolin, C. N. Slobodchikoff 2010 Stony Brook University

Male Territoriality In A Social Sciurid, Cynomys Gunnisoni: What Do Patterns Of Paternity Tell Us?, J. L. Verdolin, C. N. Slobodchikoff

Veterinary Science and Medicine Collection

In many social sciurids, male territoriality confers significant mating advantages. We evaluated resident male paternity in Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni), a colonial ground-dwelling sciurid, where males and females cooperatively defend territories. Contrary to findings reported for other social sciurids, our results show that territorial resident males do not gain significant reproductive advantages. Resident males sired the majority of offspring from their respective territories only 10.5% of the time. A single non-resident male sired equal or greater number of offspring than any single resident male 71.2% of the time. While adult males were more likely to sire a greater number …


Do Zoos And Aquariums Promote Attitude Change In Visitors? A Critical Evaluation Of The American Zoo And Aquarium Study, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ron Broglio 2010 Emory University

Do Zoos And Aquariums Promote Attitude Change In Visitors? A Critical Evaluation Of The American Zoo And Aquarium Study, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ron Broglio

Zoos and Aquariums Collection

Modern-day zoos and aquariums market themselves as places of education and conservation. A recent study conducted by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) (Falk et al., 2007) is being widely heralded as the first direct evidence that visits to zoos and aquariums produce long-term positive effects on people’s attitudes toward other animals. In this paper, we address whether this conclusion is warranted by analyzing the study’s methodological soundness. We conclude that Falk et al. (2007) contains at least six major threats to methodological validity that undermine the authors’ conclusions. There remains no compelling evidence for the claim that zoos …


Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2010 Independent Scientist and Author

Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Laboratory Experiments Collection

This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high degree of sentience and can suffer, (b) laboratory environments cause suffering, (c) rats and mice in the wild have discrete behavioral needs, (d) rats and mice bred for many generations in the laboratory retain these needs, and (e) these needs are not met in laboratory cages.


Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2010 Independent Scientist and Author

Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Laboratory Experiments Collection

I’m grateful to the editors for soliciting critiques of my commentary and for the opportunity to respond. Because one of the respondents (Patterson-Kane, 2010/this issue) does not take issue with the main points of my article, whereas the other (Blanchard, 2010/this issue) does, I focus my remarks here mostly on Blanchard’s critique.


Noncompliance With Public Health Service (Phs) Policy On Humane Care And Use Of Laboratory Animals: An Exploratory Analysis, Leah M. Gomez, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens 2010 The Humane Society of the United States

Noncompliance With Public Health Service (Phs) Policy On Humane Care And Use Of Laboratory Animals: An Exploratory Analysis, Leah M. Gomez, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens

Laboratory Experiments Collection

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a major biomedical research-funding body in the United States. Approximately 40% of NIH-funded research involves experimentation on nonhuman animals (Monastersky, 2008). Institutions that conduct animal research with NIH funds must adhere to the Public Health Service (PHS) care and use standards of the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW, 2002a). Institutions deviating significantly from the PHS’s animal care and use standards must report these incidents to the NIH’s OLAW. This study is an exploratory analysis of all the significant deviations reported by animal-research facilities to OLAW during a 3-month period. The study identifies …


The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch 2010 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Experimentation Collection

No abstract provided.


About Turkeys, The Humane Society of the United States 2010 WellBeing International

About Turkeys, The Humane Society Of The United States

Agribusiness Collection

John James Audubon, a well-known bird expert and nature enthusiast, described wild turkeys as birds of great beauty. The history and origin of wild turkeys is uncertain, yet many share Audubon’s sentiment that the wild turkey is “one of the most interesting of the birds indigenous to the United States of America.” Today, wild turkeys can be found throughout the nation. Following the selection of the bald eagle as the American symbol, Benjamin Franklin remarked that the turkey was more “respectable”, and a “true original native”.


About Chickens, The Humane Society of the United States 2010 WellBeing International

About Chickens, The Humane Society Of The United States

Agribusiness Collection

The chicken is the world’s most numerous domesticated bird, with over 52 billion farmed worldwide in 2008, rivaling the dog as the most ubiquitous domestic animal globally. These birds have fascinated scholars and researchers since the dawn of Western civilization, and recent studies are beginning to reveal the depths of their complexity and cognitive ability. According to Andrew F. Fraser, professor of veterinary surgery at Memorial University of Newfoundland, and Donald M. Broom, professor of animal welfare at University of Cambridge: “Those who have studied the behaviour of the domestic fowl in detail…, especially those who have looked at feral …


"The Status And Distribution Of Freshwater Crabs [Northern Africa]" , Neil Cumberlidge 2010 Northern Michigan University

"The Status And Distribution Of Freshwater Crabs [Northern Africa]" , Neil Cumberlidge

Book Sections/Chapters

No abstract provided.


Symptoms, Distribution And Abundance Of The Stem-Boring Caterpillar, Blastobasis Repartella (Dietz), In Switchgrass, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Arvid A. Boe, DoKyoung Lee, David Adamski, Michael E. Gray 2010 University of Illinois

Symptoms, Distribution And Abundance Of The Stem-Boring Caterpillar, Blastobasis Repartella (Dietz), In Switchgrass, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Arvid A. Boe, Dokyoung Lee, David Adamski, Michael E. Gray

Panhandle Research and Extension Center

A potential pest of switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., was first detected in South Dakota in 2004, where death of partially emerged leaves was noted in a small proportion of tillers. Similar “dead heart” symptoms were observed in switchgrass in Illinois during 2008 and adults of a stem-boring caterpillar were collected and identified as Blastobasis repartella (Dietz). In 2009, a survey of the central United States was used to estimate the distribution and abundance of this insect. In eight northern states, B. repartella was consistently found in both cultivated plots and natural stands of switchgrass. In four southern states, B. repartella …


First Report Of Field Populations Of Two Potential Aphid Pests Of The Bioenergy Crop Miscanthus × Giganteus, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Kevin L. Steffey, Michael E. Gray 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

First Report Of Field Populations Of Two Potential Aphid Pests Of The Bioenergy Crop Miscanthus × Giganteus, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Kevin L. Steffey, Michael E. Gray

Panhandle Research and Extension Center

Sipha flava (Forbes) (yellow sugarcane aphid) and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (corn leaf aphid) (Hemiptera: Homoptera: Aphididae) are common aphids occurring throughout North America on many host plants, most of which are grasses (Blackman & Eastop 2006). Both aphids are pests of several important food crops, e.g., Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (sorghum), Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane), Triticum spp. (wheat), and Zea mays L. (corn) (Blackman & Eastop 2000). Additionally, both aphids are vectors of potyviruses and R. maidis is a vector of luteoviruses in these crops. Until now, to our knowledge, no natural infestations of these aphids have been reported on …


The Development Of An Efficient Multipurpose Bean Pod Mottle Virus Viral Vector Set For Foreign Gene Expression And Rna Silencing, Chunquan Zhang, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Steven A. Whitham, John H. Hill 2010 Iowa State University

The Development Of An Efficient Multipurpose Bean Pod Mottle Virus Viral Vector Set For Foreign Gene Expression And Rna Silencing, Chunquan Zhang, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Steven A. Whitham, John H. Hill

Panhandle Research and Extension Center

Plant viral vectors are valuable tools for heterologous gene expression, and because of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), they also have important applications as reverse genetics tools for gene function studies. Viral vectors are especially useful for plants such as soybean (Glycine max) that are recalcitrant to transformation. Previously, two generations of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV; genus Comovirus) vectors have been developed for overexpressing and silencing genes in soybean. However, the design of the previous vectors imposes constraints that limit their utility. For example, VIGS target sequences must be expressed as fusion proteins in the same reading …


Descriptions Of Life-Stages Of Blastobasis Repartella (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Coleophoridae: Blastobasinae) And Observations On Its Biology In Switchgrass, D. Adamski, P. J. Johnson, A. A. Boe, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Alan Pultyniewicz 2010 Smithsonian Institution

Descriptions Of Life-Stages Of Blastobasis Repartella (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Coleophoridae: Blastobasinae) And Observations On Its Biology In Switchgrass, D. Adamski, P. J. Johnson, A. A. Boe, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Alan Pultyniewicz

Panhandle Research and Extension Center

Blastobasis repartella (Dietz) is a borer in the proaxis and basal nodes and internodes of above ground stems of Panicum virgatum L. (Poaceae). The adult and immature stages are described herein, including diagnoses of the adult and larva, as this insect may be easily confused with a closely related grass-feeding congener, Blastobasis graminea Adamski, which is also known to occur in the United States. The biology of B. repartella is described. Figures of the adult, illustrations of the male and female genitalia, wing venation, the chaetotaxy of the larva (supplemented with scanning electron micrographs), and pupa are provided. Bassus difficilis …


Phosphorus For High Rainfall Pastures, Mike Bolland, Bill Russell, David Weaver 2010 Agriculture Western Australia

Phosphorus For High Rainfall Pastures, Mike Bolland, Bill Russell, David Weaver

Bulletins 4000 -

Soil testing for phosphorus provides a reliable indication of when the level of phosphorus in a soil is likely to be adequate for pasture production in the next growing season. It is a waste of money to apply phosphorus fertiliser when soil testing indicates none is required, or to acidified soils, or to undergrazed pastures, or to pastures dominated by poorly productive species.

Legumes have higher phosphorus requirement than grasses.

Critical soil test phosphorus values do not change when nitrogen fertiliser is applied.


Potassium For High Rainfall Pastures, Mike Bolland, Bill Russell 2010 Agriculture Western Australia

Potassium For High Rainfall Pastures, Mike Bolland, Bill Russell

Bulletins 4000 -

Potassium plays a major role in plant growth. It maintains the solutions in plant cells at ionic strengths suitable for maintaining strong plant walls and for the proper functioning of leaf pores (stomata) and plant processes such as photosynthesis, transport of sugars and enzyme activation.

Potassium does not become a direct part of the plant structure but acts to regulate water balances, nutrient and sugar movement in plant tissue. Plants deficient in potassium cannot use other nutrients and water efficiently. They are less tolerant of stresses such as drought and waterlogging and are more susceptible to pests and diseases.


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