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Development Of Forage Curriculum For Extension Educators In The Southeast Usa, L. S. Silva, L. Dillard, K. Mullenix, M. Wallau, J. J. Tucker, C. Vasco 2024 Clemson University

Development Of Forage Curriculum For Extension Educators In The Southeast Usa, L. S. Silva, L. Dillard, K. Mullenix, M. Wallau, J. J. Tucker, C. Vasco

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

In the Southeast USA, livestock production is one of the largest agricultural activities, and forages are the primary feed source. Most livestock systems are highly dependent on off-farm inputs to support forage production and animal performance, which elevates production costs and the activity's carbon footprint. There is a strong need to develop forage educational resources to enhance productivity, environmental sustainability, resilience, and profitability of agricultural systems in the region. This multi-disciplinary initiative was a collaboration among several land-grant Universities across the region. The objective was to develop decision tools and provide in-classroom training associated with hands-on demonstrations to Extension agents …


A Longitudinal Look At Student Attitude, Perceived Competence, And Fitness Test Performance Of Elementary Students, Risto Marttinen, Kevin Mercier, Jung Yeon Park, Kelly L. Simonton, Erin Centeio, Kevin Andrew Richards, Kathleen Wilson 2024 George Mason University

A Longitudinal Look At Student Attitude, Perceived Competence, And Fitness Test Performance Of Elementary Students, Risto Marttinen, Kevin Mercier, Jung Yeon Park, Kelly L. Simonton, Erin Centeio, Kevin Andrew Richards, Kathleen Wilson

International Journal of Physical Activity and Health

The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between students’ attitudes toward physical education (PE), their perceived competence toward PE, and their fitness test performance, as well as how these relationships change over time. Measurements were conducted with validated instruments across five time points during two school years with fourth and fifth grade students across ten schools (n = 636, 48% = female). This study was developed to address a need for examining how attitudes and perceived competence change over time. Descriptive statistics and latent growth models were run with the variables of interest to investigate four research …


Isolation And Culture Of Epichloё Sp. For Re-Infection Of Endophyte-Free Southeastern Wildrye (Elymus Glabriflorus), B. J. Haile, J. I. Morrison 2024 Mississippi State University

Isolation And Culture Of Epichloё Sp. For Re-Infection Of Endophyte-Free Southeastern Wildrye (Elymus Glabriflorus), B. J. Haile, J. I. Morrison

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Mutualistic relationships between endophytic fungi and grasses have shown to improve the hardiness of the host. This relationship is common in grasses, including native cool-season grasses that are important in both forage and grassland ecosystems. Elymus genus members, such as Canada wildrye (CAWR), commonly host the endophytic fungi, Epichloё, while southeastern wildrye (SEWR) may not. In this study, seed of ten Elymus accessions and seed and leaves from local SEWR were assessed for endophyte infection. Infection status was confirmed via seed squash and leaf peel techniques and assessed using microscopy. Seed of one SEWR and nine CAWR accessions were assessed …


Virtual Fencing Predictable For Cattle? A Simple Method To Test Whether And How Fast Cattle Can Learn The Association Between Acoustic Signal And Electric Pulse, D. Hamidi, M. Komainda, N. Grinnell, L. Wilms, F. Reisch, J. Horn, M. Hamidi, J. Isselstein 2024 University of Goettingen, Germany

Virtual Fencing Predictable For Cattle? A Simple Method To Test Whether And How Fast Cattle Can Learn The Association Between Acoustic Signal And Electric Pulse, D. Hamidi, M. Komainda, N. Grinnell, L. Wilms, F. Reisch, J. Horn, M. Hamidi, J. Isselstein

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Virtual fencing (VF) offers promising future prospects for improved grazing management as it has the potential to simplify fencing. VF lines are easily drawn and shifted via GPS coordinates. A VF collar emits an acoustic signal when the animal approaches the VF line. The signal stops immediately when the animal turns around. If the animal continues to move towards the VF line, a short electric pulse is emitted. A teaching and an operating mode are provided by the VF collars. The animals automatically change mode when they respond correctly to 20 consecutive acoustic signals without receiving an electric pulse. A …


More Than A Fencing System? Testing The Validity Of Virtual Fencing Collars For Animal Monitoring On Pasture, D. Hamidi, M. Komainda, N. Grinnell, F. Reisch, J. Horn, M. Hamidi, I. Traulsen, J. Isselstein 2024 University of Goettingen, Germany

More Than A Fencing System? Testing The Validity Of Virtual Fencing Collars For Animal Monitoring On Pasture, D. Hamidi, M. Komainda, N. Grinnell, F. Reisch, J. Horn, M. Hamidi, I. Traulsen, J. Isselstein

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

High labour requirements for fencing and animal monitoring appear to be general obstacles for the wider use of pastureland for grazing livestock. Virtual fencing (VF) enables a less laborious pasture management. Fence lines can be easily drawn and moved using GPS data. The advantages of VF for reducing the labour inherent to controlled grazing management are obvious. Potential additional animal monitoring opportunities arising from such a VF system that uses real-time GPS data have not yet been studied. Lying is seen as an indicator for assessing comfort or restlessness of cattle. Therefore, we focus on lying behavior in this evaluation. …


Forage And Grazinglands Extension: Training The Next Generation Of Specialists, D. W. Hancock 2024 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Forage And Grazinglands Extension: Training The Next Generation Of Specialists, D. W. Hancock

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

This invited talk provides a perspective on what is required to excel in the role as an Extension Specialist. In the USA, most such Extension Specialists are tenure-track faculty, and have state-wide or even multi-state responsibilities. Advice is given on how to balance the high expectations of such a faculty appointment while providing appropriate recommendations to farmers/ranchers and service providers in the forage and grazinglands industry. This talk will offer one former Extension Specialist’s perspective on the skills, experience, and persona required to begin a successful career as a Forage and Grazinglands Extension Specialist. Additional exposition will be given on …


An Assessment Of Young Cattle Behaviour And Welfare In A Virtual Fencing System, C. Holohan, A. Gordon, R. Palme, S. Buijs, F. Lively 2024 Agri-Food & Biosciences Institute, Ireland

An Assessment Of Young Cattle Behaviour And Welfare In A Virtual Fencing System, C. Holohan, A. Gordon, R. Palme, S. Buijs, F. Lively

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Virtual fencing is a novel technology which uses a combination of audio and electrical stimuli to contain grazing livestock within a GPS boundary. There are however some concerns around the use of such a technology and its potential effects on the behaviour and welfare of animals. To investigate this, 64 dairy-origin calves were assigned to one of two treatments in a randomised complete block design, with 4 groups of 8 calves per treatment. The two treatments were virtual fencing (VF) and electric fencing (EF). The experimental period lasted 31 days in total, consisting of a 10 day training period and …


Herding Livestock – The Phoenix Rises From The Ashes? Digital Herding As A Future Tool For Grazing Livestock, J. Horn, R. Reisch, M. Komainda, P. Riedel, J. Isselstein 2024 University of Goettingen, Germany

Herding Livestock – The Phoenix Rises From The Ashes? Digital Herding As A Future Tool For Grazing Livestock, J. Horn, R. Reisch, M. Komainda, P. Riedel, J. Isselstein

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Today, sustainable management of grazing livestock requires high efforts in management and fencing. Nowadays, several developments in digital technologies for herding grazing animals are arising. We conducted a systematic review on current developments in digital technologies for managing grazing animals within the landscape. We mainly focused on cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep (Ovis aries). We highlight the most promising developments of virtual fencing used in recent research to evaluate effectiveness, animal behaviour and welfare. Moreover, we highlight current research in digital herding by drones and robots. We discuss the potential and current limitations of digital tools …


Development Of Megathyrsus Maximus Genotypes For Intensification Of Cattle Rearing In Brazil, Liana Jank, M. F. Santos, Sanzio Carvalho Barrios, Cacilda Borges do Valle, Rosangela Maria Simeão 2024 EMBRAPA, Brazil

Development Of Megathyrsus Maximus Genotypes For Intensification Of Cattle Rearing In Brazil, Liana Jank, M. F. Santos, Sanzio Carvalho Barrios, Cacilda Borges Do Valle, Rosangela Maria Simeão

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Megathyrsus maximus is a forage species used over 30 million hectares in Brazil and in the surrounding countries for intensification of the cattle production systems. Due to the large area and distinct biomes in which it is used, there is a need to continuously develop more productive and adapted cultivars to each biome and use. Three apomictic accessions were crossed with five sexual plants at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil in 2014. More than 1100 hybrids were planted in a spaced-plant field and evaluated visually for regrowth after cuts and for disease and pest damage. In 2016, …


Scaled Datasets Through Leveraging Technology Better Represent Plant Communities Classified Within National Land Cover Database (Nlcd), D. M. Johnston, D. B. Murray, Y. Y. Tsang 2024 Tarleton State University

Scaled Datasets Through Leveraging Technology Better Represent Plant Communities Classified Within National Land Cover Database (Nlcd), D. M. Johnston, D. B. Murray, Y. Y. Tsang

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Technological advances in remote sensing have allowed for access to and application of large- scale datasets of plant communities using cover classification and chlorophyll content measurement with the use of multispectral sensors and vegetation indices. The United States’ primary remote sensing platform Landsat Thematic Mapper is a series of satellites providing 30-meter resolution imagery of the Earth’s surface. Efforts have been made to best utilize Landsat derivative National Land Cover Database (NLCD) datasets and provide spatial resolution commensurate with the needs of plant ecologists and range managers. However, usage of 30-meter spatial resolution imagery and indices does not allow detection …


Heavy Grazing Significantly Reduced The Temporal Stability Of Aboveground Biomass, X. Ju, T. T. Shen, Q. Wu, G. D. Han 2024 Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, China

Heavy Grazing Significantly Reduced The Temporal Stability Of Aboveground Biomass, X. Ju, T. T. Shen, Q. Wu, G. D. Han

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The stability of a plant community is the embodiment of the dynamic balance achieved by the interaction between populations in the form of competition or mutual benefit. Temporal stability refers to the ratio of the average value to the variance of the biomass of the population or community. For grassland ecosystems, the stability of the grassland plant community is the basis for its survival and functional performance, and is the key factor affecting its structure and function. In order to study the impact of grazing on the temporal stability of aboveground biomass of desert steppe, this study used a completely …


Migration And Colonization Characteristics Of Endophytic Tracer Rhizobia To The Reproductive Organs Of Alfalfa, W. J. Kang, S. L. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, L. Y. Chen 2024 Gansu Agricultural University, China

Migration And Colonization Characteristics Of Endophytic Tracer Rhizobia To The Reproductive Organs Of Alfalfa, W. J. Kang, S. L. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, L. Y. Chen

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Legume seeds are the product of long-term natural selection and the co-evolution of rhizobia and seeds. They are more competitive than the native rhizobia in constructing symbiotic nitrogen-fixing systems with host plants. However, the paths and impact factors of rhizobia invasion and migration in plants, as well as colonization in seeds, are unclear. Here, alfalfa cultivars WL343HQ and Gannong 5, and three cyan fluorescent protein-tagged rhizobia (FTR), 3436f, 12531f and gn5f were used as materials. The effects of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and fulvic acid (FA) on the migration and colonization of FTR in the reproductive organs of field plants …


Spring Grass Availability And Silage Supplementation Impact On Dry Matter Intake And Enteric Methane Emissions In Grazing Dairy Cattle, M. Kennedy, S. Walsh, T. M. Boland, M. Egan 2024 VistaMilk SFI Research Centre, Ireland

Spring Grass Availability And Silage Supplementation Impact On Dry Matter Intake And Enteric Methane Emissions In Grazing Dairy Cattle, M. Kennedy, S. Walsh, T. M. Boland, M. Egan

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Enteric methane (CH4) emissions were measured in forty spring calving cows offered one of two (n=20) contrasting diets (High Grass; HG, Low Grass; LG) over 10 weeks in early lactation (8th February – 18th April 2021). All cows were blocked for breed and parity and balanced on milk production, economic breeding index (EBI), bodyweight and body condition score and randomly allocated to treatments. The HG grazing treatment cows were offered their full daily nutrient requirement from grazed grass and concentrate with no silage supplementation. The LG grazing treatment cows were offered a restricted (~60%) amount of their daily nutrient requirement …


Role Of Social Media And Digital Resources In Extension, L. L. Baxter 2024 University of Georgia

Role Of Social Media And Digital Resources In Extension, L. L. Baxter

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Social media and digital resources can be powerful tools for Extension personnel as they can enable forage-livestock researchers and Extension specialists to connect with a wide audience of producers, Extension personnel, colleagues, and industry partners. Online platforms that provide a space for Extension personnel to deliver timely information and digital resources have been critical for continuing producer education in today’s environment. This presentation in the thematic session on “Understanding the role of social media and digital resources in forage education and promotion” will focus on the role social media and digital resources play in Extension. There are a host of …


Creating An Educational Experience That Fosters Diversity And Inclusion, M. M. Kohmann 2024 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Creating An Educational Experience That Fosters Diversity And Inclusion, M. M. Kohmann

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Demographic, intellectual, and individual diversity have been linked to increase in innovation, problem-solving, critical thinking, and economic gains. However, there are multiple challenges associated with recruiting, retaining, and advancing underrepresented groups in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Studies have indicated negative implicit bias against women and minorities in terms of their perceived competence, worthiness to be hired, and payment irrespective to their qualification. Additionally, lack of mentoring and access to personal capital often hinder students’ academic advancement in STEM. However, there have been multiple intentional, recent efforts to increase and foster diversity in sciences. Some of the most effective …


Modeling The Biomass Production Of Grasslands Of Wallonia According To Their Functional Type, U. Kokah Essomandan, D. Knoden, B. Dumont, J. Bindelle 2024 University of Liege, Belgium

Modeling The Biomass Production Of Grasslands Of Wallonia According To Their Functional Type, U. Kokah Essomandan, D. Knoden, B. Dumont, J. Bindelle

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Permanent grasslands are complex ecosystems which respond with a great variability - in terms of specific richness - to soil type and management strategies. Modelling is a valuable tool to explore these relationships. Our work consisted in adapting the Moorepark St Gilles grass growth model (MoSt GG) designed to model Lolium perenne plant functional type (PFT) pastures (PFT A) to a different PFT (Dactylis glomerata, PFT B) through literature-based parametrization. The model was evaluated under Walloon (Belgium) conditions using growth trials from 2014 to 2018 in two sites with contrasting pedo-climatic conditions. Three to five cuts were performed …


Assessment Of Soil Structure And Root Patterns By Means Of Micro-X-Ray Computed Tomography In Temperate Grassland Sites, K. Kuka, M. Joschko 2024 Julius-Kühn-Institute (JKI), Germany

Assessment Of Soil Structure And Root Patterns By Means Of Micro-X-Ray Computed Tomography In Temperate Grassland Sites, K. Kuka, M. Joschko

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Grassland sites are important ecosystems delivering essential ecosystem services such as carbon storage and filtering of water. Adequate management necessitates a better understanding of soil ecological processes in grassland ecosystems. Of special interest is the relationship between soil structure and root development. In a project within the Biodiversity Exploratory Initiative (http://www.biodiversity-exploratories.de), undisturbed soil cores from 31 grassland plots from Swabian Alb Biodiversity exploratory in Germany were investigated by means of X-ray micro computed tomography. This allows the simultaneous determination of soil physical and root parameters in one sample. VG StudioMax® version 2.1 was used to apply a combination of histogram …


Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of The Dual-Purpose Cattle Value Chain In The Colombian Amazonas, A. Leinert, S. Burkart 2024 University of Hohenheim, Germany

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of The Dual-Purpose Cattle Value Chain In The Colombian Amazonas, A. Leinert, S. Burkart

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The cattle sector plays an important role in the economy of the Caquetá department, located in the Colombian Amazon. However, the predominantly extensive production system is associated with low productivity and negative environmental impacts, such as land degradation, greenhouse gas emissions, and deforestation. Efforts to introduce improved practices (e.g., improved forages or silvopastoral systems) have been made over the last decades, but adoption rates remain low. Though several studies have analyzed the cattle value chain (VC) to enhance the understanding of adoption barriers, the heterogeneity of farmers has been considered only marginally when trying to explain their adoption behavior. To …


Predicting Forage Provision Of Grasslands Across Climate Zones By Hyperspectral Measurements, F. A. Männer, J. Muro, J. Ferner, S. Schmidtlein, A. Linstädter 2024 University of Bonn, Germany

Predicting Forage Provision Of Grasslands Across Climate Zones By Hyperspectral Measurements, F. A. Männer, J. Muro, J. Ferner, S. Schmidtlein, A. Linstädter

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The potential of grasslands’ fodder production is a crucial management measure, while its quantification is still laborious and costly. Remote sensing technologies, such as hyperspectral field measurements, enable fast and non-destructive estimation. However, such methods are still limited in transferability to other locations or climatic conditions. With this study, we aim to predict forage nutritive value, quantity, and energy yield from hyperspectral canopy reflections of grasslands across three climate zones. We took hyperspectral measurements with a field spectrometer from grassland canopies in temperate, tropical and semi-arid grasslands, and analyzed corresponding biomass samples for their quantity (BM), metabolizable energy content (ME) …


Themeda Triandra As A Perennial Seed Crop In South-Eastern Australia: What Are The Agronomic Possibilities And Constraints, And Future Research Needs?, D. Male, J. Hunt, C. Celestina, J. Morgan, D. Gupta, Dja Dja Wurrung People 2024 The University of Melbourne, Australia

Themeda Triandra As A Perennial Seed Crop In South-Eastern Australia: What Are The Agronomic Possibilities And Constraints, And Future Research Needs?, D. Male, J. Hunt, C. Celestina, J. Morgan, D. Gupta, Dja Dja Wurrung People

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

In Australia, the development of native perennial seed crops is an area of increasing interest. Reasons for this include the production of high-value seed, the significance of native plants to Aboriginal people and the importance of diversified cropping in building more resilient farming systems. One species of interest is Themeda triandra, a C4 perennial tussock grass that dominated grasslands and woodlands across Australia prior to European invasion. Djaara, the traditional owner group representing the Dja Dja Wurrung people of Djandak (Dja Dja Wurrung country in central Victoria), is one group who seek to return T. triandra to the landscape …


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